- Black Box Voting
Black Box Voting signifies
votingon voting machineswhich do not disclose how they operate such as with closed sourceor proprietaryoperations. The term, as described by Dr. Arnold Urken of Stephens Institute of Technology, comes from the technical jargon use of the term black box, a device or system or object when it is viewed primarily in terms of its input and output characteristics. Dr. Urken's group at Stevens Institute was one of the first Independent Testing Authorities for voting machines.
The term was coined by
David Allen, publisher, technical consultant and co-writer to author and activist Bev Harris, who popularized the term in her book with that title and runs the [http://www.blackboxvoting.org BlackBoxVoting.org] website. Allen's formal definition is found on page 4 of the original edition of the book: "Any voting system in which the mechanisms for recording and/or tabulating the vote are hidden from the voter, and/or the mechanism lacks a tangible record of the vote cast." [ [http://www.blackboxvoting.org/bbv_chapter-1.pdf Black Box Voting: Ballot Tampering in the 21st Century] ]
A national nonprofit elections watchdog group by the name "Black Box Voting" was founded by
Bev Harris, author of the book Black Box Voting: Ballot-Tampering in the 21st Century. [ [http://www.blackboxvoting.org/book.html Black Box Voting: Ballot Tampering in the 21st Century] ] . The author donated the book rights to the nonprofit group, and it is available online for free.
About black box voting systems
Both optical scan systems which interpret paper ballots and Direct Recording Electronic (DRE) systems can be black box systems. The determination is whether the public is allowed to examine the source code and hardware. Though source code may be available to voting system testing authorities and state or county election officials it can still be considered "black box" if it is not available to the public. Even with some
open sourcesystems, which allow examination of the source code, access to firmware, which controls the hardware, is not available.
Even if the source code is made public, significant challenges remain in the areas of authenticating that the code running systems in the field matches the publicly released code, and it is still possible to find attack vectors for open source systems.
U.S. presidential election, 2004, about 80% of voting was done on optical scan and DRE voting systems using trade secret proprietary software.Fact|date=July 2007 As of February, 2006, that figure had climbed to 95%, with 80% of all votes in America were counted by only two companies, Diebold Election Systemsand Election Systems & Software(ES&S). Neither company releases their source code to the public, and thus all voting on these systems is "black box" voting. [http://www.guerrillanews.com/blogs/12824/20_Amazing_Facts_About_Voting_In_The_United_States] However, these figures apply to population, not number of jurisdictions. As of 2007, approximately 0.41% of all jurisdictions (0.19% of all registered voters [ [http://www.edssurvey.com/images/File/VotingEquipStudies%20/ve2006_report.pdf Voting Equipment Summary By Type] , as of 11/07/2006. Election Data Services] ) still counted ballots by hand. These jurisdictions each serve small populations, the overall figures, based on population, favor optical scan and DRE voting.
Legislation has been introduced in the
United States Congressto ban black box voting by requiring public release of source codes, including hardware and firmware information. One such bill, entitled the Voter Confidence and Increased Accessibility Act of 2007 - HR 811, was introduced by Congressman Rush D. Holt, Jr..This bill was changed in committee, and has dropped all requirements for public disclosure of the source codes, and for the first time, codifies the concept of black box voting into federal law by requiring protection of secret voting machine codes, and taking the unprecedented step of requiring nondisclosure agreements for even the limited set of "qualified experts" allowed to look at the code.
Open Voting Consortium
Voter Verified Paper Audit Trail
* [http://www.blackboxvoting.org Black Box Voting - nonprofit citizen watchdog site]
* [http://www.electiondefensealliance.org Election Defense Alliance - collaborative nonprofit organization to help build and coordinate a comprehensive, cohesive national strategy for the election integrity movement]
* [http://www.openvoting.org Open Voting Consortium site on open source voting systems]
* [http://www.verifiedvoting.org Verified Voting - lobbying group for paper trails]
Research, Articles, and Advocacy
* [http://itpolicy.princeton.edu/voting/ Princeton Security Analysis of the Diebold AccuVote-TS Voting Machine]
* [http://www.commondreams.org/headlines04/1106-30.htm Evidence Shows that the Vote may have been Hacked] , Thom Hartmann, [http://www.commondreams.org Common Dreams] , November 2004
* [http://www.freepress.org/columns/display/3/2004/995 How the Ohio election was rigged for Bush.] , Bob Fitrakis, [http://www.freepress.org/] November 2004
* [http://www.usatoday.com/tech/columnist/andrewkantor/2004-06-04-kantor_x.htm USA Today: More problems arise with 'black-box voting'] , Andrew Kantor, June 2004
* [http://www.moveleft.com/moveleft_essay_2004_03_21_how_elections_should_be_conducted_hand_count.asp How Elections Should Be Conducted] , Eric Jaffa, [http://www.moveleft.com MoveLeft Media] , March 2004
* [http://www.onlinejournal.com/evoting/031904Fitrakis/031904fitrakis.html Black Box Voting: Death of a patriot] ,Bob Fitrakis, [http://www.freepress.org/] ("Describes the untimely March, 2004 death of an influential advocate of a verified voting paper trail.")
* [http://www.freepress.org/columns/display/3/2004/834 Diebold, electronic voting and the vast right-wing conspiracy] , Bob Fitrakis, [http://www.freepress.org/] Februaru 2004
* [http://www.guerrillanews.com/blogs/12824/20_Amazing_Facts_About_Voting_In_The_United_States 20 Amazing Facts About Voting In The United States]
* [http://www.thirdworldtraveler.com/Project%20Censored/Theft_2004_Pres_Election.html No Paper Trail Left Behind: The Theft of the 2004 Presidential Election, by Dennis Loo, Ph.D]
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