- Andrew Marvell
Andrew Marvell (
31 March 1621– 16 August 1678) was an English metaphysical poet, and the son of a Church of England clergyman (also named Andrew Marvell). As a metaphysical poet, he is associated with John Donneand George Herbert. He was a colleague and friend of John Milton.
Marvell was born in Winestead-in-Holderness,
East Riding of Yorkshire, near the city of Kingston upon Hull. The family moved to Hull when his father was appointed Lecturer at Holy Trinity Church there, and Marvell was educated at Hull Grammar School. A secondary schoolin the city is now named after him.
His most famous poems include "
To His Coy Mistress" (to which T. S. Eliotmakes reference in " The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock" and " The Waste Land"), "The Garden", An Horatian Ode, and the Country House Poem, " Upon Appleton House".
At the age of twelve, Marvell attended
Trinity College, Cambridgeand eventually received his BA degree. Afterwards, Marvell served as a tutorfor an aristocrat on the Grand TourFact|date=May 2008. While England was embroiled in the civil war, Marvell remained on the continent until 1647. It is not known exactly where his travels took him, except that he was in Romein 1645 and Milton later reported that Marvell had mastered four languages, including French, Italian and SpanishFact|date=May 2008.
First poems and Marvell's time at Nun Appleton
Marvell's first poems, which were written in
Latinand Greek and published when he was still at Cambridge, lamented a visitation of the plagueand celebrated the birth of a child to King Charles I and Queen Henrietta Maria. He only belatedly became sympathetic to the successive regimes during the Interregnum after Charles I's execution, 30 January 1649. His famous 'Horatian Ode', often cited as one of the greatest political poems in EnglishWho|date=May 2008, responds with sorrow to the execution of Charles I even as it praises Cromwell’s return from Ireland.
Circa 1650-52, Marvell served as tutor to the daughter of the Lord General
Thomas Fairfax, who had recently relinquinshed command of the Parliamentary army to Oliver Cromwell. He lived during that time at Nun Appleton House, near York, where he continued to write poetry. One poem, "Upon Appleton House, To My Lord Fairfax", uses a description of the estate as a way of exploring Fairfax's and Marvell's own situation in a time of war and political change. Probably the best-known poem he wrote at this time was " To His Coy Mistress".
Anglo-Dutch War and employment as Latin secretary
During the period of increasing tensions leading up to the
First Anglo-Dutch Warof 1653, Marvell wrote the satirical "Character of Holland," repeating the then current stereotypeof the Dutch as "drunken and profane": "This indigested vomit of the Sea,/ Fell to the Dutch by Just Propriety".
He became a tutor to Cromwell’s ward, William Dutton, in 1653, and moved to live with his pupil at the house of John Oxenbridge in Eton. Oxenbridge had made two trips to
Bermuda, and it is thought that this inspired Marvell to write his poem "Bermudas". He also wrote several poems in praise of Cromwell, who was by this time Lord Protector of England.
In 1657, Marvell joined Milton, who by that time had lost his sight, in service as Latin secretary to Cromwell's Council of State at a salary of £200 a year, which represented financial security at that time. In 1659 he was elected to Parliament from his birthplace of Hull in
Yorkshire, and was paid a rate of 6 shillings, 8 pence per day during sittings of parliament, a financial support derived from the contributions of his constituency [ John Stuart Mill, " Considerations on Representative Government", Chapter X, last paragraph (p.369 Oxford World's Classic edition, "On Liberty And Other Essays", 1991, reed. 1998 ] . This was a post Marvell soon lost in the changes that occurred to parliament in 1659, only to regain it in 1660, whereafter he held it until his death.
After The Restoration
Oliver Cromwell died in 1658. He was succeeded as Lord Protector by his son Richard, but in 1660 the
monarchywas restored to Charles II. Marvell eventually came to write several long and bitterly satirical verses against the corruption of the court. Although they circulated in manuscript form, and some found anonymous publication in print, they were too politically sensitive and thus dangerous to be published under his name until well after his death. Nevertheless, Marvell's political manoeuvring must have been skillfulWho|date=May 2008, because he not only avoided all punishment for his cooperation with republicanismbut helped convince the government of Charles II not to execute John Milton for his antimonarchical writings and revolutionary activities. The closeness of the relationship between the two former office mates is indicated by the fact that Marvell contributed an eloquent prefatory poemto the second edition of Milton's famous epic " Paradise Lost".
In his longest verse satire, "Last Instructions to a Painter", written in 1667, Marvell responded to the political corruption that had contributed to English failures during the
Second Anglo-Dutch War. The poem did not find print publication until after the Revolution of 1688-9. The poem instructs an imaginary painter how to picture the state without a proper navy to defend them, led by men without intelligence or courage, a corrupt and dissolute court, and dishonest officials. Of another such satire, Samuel Pepys, himself a government official, commented in his diary, "Here I met with a fourth Advice to a Painter upon the coming in of the Dutch and the End of the War, that made my heart ake to read, it being too sharp and so true."
From 1659 until his death in 1678, Marvell was a conscientious member of Parliament, steadily reporting on parliamentary and national business to his constituency and serving as
Londonagent for the Hull Trinity House, a shipmasters' guild. He went on two missions to the continent, one to Hollandand the other encompassing Russia, Sweden, and Denmark. He also wrote anonymous prose satires criticizing the monarchyand Catholicism, defending Puritandissenters, and denouncing censorship. A recent study by Derek Hirstand Steven Zwickerof Washington University in St. Louis, has speculated that Marvell's lifelong struggle for individual rights may have been a result of his own inner struggle with homosexualityin a repressive societyFact|date=May 2008. Vincent Palmierinoted that Marvell is sometimes known as the "British Aristides" for his incorruptible integrity in life and povertyat death.
Although Marvell became a Parliamentarian, he was not a
Puritan. He had flirted briefly with Catholicism as a youth, and was described in his thirties as "a notable English Italo-Machiavellian"Who|date=May 2008. During his lifetime, his prose satires were much better known than his verseFact|date=May 2008. Indeed, many of his poems were not published until 1681, two years after his death, from a collection owned by Mary Palmer, his housekeeper, who after Marvell's death lay dubious claim to having been his wife.
Marvell's poetic style
Marvell’s poetry is often witty and full of elaborate conceits in the elegant style of the
metaphysical poets. Many poems were inspired by events of the time, public or personal. "The Picture of Little TC in a Prospect of Flowers" was written about the daughter of one of Marvell's friends, Theophila Cornwell, who was named after an elder sister who had died as a baby. Marvell uses the picture of her surrounded by flowers in a garden to convey the transience of spring and the fragility of childhood.
Others were written in the
pastoralstyle familiar to students of the classical Roman authors. Even here, Marvell tends to place a particular picture before us. In "The Nymph Complaining for the Death of her Fawn", the nymph weeps for the little animal as it dies, and tells us how it consoled her for her betrayal in love.
Marvell gained his place in the history of celebrated English poets due to his keen eye for perspectiveFact|date=May 2008, and by exploring the options that genre presented him with. His pastoral poems, including "Upon Appleton House" achieve originality and a unique tone through his reworking and subversion of the
pastoral genre, essentially attempting to create something new and interesting from an inherited form that had been used and reused repeatedly for centuries.
* [http://www.poetsgraves.co.uk/marvell.htm Andrew Marvell's Grave]
*gutenberg|no=17388|name=Andrew Marvell by
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Andrew Marvell — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Andrew Marvell Andrew Marvell nació el 31 de marzo de 1621 en Winestead in Holderness, Yorkshire; y falleció el 16 de agosto de 1678 en su casa en Great Russell Street, Bloomsbury, a la edad de 57 años. Poeta,… … Wikipedia Español
Andrew Marvell — (* 31. März 1621 in Winestead bei Patrington, Holderness, Yorkshire; † 16. August 1678 in London) war ein englischer Dichter und Politiker. Er gilt neben John Donne und George Herbert als einer … Deutsch Wikipedia
Andrew Marvell — Activités Poète et homme politique Naissance 31 mars 1621 Winestead … Wikipédia en Français
Andrew Marvell — noun English poet (1621 1678) • Syn: ↑Marvell • Instance Hypernyms: ↑poet * * * Andrew Marvell [Andrew Marvell] … Useful english dictionary
Andrew Marvell — ➡ Marvell * * * … Universalium
MARVELL (A.) — Ami de Lovelace et panégyriste de Cromwell, puritain aux accents cavaliers dans sa poésie profane, émule de Donne, épris d’élégance classique, auteur d’inspiration pastorale et «métaphysique», précieuse et satirique, Marvell révèle et dissimule,… … Encyclopédie Universelle
Marvell — can refer to: People Andrew Marvell, 17th century English metaphysical poet Marvell Wynne (soccer), American soccer player Marvell Wynne (baseball player), American baseball player Places Marvell, Arkansas, a small city in the United States… … Wikipedia
Marvell — ist ein Ort im US Bundesstaat Arkansas, siehe Marvell (Arkansas) der Nachname des englischen Dichters Andrew Marvell eine Elektronikfirma, siehe Marvell Technology Group Marvell Creek, ein Fluss im US Bundesstaat Montana Siehe auch: Marvel,… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Marvell, Andrew — born March 31, 1621, Winestead, Yorkshire, Eng. died Aug. 18, 1678, London English poet and politician. He was employed as a tutor, including to Oliver Cromwell s ward, before becoming an assistant to John Milton in the foreign office in 1657.… … Universalium
Marvell, Andrew — (1621 1678) He was born at Winestead in Holderness, Yorkshire, was educated under his father at the grammar school in Hull, graduated from Trinity College, Cambridge, in 1637, and left sometime before September 1641. He traveled in Europe,… … British and Irish poets