Blackwater Security Consulting

Blackwater Security Consulting

Infobox Company
company_name = Blackwater Security Consulting
company_
vector_logo =
company_type = Private military security firm
foundation = 1997
founder = Erik Prince
location_city =
location_country =
location = 850 Puddin Ridge Road Moyock, North Carolina, U.S.cite web|url=http://oversight.house.gov/documents/20061207151614-43671.pdf |title=Agreement for security services |accessdate=2007-12-30 |date=2004-03-12 |format=PDF |publisher=United States House of Representatives ]
origins =
key_people = J.Cofer Black
Joseph E. Schmitz
Gary Jackson
Bill Mathews
area_served =
industry = Government contracting
products =
revenue =
operating_income =
net_income =
num_employees =
parent = Blackwater Worldwide
divisions =
subsid =
owner =
company_slogan =
dissolved =
footnotes =
homepage = [http://www.blackwaterusa.com/ BlackWaterUSA.com]

Blackwater Security Consulting (BSC) was formed in 2001, as a subsidiary of Blackwater USA, now Blackwater Worldwide. It is based at Blackwater's corporate headquarters in Moyock, North Carolina. According to its website, its mission is to "provide a wide range of very specialized international services including risk management, intelligence gathering, vulnerability assessments and high-risk security related solutions." [ [http://web.archive.org/web/20020924094525/blackwatersecurity.com/ BSC Home ] ] It has had a highly visible presence in the Iraq War, following a 2004 ambush in Fallujah which left several of its employees dead.cite news | first= | last= | coauthors= | title=U.S. expects more attacks in Iraq, Residents hang slain Americans' bodies from bridge | date=2004-05-06 | publisher=CNN | url =http://www.cnn.com/2004/WORLD/meast/03/31/iraq.main/ | work = | pages = | accessdate = 2008-01-02 | language = ] It has also been the subject of several controversies, most notably the September 16, 2007 Baghdad shootings. Its employees, which Blackwater refers to as Independent Contractors, have occasionally been labeled as mercenaries by some in the media.cite news | first=Neil | last=Mackay | coauthors= | title=Back In Iraq: The 'Whores of War' | date=2007-10-02 | publisher=The Sunday Herald | url =http://www.sundayherald.com/news/heraldnews/display.var.1724225.0.0.php | work = | pages = | accessdate = 2007-12-30 | language = ] cite news | first=Jeremy | last=Scahill | coauthors= | title=Will Blackwater Be Kicked Out of Iraq After Recent Bloodbath? | date=2007-09-28 | publisher=The Nation | url =http://www.alternet.org/waroniraq/63789/ | work = | pages = | accessdate = 2007-12-30 | language = ] cite news | first=David | last=Swanson | coauthors= | title=Observing Our Government Through Blackwater | date=2007-09-28 | publisher=Scoop New Zealand | url =http://www.scoop.co.nz/stories/HL0709/S00503.htm | work = | pages = | accessdate = 2007-12-30 | language = ] cite news | first=Ian | last=Bruce | coauthors= | title=Blackwater uses armed force ‘twice as often as other Iraq firms’ | date=2007-09-28 | publisher=The Herald | url =http://www.theherald.co.uk/news/news/display.var.1720705.0.0.php | work = | pages = | accessdate = 2007-12-30 | language = ] cite news | first= | last= | coauthors= | title= Blackwater admits employees illegally sold weapons | date=2007-09-23 | publisher=Tehran Times | url =http://www.tehrantimes.com/index_View.asp?code=153482 | work = | pages = | accessdate = 2007-12-30 | language = ]

Contracts

In August 2003, Blackwater received its first Iraq contract, a $21 million contract for a Personal Security Detachment and two helicopters for Paul Bremer, head of the U.S. occupation in Iraq. [ [http://revcom.us/a/1236/blackwater.htm After Fallujah: The Truth About the Blackwater Mercenaries -RW/OR ONLINE ] ]

In July 2004 Blackwater was hired by the U.S. State Department under the Bureau of Diplomatic Security's Worldwide Personal Protective Services (WPPS) umbrella contract, along with DynCorp International and Triple Canopy, Inc. for protective services in Iraq, Afghanistan, Bosnia, and Israel. [ [http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/natsec/RL32419.pdf Private Security Contractors in Iraq: Background, Legal Status, and Other Issues ] ] The applied for two years and expired on June 6, 2006. It authorized 482 personnel, and Blackwater received $488m for its work.cite web|url=http://oversight.house.gov/documents/20071001121609.pdf |title=MEMORANDUM Re: Additional Information about Blackwater USA |accessdate=2008-02-20 |date=2007-10-01 |format=PDF |publisher=United States House of Representatives]

On September 1st, 2005 following Hurricane Katrina, Blackwater dispatched a rescue team and helicopter, free of charge, to support relief operations. [ [http://blackwaterusa.com/foundation/Katrina_Medevac.html Blackwater Foundation ] ] Following that, it was reported that the company also acted as law enforcement in the disaster stricken areas, such as securing neighborhoods and "confronting criminals". [ [http://www.democracynow.org/static/Overkill.shtml Overkill: Feared Blackwater Mercenaries Deploy in New Orleans] ] Blackwater moved about 200 personnel into the area hit by Hurricane Katrina, most of whom (164 employees) were working under a contract with the Department of Homeland Security to protect government facilities, [http://content.hamptonroads.com/story.cfm?story=92177&ran=4586 ARTICLE: Blackwater employees create a stir in New Orleans (The Virginian-Pilot - HamptonRoads.com/PilotOnline.com)] ] but the company held contracts with private clients as well. Overall, Blackwater had a "visible, and financially lucrative, presence in the immediate aftermath of Hurricane Katrina as the use of the company contractors cost U.S. taxpayers $240,000 a day." [ [http://www.ipsnews.net/news.asp?idnews=38379 US-IRAQ: Blackwater Blues for Dead Contractors' Families] ] There has been much dispute surrounding governmental contracts in post-Katrina New Orleans, especially no-bid contracts such as the one Blackwater was awarded. Blackwater's heavily-armed presence in the city was also the subject of much confusion and criticism. Their contracts totaled over $30m. [ [http://www.thenation.com/doc/20060605/scahill In the Black(water) ] ]

In May 2006, the U.S. State Department awarded WPPS II, the successor to its previous diplomatic security contract. Under this contract, the State Department awarded Blackwater, along with Triple Canopy and DynCorp, a contract for diplomatic security in Iraq. Under this contract, Blackwater is authorized to have 1,020 staff in Iraq. Blackwater's responsibilities include the United States embassy in Iraq. [ [http://www.dailymotion.com/video/x312i1_blackwater-mercs-in-iraq_politics Video BLACKWATER MERCS IN IRAQ - BLACKWATER, MERCS, IN, IRAQ, MERCENARIES - Dailymotion Share Your Videos ] ]

In Asia, Blackwater has contracts in Japan guarding AN/TPY-2 radar systems. [ [http://blog.wired.com/defense/2007/10/blackwater-japa.html Blackwater: Japan's Missile Defense Force | Danger Room from Wired.com] ]

Blackwater has also assisted in several natural disasters, including the November 2007 California wildfire and rescuing a U.S. Army soldier in Mali following a severe tropical storm. [ [http://blackwaterusa.com/foundation/Wildfire_Victim_Relief.html Untitled Document ] ] Blackwater Security is also now pursuing domestic work as disaster relief workers, following their Katrina response. Blackwater officials have met with Arnold Schwarzenegger to discuss earthquake response services. [ [http://hamptonroads.com/node/66451 Blackwater: New Horizons | HamptonRoads.com | PilotOnline.com ] ]

Other missions

In early January 2008, Blackwater evacuated three American missionaries in Kenya using a 10 passenger single engine aircraft, picking them up at an airstrip near the village of Kimilili. [ [http://washingtontimes.com/article/20080110/NATION/496979407 Dad of rescued women hails security firm - - The Washington Times, America's Newspaper ] ]

Equipment

Blackwater Security Consulting is well equipped and known to use a variety of equipment, including helicopters and heavily armored vehicles. Many of the helicopters are registered to EP Aviation LLC. [ [http://blog.wired.com/defense/2008/04/blackwater-bulk.html Blackwater Bulks Up Air Power Using Little-Known Company | Danger Room from Wired.com ] ] Their most commonly used helicopter is the MD-530F "Little Bird" helicopter, which assists Blackwater's Quick Response Force (QRF) teams. AB 412 utility helicopters are in use in Iraq. At least one SA-330 Puma helicopter is owned by Blackwater. [ [http://blackwaterusa.com/foundation/Katrina_Medevac.html Blackwater Foundation] ]

Blackwater uses a variety of armored vehicles. They include the BAE Systems Land Systems OMC RG-31 Mambas, purchased from the British Army are known to be used to transport personnel along Route Irishcite news| url=http://www.defenseindustrydaily.com/the-penny-drops-coin-aircraft-for-blackwater-03703/| title=The Penny Drops: COIN Aircraft for Blackwater? | date=30 August 2007 |publisher=Defense Industry Daily] as well as the Force Protection Industries Cougar H [ [http://www.forceprotection.net/news/news_article.html?id=21 Force Protection, Inc. - In the News] ] . Bearcat armored vehicles are also used for convoy escort roles in Iraq. [http://i.a.cnn.net/cnn/2007/images/09/16/17sept07.pdf]

Notable events & controversies

On March 31, 2004, Iraqi insurgents in Fallujah attacked a convoy containing four American private military contractors from Blackwater USA who were conducting delivery for food caterers ESS.cite news | first= | last= | coauthors= | title=The High-Risk Contracting Business | date= | publisher=PBS | url =http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/warriors/contractors/highrisk.html | work =Frontline | pages = | accessdate = 2007-12-28 | language = ] The four armed contractors Scott Helvenston, Jerko Zovko, Wesley Batalona and Michael Teague, were attacked and killed with grenades and small arms fire. Their bodies were hung from a bridge crossing the Euphrates. This event was one of the causes of the US military attack on the city in the First Battle of Fallujah.Operation Vigilant Resolve, GlobalSecurity.org.] In the fall of 2007, a congressional report by the House Oversight Committee found that Blackwater intentionally "delayed and impeded" investigations into the contractors' deaths.cite news | first= | last= | coauthors= | title= Report: Blackwater 'impeded' probe into contractor deaths | date=2007-09-27 | publisher=CNN | url =http://www.cnn.com/2007/POLITICS/09/27/iraq.blackwater/index.html | work = | pages = | accessdate = 2007-12-28 | language = ]

In April 2004, a few days after the Fallujah bridge hanging, a small team of Blackwater employees, along with a fire team of U.S. Marines, held off over 400 insurgents outside the Coalition Provisional Authority headquarters in Al Najaf, Iraq, waiting for U.S. troops to arrive. The headquarters was surrounded and it was the last area in the city that remained in coalition control. During the siege, as supplies and ammunition ran low, a team of Blackwater contractors convert|70|mi|km|0 away flew to the compound to resupply and bring an injured U.S. Marine back to safety outside of the city.cite news | first=Dana | last=Priest | coauthors= | title=Private Guards Repel Attack on U.S. Headquarters | date=2004-04-06 | publisher=Washington Post | url =http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A53059-2004Apr5?language=printer | work = | pages = | accessdate = 2007-12-30 | language = ] [cite news |first= |last= |authorlink= |coauthors= |title= Contractors in combat: Firefight from a rooftop in Iraq|url=http://content.hamptonroads.com/story.cfm?story=108061&ran=150812 |work= |publisher=The Virginian-Pilot |date=2006-07-25 |accessdate=2007-10-24 ] In April 2005 six Blackwater independent contractors were killed in Iraq when their Mi-8 helicopter was shot down. Also killed were three Bulgarian crewmembers and two Fijian gunners. Initial reports indicate the helicopter was shot down by rocket propelled grenades. In 2006 a car accident occurred in the Baghdad Green Zone when an SUV driven by Blackwater operatives crashed into a U.S. Army Humvee. Blackwater guards disarmed the Army soldiers and forced them to lie on the ground at gunpoint until they could disentangle their SUV from the wreck.cite news | first=Rod | last=Nordland | coauthors= Mark Hosenball | title=Blackwater Is Soaked: An arrogant attitude only adds fuel to the criticism. | date=2007-10-15 | publisher=Newsweek | url =http://www.newsweek.com/id/42487 | work = | pages = | accessdate = 2007-12-28 | language = ]

Five Blackwater contractors were killed on January 23, 2007 in Iraq when their Hughes H-6 helicopter was shot down. The incident happened on Baghdad's Haifa Street. The crash site was secured by a personal security detail, callsign "Jester" from 1/26 Infantry, 1st Infantry Division. A U.S. defense official has confirmed that four of the five killed were shot execution style in the back of the head, but did not know whether the four had survived the crash.cite news | first=Qassim | last=Abdul-Zahra | coauthors= | title=Suicide Bombing Kills 7 North of Baghdad | date=2007-01-24 | publisher=ABC News | url =http://abcnews.go.com/International/wireStory?id=2818435 | work =Associated Press | pages = | accessdate = 2008-01-02 | language = ] [Pelton, Robert Young: "Licensed to kill, hired guns in the war on terror," Crown, 2006-08-29] In late May 2007, Blackwater contractors opened fire on the streets of Baghdad twice in two days, one of the incidents provoking a standoff between the security contractors and Iraqi Interior Ministry commandos, according to U.S. and Iraqi officials. On May 30 2007, Blackwater employees shot an Iraqi civilian deemed to have been "driving too close" to a State Department convoy being escorted by Blackwater contractors.cite news |first= |last= |authorlink= |coauthors= |title= Contractors accused of firing on civilians, GIs|url=http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/20231579/ |work= |publisher=Associated Press|date=2007-08-11 |accessdate=2007-10-24 ] cite news| url=http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/05/26/AR2007052601394.html| title= U.S. Security Contractors Open Fire in Baghdad| publisher=Washington Post| first= Steve| last= Fainaru| coauthors= Saad al-Izzi| date=2007-05-07| pages=A01] cite news |first=Brian |last=Bennet |authorlink= |coauthors= |title= Victims of an Outsourced War |url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,1599682,00.html |work= |publisher=TIME |date=2007-03-15|accessdate=2007-10-25 ] Other private security contractors, such as Aegis Defence Services have also been accused of similar actions. [cite news |first=Bill |last=Sizemore |authorlink= |coauthors= |title= Iraq killing tracked to contractor could test laws|url=http://content.hamptonroads.com/story.cfm?story=117400&ran=74075 |work= |publisher=The Virginian-Pilot |date=2007-01-11 |accessdate=2007-10-24 ] [ [http://online.wsj.com/article/SB119207104012555696.html?mod=googlenews_wsj "Blackwater quits security association"] by August Cole, The "Wall Street Journal", October 11, 2007.]

On September 16 2007, Blackwater guards opened fire in Nisour Square, Baghdad, killing 17 civilians in the Blackwater Baghdad shootings incident. Witnesses claimed that the attack was unprovoked and that the soldiers, in the employ of the U.S., continued firing while the Iraqi civilians were fleeing. Two Blackwater helicopters were also spotted at the time, who witnesses say aided in the attack. However, Blackwater maintained that its guards were under attack and responded accordingly. The FBI found that at least 14 of the shootings were unjustified and found no evidence to support assertions by Blackwater employees that they were fired upon by Iraqi civilians. [ [http://www.nytimes.com/2007/11/14/world/middleeast/14blackwater.html F.B.I. Says Guards Killed 14 Iraqis Without Cause - New York Times] ]

CEO Erik Prince testified before the United States Congress on October 2 2007 that no one guarded by Blackwater in Iraq has ever suffered a fatality or serious injury.

On October 3rd, 2007 Blackwater contractors rescued the Polish Ambassador to Iraq, Gen. Edward Pietrzyk, after an assassination attempt, using a Little Bird helicopter. [ [http://www.mcclatchydc.com/iraq/story/20198.html McClatchy Washington Bureau | 10/03/2007 | Blackwater flies injured Polish diplomat to hospital ] ] [ [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/10/03/AR2007100300232.html Ambush Injures Polish Diplomat in Iraq - washingtonpost.com ] ]

Reputation

According to a "New York Times" report on Blackwater Security in Iraq, "among the rank and file of security contractors, Blackwater guards are regularly ridiculed as cowboys who are relentlessly and pointlessly aggressive, carry excessive weaponry and do not appear to have top-of-the-line training." [cite news |first= Sabrina Tavernise and James Glanz|last= |authorlink= |coauthors= |title=Iraqi Report Says Blackwater Guards Fired First
url= http://www.nytimes.com/2007/09/19/world/middleeast/19blackwater.html?pagewanted=2&ei=5088&en=e582bb554958b9be&ex=1347854400&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss|work= |publisher= The New York Times|date= September 19, 2007|accessdate=2007-09-27
] One hundred twenty two of its armed personnel in Iraq have been dismissed from their positions by Blackwater since its contract to protect U.S. diplomats began nearly three years ago. These firings were most frequently for incidents related to weapons use. [ [http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/nation/la-na-blackwater2oct02,1,2169975.story?coll=la-headlines-nation Inquiry details Blackwater firings] Peter Spiegel, Los Angeles Times October 1, 2007] On October 3rd, 2007, the New York Times reported that the government was charged $1,222 for each day of work by a Blackwater security guard in Iraq. [cite news | first=John | last=Broder | title=Chief of Blackwater Defends His Employees | url=http://www.nytimes.com/2007/10/03/washington/03blackwater.html?pagewanted=1 | publisher="The New York Times" | date=2007-10-03 | accessdate=2007-10-03 ]

ee also

*UN Mercenary Convention
*Arms trade
*International Peace Operations Association
*""
*"Shadow Company"
* Blackwater Watch

Notes

External links and references

wikinewshas|News related to this article
*
*

* [http://www.blackwaterusa.com/ Blackwater USA's official website]
* [http://www.greystone-ltd.com/ Blackwater's "Greystone" (international division) website]
* [http://www.blackwaterwatch.com Blackwater Watch] news aggregation site
* [http://blackwaterwatch.net/ Blackwater Watch]
* [http://www.blackwaterfacts.com/ BlackwaterFacts.com]
* [http://www.noprivatearmies.org/ No Private Armies]
* [http://stopblackwater.net/ Stopblackwater.net]
* [http://www.shadowcompany.com "Shadow Company"] Award-winning Documentary Film directed and written by Nick Bicanic (the only film with footage of Blackwater employees training and operating in Iraq) - praised for balance by both Democrats and Republicans - ranging from Amnesty International to Blackwater.
* [http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/warriors/view/ "Private Warriors"] episode of ""Frontline" (June 21 2005), includes piece on Blackwater USA contractors
* [http://www.hcss.nl/en/publication/389/ The Strategic Contractor — op-ed 19 Sept 2007 by The Hague Centre for Strategic Studies]
* [http://www.waronwant.org/Mercenary+Trophy+Videos+13260.twl Blackwater trophy video in Iraq and link to report discussing Blackwater's actions around the world]
* [http://www.cfr.org/publication/14279/ Council on Foreign Relations: The Other Army in Iraq]
* [http://www.hd.net/drr235.html Dan Rather interview with Robert Young Pelton] on HDNET. (Go to Minute 37:50.)
* Journalist [http://barryyeoman.com/blackwater.html Barry Yeoman's Blackwater articles]
*P.W. Singer, "Corporate Warriors: The Rise of the Privatized Military Industry" (2004).
*cite web
last = Peters
first = Ralph
authorlink = Ralph Peters
coauthors =
date=2007-09-30
year =
month =
url = http://www.nypost.com/seven/09302007/postopinion/opedcolumnists/trouble_for_hire.htm
title = Trouble For Hire: The Mercenaries Who Murder In Your Name
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*cite web
last = Lardner
first = Richard
authorlink =
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date=2007-10-01
year =
month =
url = http://www.boston.com/news/nation/washington/articles/2007/10/01/fbi_sending_investigators_to_iraq/
title = Blackwater portrayed as out of control
format =
work = Associated Press
pages =
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accessdate = 2008-04-13
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*cite web
last = Congress of the United States
first = House of Representatives
authorlink =
coauthors =
date=2007-10-01
year =
month =
url = http://oversight.house.gov/documents/20071001121609.pdf
title = Additional Information about Blackwater USA
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work = Committee on Oversight and Government Reform
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accessdate = 2007-10-02
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*cite web
last = Broder
first = John M.
authorlink =
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date=2007-10-02
year =
month =
url = http://www.nytimes.com/2007/10/02/washington/02blackwater.html?ref=todayspaper
title = Report Says Firm Sought To Cover Iraq Shootings
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accessdate = 2007-10-03
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*cite web
last = DeYoung
first = Karen
authorlink =
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date=2007-10-02
year =
month =
url = http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/10/01/AR2007100100882.html?nav=rss_nation
title = Other Killings By Blackwater Staff Detailed: State Dept. Papers Tell of Coverup
format =
work = Washington Post
pages =
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accessdate = 2007-10-03
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*cite web
last = Schmitt
first = Eric
authorlink =
coauthors =
date=2007-10-02
year =
month =
url = http://www.nytimes.com/2007/10/02/world/middleeast/02shooting.html?fta=y
title = Report Details Shooting By Drunken Blackwater Worker
format =
work = New York Times
pages =
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accessdate = 2007-10-03
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*cite web
last = Glanz
first = James
authorlink =
coauthors = Alissa J. Rubin
date=2007-10-03
year =
month =
url = http://www.nytimes.com/2007/10/03/world/middleeast/03firefight.html?ex=1349064000&en=88d4f081e338e806&ei=5088&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss
title = From Errand To Fatal Shot To Hail Of Fire To 17 Deaths
format =
work = New York Times
pages =
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accessdate = 2007-10-04
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*cite web
last = Fainaru
first = Steve
authorlink =
coauthors =
date=2007-10-03
year =
month =
url = http://freepage.twoday.net/stories/4317348/
title = Guards In Iraq Cite Frequent Shootings: Companies Seldom Report Incidents, U.S. Officials Say
format =
work = Washington Post
pages =
publisher =
language =
accessdate = 2007-10-04
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*cite web
last = Broder
first = John M.
authorlink =
coauthors =
date=2007-10-03
year =
month =
url = http://www.nytimes.com/2007/10/03/washington/03blackwater.html
title = Chief Of Blackwater Defends His Employees
format =
work = New York Times
pages =
publisher =
language =
accessdate = 2007-10-04
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*cite web
last = Raghavan
first = Sudarsan
authorlink =
coauthors =
date=2007-10-04
year =
month =
url = http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/10/03/AR2007100302646.html
title = Tracing The Paths Of 5 Who Died In A Storm Of Gunfire
format =
work = Washington Post
pages =
publisher =
language =
accessdate = 2007-10-05
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*cite web
last = Broder
first = John M.
authorlink =
coauthors =
date=2007-10-04
year =
month =
url = http://www.nytimes.com/2007/10/04/world/middleeast/04contractor.html
title = Ex-Paratrooper Is Suspect In Killing Of Iraqi
format =
work = New York Times
pages =
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accessdate = 2007-10-05
accessyear =

* [http://www.insight-info.com/articles/item.aspx?i=793 US Fails at Enforcing Prosecution of Contractors]
*Ravenwood fictional version of Blackwater on "Jericho" http://firefox.org/news/articles/1247/1/Review--Jericho-Episode-Two-Condor/Page1.html http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/showtracker/2008/02/jericho-a-ratin.html

* "Licensed to Kill, Hired Guns in the War on Terror" by Robert Young Pelton, Crown Books 2006, 368. pp. Extensive material on Blackwater in Prologue and Chapter 2, "The New Breed," Chapter 5, "The Blackwater Bridge," Chapter 6, "Under Siege" which discusses Blackwater at An Najaf, Chapter 7, "The Dog Track and the Swamp," which chronicles Pelton's visits to Blackwater training facilities, one of which is a dog track, Chapter 8, running the Gauntlet, and Chapter 11, "The Lord and the Prince," partly about Erik Prince.

*cite web
last = Eisnor
first = DiAnn
authorlink =
coauthors =
date=2007-10-22
year =
month =
url = http://www.platial.com/map/59362
title = Blackwater

format =
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*cite web
last =
first =
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date=2007-10-22
year =
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url = http://www.prwatch.org/node/6642
title = Blackwater's Repositioning, Real and Imagined
format =
work =
pages =
publisher = Center for Media and Democracy
language =
accessdate = 2007-11-02
accessyear =


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