Hashcash is a
proof-of-work systemdesigned to limit email spam and denial of serviceattacks. It was proposed in March 1997by Adam Back[http://www.hashcash.org/papers/announce.txt] .
How it works
Hashcash is a method of adding a textual stamp to the header of an email to prove the sender has expended a modest amount of CPU time calculating the stamp prior to sending the email. In other words, as the sender has taken a certain amount of time to generate the stamp and send the email, it is unlikely that they are a spammer. The receiver can, at negligible computational cost, verify that the stamp is valid. However, the only known way to find a header with the necessary properties is
brute force, trying random values until the answer is found; though testing an individual string is easy, if satisfactory answers are rare enough it will require a substantial number of tries to find the answer.
The theory is that spammers, whose business model relies on their ability to send large numbers of emails with very little cost per message, cannot afford this investment into each individual piece of spam they send. Receivers can verify whether a sender made such an investment and use the results to help filter email.
The header line looks something like [http://hashcash.org/docs/hashcash.txt]
The header contains: the recipient's email address, the date, and information proving the required computation has been performed. The presence of the recipients email address forces a new header be computed for each recipient, the date allows the recipient to record headers received recently and make sure the header is unique this email.
The sender prepares a header and adds an initial random number. It then computes the 160 bit
SHA-1hash of the header. If the first 20 bits of the hash are zeros then this is an acceptable header. If not then the sender increments the random number and tries again. Since 1 in 220 headers will have 20 zeros as the beginning of the hash the sender will on average have to try half that number (approximately 500,000) random numbers to find a valid header. The given reasonable estimates of the time needed to compute the hash this would take about 1 second to find. At this time no more efficient method is known to find a valid header.
A normal person wouldn't even notice the computer taking a second to generate the Hashcash string. Currently, spammers would prefer to spend that one second sending out hundreds of pieces of spam, rather than calculating Hashcash for a single piece of spam.
Technically the system is implemented as follows:
* The recipient's computer calculates the 160 bit
SHA-1hash of the entire string "1:20:060408:email@example.com::1QTjaYd7niiQA/sc:ePa". This takes about two microseconds on a 1 GHz machine -- far shorter than the time it took for the rest of the e-mail to be received. If the first 20 bits are all zero, then it is valid. Later versions may require more bits to be zero.
* The recipient's computer checks the date in that header "060408" (8 Apr 2006). If it's within 2 days of today, it's valid (to compensate for clock skew and routing time).
* The recipient's computer checks to see if the e-mail address in that header is (any of) the valid e-mail address(es) of the recipient (or any mailing lists to which the recipient is subscribed).
* If all the other checks are valid, the recipient's computer puts that string in a database. If that string was not already in the database, it is valid.
All these tests take far less time and disk space than receiving the rest of the e-mail.
The time needed to compute such a hash collision is exponential with the number of zero bits. So one can keep adding zero bits (doubling the amount of time needed to send with each zero bit) until it is too expensive for spammers to generate valid header lines. (Confirming the header is valid always takes the same amount of time, no matter how many zero bits are required for a valid header.)
Advantages and disadvantages
The Hashcash system has the advantage over
micropaymentproposals applying to legitimate email that no real money is involved. Neither the sender nor recipient need pay, thus the administrative issues involved with all micropayment systems are entirely avoided.
On the other hand, as Hashcash requires significant computational resources to be expended on each e-mail being sent, it is impractical to use with low-end or battery-powered hardware without the help of an external server.
Hashcash is also fairly simple to implement in mail user agents and spam filters.No central server is needed.Hashcash can be incrementally deployed -- the extra Hashcash header is ignored when it is received by mail clients that do not understand it.
One vital problem of hash cash is that it is not clear whether thereexist effective parameters at all, i.e. parameters that allow the goodpeople to get on with their business while prohibiting bad people fromgetting on with theirs. Some plausible estimates [http://www.hashcash.org/papers/proof-work.pdf] come to theconclusion that you can only have one of these: Either good e-mailwill get stuck due to lack of processing power of the sender, or bade-mail is bound to still get through. The reasons for this arebotnets or cluster farms with which spammers can increase theirprocessing power enormously, or centralized e-mail-topologies likemailing lists, in which some server is to send an enormous amount oflegitimate e-mails.
Most of these issues may be addressed. E.g., botnets may expirefaster because users notice the high CPU load and takecounter-measures, and mailing list servers can be registered in whitelists on the subscribers' hosts and thus be relieved from the hashcashchallenges. But they represent serious obstacles to hashcashdeployment that need to be addressed somehow.Fact|date=September 2008
Another problem is that computers continue to get faster according to
Moore's law. So the difficulty of the calculations required must be increased over time. However, developing countries can be expected to use older hardware, which means that they will find it increasingly difficult to participate in the email system. This also applies to lower-income individuals in developed countries who cannot afford the latest hardware.
Hashcash in blogs
Penny Black (research project)
* Adam Back, "Hashcash - A Denial of Service Counter-Measure", technical report, August 2002 [http://www.hashcash.org/papers/hashcash.pdf (PDF)] .
* Ben Laurie and Richard Clayton, "'Proof-of-Work' Proves Not to Work", WEAS 04. [http://www.hashcash.org/papers/proof-work.pdf (PDF)] .
* Dwork, C. and Naor, M. (1992) "Pricing via Processing or Combating Junk Mail", Crypto '92, pp.139-147. [http://dsns.csie.nctu.edu.tw/research/crypto/HTML/PDF/C92/139.PDF (PDF)]
* http://hashcash.org — Hashcash homepage
* [http://2pennyblue.org/fro Frequently raised objections]
* [http://www-106.ibm.com/developerworks/linux/library/l-hashcash.html?ca=dgr-lnxw01HashCash Beat spam using hashcash] —
David Mertz's article on hashcash, its applications and an implementation in Python.
* [http://www.ietf.org/ietf/IPR/rsa-ipr-draft-jennings-sip-hashcash-00.txt RSA IPR note to the IETF about hashcash] (2004)
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
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