- Tube sound
Tube sound (or valve sound) is the characteristic sound associated with a
vacuum tube-based audio amplifiers. Some audiophiles prefer the sound that is produced by the distortion characteristics of tube-based amplifiers. The audible significance of tube amplification on audio signals is a subject of continuing debate among audiophiles. Electric guitar, electric bass, and keyboard players in a range of popular and jazz genres also use tube instrument amplifiers or preamplifiers.
Before the commercial introduction of
transistors in the 1950s, electronic amplifiers used vacuum tubes (known in Great Britainas "valves"). By the 1960s, solid state (transistorized) amplification had become more common because of its smaller size, lighter weight, lower heat production, and improved reliability. Tube amplifiers have retained a loyal following amongst some audiophiles and musicians. Some tube designs command very high prices, and tube amplifiers have been going through a revival since Chinese and Russian markets have opened to global trade — tube production never went out of vogue in these countries.
audiophilesprefer the sound produced with tube amplifiers on the grounds that it is more natural and satisfying than the sound from typical transistoramplifiers. Typically, in sound reproductionsystems, accurate reproduction of the sound of the original recording is the goal; gross distortion is something designers do not deliberately seek to introduce. At the upper end of audio systems ("high end" or "audiophile" systems) it is debated whether "accuracy" can best be described by measuring a "wide frequency response" and "low measured distortion levels" or whether highest quality reproduction is subjectively determined by listening alone.
Musical instrument amplification
musiciansWho|date=November 2007 also prefer the distortion characteristics of tubes over transistorsfor electric guitar, bass, and other instrument amplifiers. In this case, generating deliberate (and sometimes considerable, in the case of electric guitars) audible distortion or overdrive is usually the goal. The term can also be used to describe the sound created by specially-designed transistor amplifiers or digital modelling devices that try to closely emulate the characteristics of the tube sound.
The tube sound is often subjectively described as having a "warmth" and "richness", but the source of this is by no means agreed on. It may be due to the non-linear clipping that occurs with tube amps, or due to the higher levels of second-order harmonic
distortion, common in single-ended designs resulting from the characteristics of the tube interacting with the inductanceof the output transformer.
Some tube fansWho|date=November 2007 attribute the "naturalness" of the perceived sound to the reduced number of components used by tube amplifiers. This is especially so for single-ended triode amplifiers (SET). These are said to reduce the "smearing" of the sound; reducing the imperfections invariably introduced by each electronic component. Much emphasis is placed on phase linearity. This minimalism is not solely the domain of tube amplifiers; there are some transistor amplifiers producing results that are similar. The JFET, for example, behaves much like a triode in its "ohmic" region.
Another advantage of most tube amplifier designs is the high input impedance (typically 100 kΩ) in modern designs and as much as 1 MΩ in classic designs. By contrast, transistor amplifiers for home use may have much lower input impedances, some as low as 20 kΩ. This implies that it requires more energy to excite the input of a typical transistor amplifier to any given voltage than it does a typical tube amplifier. If sensitivity to small signals is a significant goal, then tube designs will typically outperform transistor designs.
Commodity transistor amplifiers, especially from the 1980s, typically used large amounts of negative feedback. This allowed for a very low measure of total harmonic distortion. Typical tube amplifiers have little or no negative feedback applied, and in recent years there has been a tendency in transistor amplifiers to use less feedback and design more linear stagesFact|date=November 2007; a process which has again narrowed the sonic differences between tube and transistor designs. [Tapio M. Köykkä, "Katkoäänien rikkoutuminen äänentoistossa" (in Finnish), "ERT" (Elektroniikka-Radio-TV), vol. 22, no. 1, pp. 27-32, 1969] [Matti Otala, "Transient Distortion in Transistorized Audio Power Amplifiers", IEEE Transactions on Audio and Electroacoustics vol. AU-18, No. 3 September 1970]
Some audiophilesWho|date=November 2007 prefer the sound of tubes over transistors. This is partly a function of the circuit topologies typically used with tubes versus the circuit topologies typically used with transistors, as much as the gain devices themselves. Beyond circuit design, there are other differences such as the electronic characteristics of a triode and
MOSFET, or a tetrode and a bipolar transistor.
Some sonic qualities are easy to explain objectively based on an analysis of the distortion characteristics of the gain device and/or the circuit topology. For example, the triode SE gain stage produces a stereotypical monotonically decaying harmonic distortion spectrumClarifyme|date=March 2008 that is dominated by significant second-order harmonics making the sound seem rich or even "fat".
However, other audible differences in sound have proven difficult to define or measure, and it is difficult to explain these sound differences in words as the vocabulary available to describe sound is rather limited -even though the underlying sonic effects may be real. Audiophiles often use words like "warm", "liquid", "smooth" and "midrange magic" to describe the sound from tube amplifiers.
SomeWho|date=November 2007 claim that the midrange reproduction is more extended and smoother with tube amplifiers, but that high frequencies are somewhat rolled off. Historically this was often the case due to limitations in capacitor performance. Modern audiophile-grade tube amplifiers however, using modern and/or premium quality (and cost) capacitors can have frequency response that are essentially flat to
octaves beyond the audio range: −3 dB above 85 kHz is quite common.
Similarly, someWho|date=November 2007 would characterize "tube sound" as bass response with less power and/or less definition (perhaps even "sloppy" bass or a bass boom with some speakers). This again can be explained by many tube amplifiers having relatively high output impedance (Z out) compared to transistor designs, due to the combination of both higher device impedance itself and typically reduced feedback margins (more feedback results in a lower Z out).
So for example a hypothetical design in two otherwise equal variants with just different amounts of feedback, might result in the higher feedback version having a "drier" midrange (due to reduced second-order harmonics due to greater reduction of distortion) but a "tighter" bass due lower output impedance. The speaker impedance divided by the Z out is sometimes referred to as the "damping factor" - the amplifier's ability to control the mechanical movement of the speaker.
In general terms the sound from a tube amplifier will typically have a softer attack and the bass frequencies will be more prominent giving a warmer and less "harsh" sound. Instrumentation such as pianos and vocals sound softer and "fatter" than with transistor amplifiers. But as noted the reasons for these effects are not simply and unavoidably related to the gain device type, today a good designer using either technology has to make synergistic design compromise choices. And the sonic differences are less stereotyped than they used to be as a result.
Harmonic content and distortion
Triodes (and MOSFETs) produce a monotonically decaying harmonic distortion spectrum. Psychoacoustic effects include that the stronger, lower harmonic products tend to dominate and mask the sound of the weaker, higher harmonic products. Even-order harmonics sound as musical chords (notably octaves), which subjectively makes the sound "richer". Odd-order harmonics sound less pleasant. Aharmonic distortion is discordant and is often implicated in designs that sound "brash", "harsh", "brittle", etc. Push-pull amplifiers use two nominally identical gain devices "back to back". One consequence of this is that all even-order harmonic products cancel, leaving the - subjectively less musical, less "rich" - odd order products to dominate. The total (measured) harmonic distortion content is lowered, but subjectively the design may sound worse. A push-pull amplifier is said to have a symmetric (odd symmetry)
transfer characteristic, and accordingly produces only odd harmonics.
A single-ended amplifier has an
asymmetrictransfer characteristic, and produces both even "and" odd harmonics. [http://www.uaudio.com/webzine/2005/october/content/content2.html Ask the Doctors: Tube vs. Solid-State Harmonics] — Universal Audio Webzine] [http://www.trueaudio.com/at_eetjlm.htm Volume cranked up in amp debate] — Electronic Engineering Times] cite conference | author=W. Bussey and R. Haigler
title=Tubes versus transistors in electric guitar amplifiers
booktitle=IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing
year=1981 |pages=Volume 6 p. 800–803] As tubes are often run single-ended, and semiconductor amplifiers are often push-pull, the types of distortion are incorrectly attributed to the devices (or even the amplifier class) instead of the topology. Push-pull tube amplifiers can be run in class A, AB, or B. When in the
class Aregion the distortion will be as described above, but while in class Bthe distortion will be SE like. Also, a class ABamplifier will have crossover distortion that will be typically inharmonicand thus sonically very undesirable indeed.
Another factor is that the distortion content of class A circuits (SE or PP) typically monotonically reduces as the signal level is reduced, asymptotic to zero during quiet passages of music. For this reason class A amplifiers are especially desired for classical and acoustic music etc. cf. class B and AB amplifiers, for which the amplitude of the crossover distortion is more or less constant, and thus the distortion "relative to signal" in fact increases as the music gets quieter. Class A amplifiers measure best at low power, class AB and B amplifiers measure best just below max rated power.
Loudspeakers present a reactive load to an amplifier (
capacitance, inductanceand resistance). This impedance may vary in value with signal frequency and amplitude. This variable loading affects the amplifier's performance both because the amplifier has finite output impedance (it cannot keep its output voltage perfectly constant when the speaker load varies) and because the phase of the speaker load can change the stability margin of the amplifier. The influence of the speaker impedance is different between tube amplifiers and transistor amplifiers, principally because tube amplifiers normally use output transformers and they tend to use relatively low feedback.
The design of speaker crossover networks and other electro-mechanical properties may result in a speaker with a very un-even impedance curve, for a nominal 8 Ω speaker, being as low as 6 Ω at some places and as high as 30-50 Ω elsewhere in the curve. An amplifier with little or no feedback will always perform poorly when faced with a speaker where little attention was paid to the impedance curve.
There has been considerable debate over the characteristics of tubes versus
bipolar junction transistors. Some audiophilesWho|date=November 2007 have argued that the quadratic transconductanceof tubes compared with the exponential transconductance of transistors is an important factor. This has not been proven. Some audiophilesWho|date=November 2007 argue that devices are not as important as circuit topology. Triodes and MOSFETs have certain similarities in their transfer characteristics, whereas later forms of the tube, the tetrodeand pentode, have quite different characteristics that are in some ways similar to the bipolar transistor. Despite this, eg MOSFET amplifier circuits typically do not reproduce tube sound any more than typical bipolar designs, due to the "circuit topology differences" between a typical tube design and a typical MOSFET design. But there are always exceptions: for example some very interesting designs such as the Zen series by Nelson Passwhich can be found on the web.
Soft clipping is a very important aspect of tube sound especially for
guitar amplifiers, although a HiFi amplifier should not normally ever be driven into clipping. A tube amplifier will reproduce a waverelatively linearly to a point, and as the signal moves beyond the linearrange of the tube (into overload), it distorts the signal with a smooth curve instead of a sudden, sharp-edged cutoff (or even ringing and/or lockup) as occurs with transistors. The harmonicsadded to the signal are of lower energy with soft clipping than hard clipping. However, soft clipping is not exclusive to tubes, it can be simulated in transistor circuits (below the point that real hard clipping would occur); see section "Intentional creation of distortion" below.
Note also that tube circuits often have huge headroom (overload) margins due to the high voltages they run from, so hard clipping is in reality very rare in a tube stage itself. However core saturation in the output transformer may be "designed in" to some guitar amplifiers when driven hard, and/or the tube biasing may be designed so that the tube passes from class AB1 to class AB2 and starts to draw
grid currentetc. (these effects are perhaps beyond the scope of this article)
Circuit design may also play an important role in the tube sound; tube circuits are often less complex and laid out differently. It is argued that simplicity is usually best, as the length and complexity can change the
inductanceand capacitanceof a circuit. A more complex circuit will have a more complex sonic distortion characteristic. Minimalist DH-SEs for example typically have a dominant very simple harmonic distortion spectrum. Complex modern transistor designs often have low level but extremely complex harmonic distortion spectra.
Early tube amplifiers often had limited response bandwidth, in part due to the characteristics of the inexpensive passive components then available. In power amplifiers most limitations come from the output transformer; low frequencies are limited by transformer core saturation and high frequencies by winding inductance and capacitance. Another limitation is in the combination of high output impedance, decoupling capacitor and grid resistor, which acts as a
high-pass filter. If interconnections are made from long cable (for example guitar to amp), tube input impedance with cable capacitance acts as a low-pass filter. However, modern premium components make it easy to produce amplifiers that are essentially flat over the audio band, with less than 3 dB attenuation at 6 Hz and 70 kHz, well outside the audible range.
Tube amplifiers could not, and did not need to, use as much
negative feedback(NFB) as transistor amplifiers due to the large phase shifts caused by the output transformers and their lower stage gains. While the absence of NFB slightly increases harmonic distortion, it avoids instability, as well as slew rateand bandwidth limitations imposed by dominant-pole compensation in transistor amplifiers.
Early tube amplifiers usually used unregulated power supplies. This was due to the high cost associated with high-quality
high-voltagepower supplies. The typical anodesupply was simply a rectifier, an inductor and a filter capacitor. When the tube amplifier was operated at high volume, the power supply voltagewould dip, reducing power output and causing signal modulation. This dipping effect is known as "sag", which may be preferable to some electric guitarists (almost invariably using a class AB1 amplifier). Note that for a class A stage the average current does NOT sag, it is constant.
In contrast, modern amplifiers often use high-quality, well-regulated power supplies. In theory, the output voltage remains constant, but in reality it never does — not least due to resistive losses in the cabling from the power supply to the gain stage. This problem is proportionately much worse in transistor amplifiers because they operate at low voltage and high current, whereas tube voltage amplification stages operate at low currents and high voltages. Ohmic losses are a function of current through resistance.
Tube versus solid state rectification
Some high end tube amplifier designs also include vacuum tube rectifier circuits instead of modern silicon diode or bridge rectifier circuits. A cheap solid state rectifier does introduce audible noise into the circuit. [ [http://www.siteswithstyle.com/VoltSecond/K-12M_AMP/K-12M_Push_Pull.html S5 Electronics K-12M Tube Amp ] ] Audibility of the effects is disputed by many. In unregulated power supplies the switching noise from silicon diodes can affect the amplifier's performance by introducing noise into the high voltage circuit. In guitar amplifiers, tube rectification is used in order to intentionally cause the high voltage supply to sag in order to add distortion and compress the output signal.
The practical advantage to tube rectification is that the relatively inexpensive rectifier tubes require some time to warm up before they begin to conduct. This gives the time for the heaters in the output tubes to warm up as well and therefore extend their lifespan. If the high voltage supply is brought up too quickly, the cathodes might be damaged. Some high end manufacturers, such as Welborne Labs in their premium kits, feature ultrafast soft-recovery silicon diodes bridged by snubber networks on the basis that the cost and power required to operate a vacuum tube rectifier does not yield any measurable improvement in the sound.
A Class A
push-pullamplifier produces exceptionally low distortionfor any given level of applied feedback, and also cancels the fluxin the transformercores, so this topology is seen by someWho|date=November 2007 as the ultimate "engineering" approach to the tube hi-fi amplifier for use with normal speakers. Output power of as high as 15 watts can be achieved even with classic tubes such as the 2A3, see RCA data sheet, October 15, 1947. or 18 watts from the type 45. Classic pentodes such as the EL34 and KT88 can output as much as 60 and 100 watts respectively. Special types such as the V1505 can be used in designs rated at up to 1100 watts. See "An Approach to Audio Frequency Design", a collection of reference designs originally published by G.E.C.
Class AB push-pull topology is nearly universally used in tube amps for electric guitar applications. Whereas audiophile amps are primarily concerned with avoiding distortion, a guitar amp embraces it. When driven to their respective limits, tubes and transistors distort quite differently. Tubes clip more softly than transistors, allowing higher levels of distortion (which is sometimes desired by the guitarist) whilst still being able to distinguish the harmonies of a chord. This is because the soft profile of the tube amplifier's distortion means that the
intermodulation products of the distortion are generally more closely related to the harmonies of the chord.
Single-Ended Triode (SET) amplifiers
SET amplifiers typically show poor measurements for distortion with a resistive load, have low output power, are inefficient, have poor
damping factors and high measured harmonic distortion. But they perform very well in dynamic and impulse response. Also, SET-amplifiers already sound very well at low powerlevels without the perceived need for higher soundlevels like transistor amplifiers often do.
triode, despite being the oldest signal amplification device, also has the most linear transfer characteristic, and thus requires little or no negative feedbackfor acceptable distortion performance. NFB is used in most post 1950s amplifiers and although it usually reduces the "measured" distortion level, it results in an unpleasant combination of harmonics to some ears.
Audiophiles who prefer SET-amplifiers state that measured sound performance is a poor indicator of real world sound performance and distortion level is not the only criterion for good sound reproduction. There are measurements not using resistive load but actual loudspeakers to back this up. In the 1970s, designers started producing transistor amps with higher
open loopgain to support a greater value of negative feedback. These amps produced near perfect "measured" results but some listenersWho|date=November 2007 felt that these amplifiers sounded "cold" or "dull". In the following years, amplifiers were built with modest gain but good open loop linearity, deployed with only minimal levels of NFB.
All amplifiers do distort, so do SETs. This for the most part
harmonicdistortion is a distortion with a unique pattern of simple and monotonically decaying series of harmonics, dominated by modest levels of second harmonic. The result is like adding the same tone one octavehigher. The added harmonic tone is lower, at about 1-5% or less in a no feedback amp at full power and rapidly decreasing at lower levels. SomeWho|date=November 2007 argue that this "distortion" can actually enhance the music, just like the body of a musical instrument does, making it sound somewhat richer. It has been also claimed that in some cases especially a single-ended power amplifier's harmonic distortion could reduce similar harmonic distortion in a single driver loudspeaker, if their harmonic distortions were equal and amplifier was connected to the speaker so that the distortions would neutralize each other. [ [http://www.audiopax.com/papers_part1.htm About distortion behavior between SE amplifiers and speakers] , Eduardo de Lima] [ [http://gboers.xs4all.nl/daisy/home/g3/139/g1/loudspeakers/systemdistortion.html System distortion] , Gerrit Boers]
SETs usually only produce about 2
watt(W) for a 2A3 tube amp to 8 W for a 300B up to the practical maximum of 40 W for a 805 tube amp. The most expensive amp in existence, the Wavac SH-833 monoblock SETs (which cost about US$350,000) produces about 150 W using an 833Atube. The resulting SPL depends on the sensitivity of the loudspeaker and the size and acoustics of the room as well as amplifier power output. Their low power also makes them ideal for use as preamps. SET amps have a power consumption of a minimum of 8 times the stated stereo power. For example a 10 W stereo SET uses a minimum of 80 W, and typically 100 W.
olid state amplifiers
Audiophiles often believe that tube sound has an intrinsic quality due to the vacuum tube technology itself; this is only partially true. In 1972, Matti Otala demonstrated the origin of a previously unobserved form of distortion: Transient Intermodulation Distortion (TIM), also called "slew rate distortion". TIM was found to occur during very rapid increases in amplifier output voltage. [ "Circuit Design Modifications for Minimizing Transient Intermodulation Distortion in Audio Amplifiers", Matti Otala, Journal of Audio Engineering Society, Vol 20 # 5, June 1972] TIM did not appear at steady state sine tone measurements; helping to hide it from design engineers prior to 1972. Problems with TIM stem from reduced open loop frequency response of solid state amplifiers. Further works of Otala and other authors found the solution for TIM distortion, including increasing slew rate, decreasing preamp frequency bandwidth, and the insertion of a lag compensation circuit in the input stage of the amplifier. [Distribution of the Phonograph Signal Rate of Change, Lammasniemi, Jorma; Nieminen, Kari, Journal of Audio Engineering Society, Vol 28 # 5, May 1980.] In high quality modern amplifiers the open loop response is at least 20 kHz, cancelling such distortion mechanisms. However, TIM is still present in most low price home quality amplifiers.Fact|date=May 2008
In 1980, a further improvement by Oscar Bonello at the University of Buenos Aires reduced amplifier distortion by employing "Double Loop Feedback" circuitry. [ Advanced Negative Feedback Design for High Performance Amplifiers, Oscar Bonello, 67th AES Convention, New York, October 1980.] This technology led to solid state amplifier designs which could achieve far better distortion measurements than tube amplifiers, at low cost and with high power. At the same time Oscar Bonello proposed using poles and zeros at the feedback network to get a 9 dB/octave slope instead of the traditional 6 dB/octave. This allowed audio amplifiers to be designed without any perceived distortion in the treble spectrum.
Tube sound from transistor amplifiers
Some individual characteristics of the tube sound, such as the waveshaping on overdrive, are straightforward to produce in a transistor circuit or
digital filter. For more complete simulations, engineers have been successful in developing transistor amplifiers that produce a sound quality very similar to the tube sound. Usually this involves using a circuit topology similar to that used in tube amplifiers.
Tom Scholz, a graduate of MITand a member of "Boston", introduced the Rockman, which used bipolar transistors, but achieved a distorted sound adopted by many well known musicians. Advanced digital signal processingoffers the possibility to simulate tube sound. Computer algorithmsare currently available that transform digital sound from a CDor other digital source into a distorted digitalsound signal.
passive components, and modern sources, whether digitalor analogue, and wide band loudspeakers, it is possible to have tube amplifiers with the characteristic wide bandwidth and "fast" sound of modern transistor amplifiers, including using push-pull circuits, class AB, and feedback. Some enthusiasts have built amplifiers using transistors and MOSFETs that operate in class A, including single ended, and these often have the "tube sound" Fact|date=February 2007.
Tube/transistor "HYBRID" amplifiers
Tubes are often used to impart characteristics that many people find audibly pleasant to solid state amplifiers, such as
Musical Fidelity's use of Nuvistors, tiny triode tubes, to control large bi-polar transistors in their NuVista300 power amp. In America, Moscode and Studio Electric use this method, but use MOSFET transistors for power, rather than bi-polar. Pathos, an Italian company, has developed an entire line of hybrid amplifiers.
To demonstrate one aspect of this effect, one may use a
light bulbin the feedback loop of an infinite gain multiple feedback (IGMF) circuit. The slow response of the light bulb's resistance (which varies according to temperature) can thus be used to moderate the sound and attain a tube-like "soft limiting" of the output, though other aspects of "the tube sound" would not be duplicated in this exercise.
Tube sound enthusiasts
Some enthusiastsWho|date=November 2007 consider that "pure" tube amplifiers should not use anything except tubes as active devices. Others, in contrast, will use tubes for the audio circuit, but will accept the use of semiconductor gain devices in the power supply or as
constant current sources. Other schisms concern the use of triodes vs. tetrodes and pentodes, and the use of directly heated tubes vs. indirectly heated tubes. Often sticking to their point of view comes close to religionWho|date=March 2008
Many of the explanations relate to the circuit topologies pioneered using tubes, and traditionally associated with them ever since, regardless of whether they are built using tubes today, notably the directly heated
single-ended triodeamplifier circuit, which operates in class A and often has no external negative feedback; this topology is a classic source of the tube sound.
Feedback paths coupled through the secondary of the output transformer reduce distortion because they compensate for the transformer's distortion to some extent. However only limited NFB can be used around the transformer, as there is phase lag caused by the transformer, and this causes instability if NFB is incorrectly (without any phase / frequency correction) used.
Audio system measurements
British Valve Association
European triode festival
* Barbour, Eric. [http://www.spectrum.ieee.org/print/1640 The Cool Sound of Tubes] in "IEEE Spectrum Online".
* Hamm, Russell O. (
September 14, 1972). [http://milbert.com/articles/TvsT/tstxt.pdf "Tubes vs. Transistors: Is There An Audible Difference?"] . Presented at the 43rd convention of the Audio Engineering Society, New York.
* Reisch, George. [http://stereophile.com/thinkpieces/165/ Scientists vs Audiophiles 1999] in "
Stereophile", March, 1999.
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