Huai'an


Huai'an

Huai'an (zh-cp|c=淮安|p=Huái'ān), known as Huaiyin (zh-cp|c=淮阴|p=Huáiyīn) before 2001, is a prefecture-level city in northern Jiangsu province, People's Republic of China. It borders Suqian to the northwest, Lianyungang to the north, Yancheng to the east, Yangzhou to the southeast, and the province of Anhui to the southwest.

Administration

The prefecture-level city of Huai'an administers 8 county-level divisions, including 4 districts and 4 counties.

*Chuzhou District (楚州区)
*Huaiyin District (淮阴区)
*Qinghe District (清河区)
*Qingpu District (清浦区)
*Jinhu County (金湖县)
*Xuyi County (盱眙县)
*Hongze County (洪泽县)
*Lianshui County (涟水县)

These are further divided into 127 township-level divisions, including 84 towns, 33 townships and 10 subdistricts.

History

Ancient China

The area of Huai'an spans over ancient canal of Huai River and the name of "Huai'an" takes the hope of the residents for lasting peaceful Huai River.

Pre-History
Chinese mythology recounts that Yu the Great, the Chinese leader with a legendary ability for flood control techniques, was constantly taming the Huai River here in Huai'an area.

Traces of the activities of ancient Chinese living in about 5000 to 6000 years ago have been found in the area. The most famous one is the Qingliangang Hill Civilization.

Xia, Shang and Zhou Dynasty

The borough area had been properly developed, and was leading China in convenience of transportation and irrigation. Gangou Drain (the section between Huaiyin and Yangzhou of the Grand Canal of China) connected the Yangtze River and the Huai He delta region. The Qian Road and Shan Road that traversed the region reached Southern and Northern China. Thus, Huaiyin was critical area for several strong states in Spring and Autumn period. The region was occupied by the Wu, Yue and Chu states, one after another.

Qin and Han Dynasty

After Qin Dynasty consolidated all states in China, County System was promoted throughout China. Huaiyin County (Matou Town of Huaiyin District today), Xuyi Country (Northern town of Xuyi County today), Dongyang (Maba of Xuyi County today) was built in the region today.

In a movement of rebelling farmers during the later years of Qin Dynasty, the people of Huai'an supported the rebel forces, including the famous militia Han Xin who was highly honored for his bravery and meritorious deeds.

In the epoch of West Han Dynasty, Huaipu County (Western Lianshui County today), Sheyang County (Southeast of Chuzhou District today) and Fulin County (under the water of Hongze Lake today) were built.

During the Qin and Han Dynasty, great improvements, especially in irrigation, were made to agriculture and manufacturing. In the later years of East Han Dynasty, the Governor of Guanglin, Cheng Deng, built the Gaojiayang Levees (Hongze Lake Levees today). 30 miles in total, which kept out flood waters, and protected farmlands. He also built Pofu Pool for farm irrigation. Iron-made apparatus and bull-farming were widespread. Though a few wars and battles took place, agriculture, transportation and logistics made fair progress. The express way built by the first Qin Emperor went through the region, and the West Way of Gaogou Drain built by Cheng Deng, improved traffic between Yangtze and Huai He area.

Handicrafts and business also developed during this period, while culture and the arts were at high levels, as well. Home-teaching and private schools flourished in Han Dynasty and many famous artists appeared, for example, the Han-text composers Mei Chen and Mei Gao, and Chen Lin, one of the Seven Scholars of Jian'an.

Wei, Jin and Southern and Northern Dynasties

Sui, Tang and Five Dynasties

Song and Yuan Dynasty

Ming and Qing Dynasty

R.O.China

Since P.R.China

Whole area of Huaiyin was occupied by Chinese communist army in December 1948 and became the territory of P.R.China.

District of Huaiyin

District of Huaiyin was established on April 21, 1949, operating 10 counties, which were: Huaiyin, Huaibao (built of west parts of Huai'an and Baoyin section of the Grand Canal of China and county office located at town of Chahe), Siyang, Shuyang, Guanyun, Suqian, Suining, Xin'an (built of parts of Shuyang and Suqian and county office located at town of Xin'an), Pisui (built of southern Longhai Road of Pixian and northern Suining and county office located at town of Tushan) and Lianshui. The district office was at Huaiyin County.

Huaibao County was dissolved on May 12, 1950 to Huaiyin, Huai'an and Baoyin County (belonging to District of Yangzhou). And District of Huaiyin had 9 counties then.

The city area of Huaiyin County was separated as Qingjiang City on December 18, 1950 and District of Huaiyin then had 1 city and 9 counties.

With the establishment of Jiangsu Province in January 1953, District of Huaiyin was transferred to the province. Xin'an County was renamed to Xinyi County and county office of Pisui was moved to town of Yunhe. District of Huaiyin then had Qingjiang City and 9 counties, Huanyin, Lianshui, Guanyun, Siyang, Shuyang, Xinyi, Suqian, Pisui and Suining. The district office was sited at Qingjiang City. Later in the year, Suining, Pisui and Xinyi was given to District of Xuzhou and then District of Huaiyin had one city and six counties.

Qingjiang City was promoted to prefectual level of Jiangsu Province though was still operated by District of Huaiyin. Soon the district was joined by Huai'an County from District of Yancheng and in December by Sihong County from District of Suxian and Xuyi County from District of Chuxian in Anhui Province. The amount of all counties belonging to District of Huaiyin was 9.

In 1956 Hongze County was created from parts of Sihong, Huaiyin and Xuyi County with the county office sited at town of Gaoliangjian. The amount of counties then was 10.

In 1957 Xin'an Administrative Office was built from joint parts of Guanyun and Lianshui County and soon later renamed to Guannan County. The counties number reached 11.

Huaiyin County was merged in 1958 to Qingjiang City which was renamed to Huaiyin City and operated by District of Huaiyin, which had one city and 10 counties then.

However in 1964, Huaiyin City was renamed back to Qingjiang City and Huaiyin County was restored but the county office was sited in Qingjiang City.

Xuyi County was transferred to District of Luhe in 1966 and District of Huaiyin then had one city and 10 counties.

Huaiyin Region

District of Huaiyin was renamed to Huaiyin Region in 1970 with the region office sited at Qingjiang City, operating Qingjiang City and 10 counties, which were Guanyun, Guannan, Shuyang, Suqian, Siyang, Lianshui, Huaiyin, Huai'an, Hongze and Sihong.

Xuyi County was returned by Luhe Region in 1971 as well as new transferred Jinhu County. Then one city and 12 counties belonged to Huaiyin Region.

In 1975 the office of Huaiyin County was relocated at the town of Wangyin.

Huaiyin City

Qingjiang City was renamed to Huaiyin City again in 1983 and operated directly by Jiangsu Province with the end of Huaiyin Region. Meanwhile 11 counties, which were Guannan, Shuyang, Suqian, Siyang, Lianshui, Huaiyin, Sihong, Huai'an, Hongze, Xuyi and Jinhu, was transferred to new Huaiyin City while Guanyun County to Lianyungang City. The municipal area of Huaiyin City was split into two districts, Qinghe and Qingpu. Then 11 counties and 2 districts were belonging to Huaiyin City.

Suqian and Huai'an County was promoted to county-level cities in December 1987 by the order approved by Department of State, then renamed to Suqian and Huai'an City respectively. At the moment, Huaiyin City was operating 2 cities, 9 counties and 2 districts.

Suqian City was promoted to prefectual level of Jiangsu Province in 1996 and Shuyang, Siyang and Sihong County was transferred to Suqian City while Guannan County to Lianyungang City. After the adjustment, Huaiyin City had 5 counties, which were Huaiyin, Lianshui, Jinhu, Hongze and Xuyi, and 2 districts, Qinghe and Qingpu and was operating Huai'an City.

Huai'an City

By the order approved by Department of State on December 21, 2000, Huaiyin City was renamed to Huai'an City with the city office sited at Qinghe District while Chuzhou District was established from original Huai'an City with the district office at town of Huaichen and Huaiyin District was established from original Huaiyin County with the district office at town of Wangyin. The county borders were also be slightly modified.

Now Huai'an City are operating over 4 districts, Qinghe, Qingpu, Chuzhou and Huaiyin, and 4 counties, Xuyi, Lianshui, Jinhu and Hongze.

Notable people

*Han Xin (died 196 BC), late Qin Dynasty military general under Liu Bang, enfeoffed the Marquess of Huaiyin.
*Wu Cheng'en (1500–1582), Ming Dynasty novelist, author of the "Journey to the West".
*Guan Tianpei (January 8, 1781-February 26, 1841), Chinese national hero; martyred during the Opium Wars.
*Zhou Enlai (1898–1976), prominent Communist Party of China leader, Premier of the People's Republic of China since 1949 till death.

External links

* [http://www.huaian.gov.cn Government website of Huai'an] (in Simplified Chinese)
* [http://huaian.jiangsu.net Huai'an comprehensive guide with open directory] (Jiangsu.NET)


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Huai — usually refers to:*The Huai River in ChinaHuai can also refer to:*Prince Huai of Chu *Emperor Huai of Jin *King Huai of Xia *Huai an, China *Huaihai Campaign *Huai Khwang, Bangkok, Thailand * Huainanzi *Huai nan Love *Huai Su *Huai Yot …   Wikipedia

  • Huai'an — (en chino: 淮安, pinyin: Huai an), conocida como Huaiyin (en chino: 淮阴, pinyin: Huaiyin). Es una ciudad prefectura en la provincia de Jiangsu, República Popular de China. Limita al norte con Lianyungang ,al sur con Yangzhou,al oeste con Suqian y al …   Wikipedia Español

  • Huai Su — (zh tsp|t=懷素|s=怀素|p=Huái Sù, 737–799), [Not to be confused with another monk of the same name of the Tang Dynasty, who, lived from 624 to 697, was a student of Xuanzang.] courtesy name Cangzhen (藏真), was a Buddhist monk and calligrapher of the… …   Wikipedia

  • Huái — era el octavo rey de la Dinastía legendaria Xia, posiblemente gobernó cerca de 44 años, según los anales de bambú, aunque según los registros del magnifico historiador Sima Qian gobernó durante 26 años. Consiguió su trono en el año de Wuzi,… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Huai — (la) fl. de Chine (env. 1 000 km); traverse la prov. d Anhui; son cours, régulé par des barrages réservoirs, rejoint la mer Jaune …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Huai He —   der, Huaiho, Hwaiho, Fluss in der Großen Ebene Nordchinas, 1 078 km lang, Einzugsgebiet 210 000 km2. Er benutzt streckenweise alte Hwangho Betten und endet in den Seen Hongze Hu und Gaoyou Hu (durch Aufschüttungen des Hwangho zwischen 1194 und… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Huai'an — ▪ China Introduction Wade Giles romanization  Huai an , also spelled  Hwaian        city and river port, north central Jiangsu (Kiangsu) sheng (province), eastern China. It is situated on the Grand Canal, located at the point where (until 1853)… …   Universalium

  • Huai'an — 1 Original name in latin Huai an Name in other language Ch ing chiang, Ch ing chiang p u, Ch ing chiang shih, Ch’ing chiang, Ch’ing chiang p’u, Ch’ing chiang shih, HIA, Huai an, Huai yin, Huai yin ch eng, Huai yin ch’eng, Huai yin hsien, Huai yin …   Cities with a population over 1000 database

  • Huai’an — Dieser Artikel beschäftigt sich mit der Stadt Huai’an in der chinesischen Provinz Jiangsu. Für den Kreis Huai an (怀安县) in Zhangjiakou, Provinz Hebei, siehe Huai an. Lage von Huai an in Jiangsu Huai an (chin. 淮安市, Huái ān shì) ist eine… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Huai'an — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Huai an (homonymie) et Huaiyin. Huái ān · 淮安 …   Wikipédia en Français