Huai'an (zh-cp|c=淮安|p=Huái'ān), known as Huaiyin (zh-cp|c=淮阴|p=Huáiyīn) before
2001, is a prefecture-level cityin northern Jiangsuprovince, People's Republic of China. It borders Suqianto the northwest, Lianyungangto the north, Yanchengto the east, Yangzhouto the southeast, and the province of Anhuito the southwest.
prefecture-level cityof Huai'an administers 8 county-level divisions, including 4 districts and 4 counties.
*Chuzhou District (楚州区)
*Huaiyin District (淮阴区)
*Qinghe District (清河区)
*Qingpu District (清浦区)
*Hongze County (洪泽县)
These are further divided into 127 township-level divisions, including 84 towns, 33 townships and 10
The area of Huai'an spans over ancient canal of Huai River and the name of "Huai'an" takes the hope of the residents for lasting peaceful Huai River.
Chinese mythologyrecounts that Yu the Great, the Chinese leader with a legendary ability for flood control techniques, was constantly taming the Huai River here in Huai'an area.
Traces of the activities of ancient Chinese living in about 5000 to 6000 years ago have been found in the area. The most famous one is the Qingliangang Hill Civilization.
Xia, Shang and Zhou Dynasty
The borough area had been properly developed, and was leading China in convenience of transportation and irrigation. Gangou Drain (the section between Huaiyin and Yangzhou of the
Grand Canal of China) connected the Yangtze Riverand the Huai Hedelta region. The Qian Road and Shan Road that traversed the region reached Southern and Northern China. Thus, Huaiyin was critical area for several strong states in Spring and Autumn period. The region was occupied by the Wu, Yue and Chu states, one after another.
Qin and Han Dynasty
After Qin Dynasty consolidated all states in China, County System was promoted throughout China. Huaiyin County (Matou Town of Huaiyin District today), Xuyi Country (Northern town of Xuyi County today), Dongyang (Maba of Xuyi County today) was built in the region today.
In a movement of rebelling farmers during the later years of Qin Dynasty, the people of Huai'an supported the rebel forces, including the famous militia
Han Xinwho was highly honored for his bravery and meritorious deeds.
In the epoch of West
Han Dynasty, Huaipu County (Western Lianshui County today), Sheyang County (Southeast of Chuzhou District today) and Fulin County (under the water of Hongze Laketoday) were built.
During the Qin and Han Dynasty, great improvements, especially in irrigation, were made to agriculture and manufacturing. In the later years of East
Han Dynasty, the Governor of Guanglin, Cheng Deng, built the Gaojiayang Levees (Hongze Lake Levees today). 30 miles in total, which kept out flood waters, and protected farmlands. He also built Pofu Pool for farm irrigation. Iron-made apparatus and bull-farming were widespread. Though a few wars and battles took place, agriculture, transportation and logistics made fair progress. The express way built by the first Qin Emperor went through the region, and the West Way of Gaogou Drain built by Cheng Deng, improved traffic between Yangtze and Huai Hearea. Handicraftsand business also developed during this period, while culture and the arts were at high levels, as well. Home-teaching and private schools flourished in Han Dynastyand many famous artists appeared, for example, the Han-text composers Mei Chen and Mei Gao, and Chen Lin, one of the Seven Scholars of Jian'an.
Wei, Jin and Southern and Northern Dynasties
Sui, Tang and Five Dynasties
Song and Yuan Dynasty
Ming and Qing Dynasty
Whole area of Huaiyin was occupied by Chinese communist army in December 1948 and became the territory of P.R.China.
District of Huaiyin
District of Huaiyin was established on April 21, 1949, operating 10 counties, which were: Huaiyin, Huaibao (built of west parts of Huai'an and Baoyin section of the
Grand Canal of Chinaand county office located at town of Chahe), Siyang, Shuyang, Guanyun, Suqian, Suining, Xin'an (built of parts of Shuyang and Suqian and county office located at town of Xin'an), Pisui (built of southern Longhai Road of Pixian and northern Suining and county office located at town of Tushan) and Lianshui. The district office was at Huaiyin County.
Huaibao County was dissolved on May 12, 1950 to Huaiyin, Huai'an and Baoyin County (belonging to District of Yangzhou). And District of Huaiyin had 9 counties then.
The city area of Huaiyin County was separated as Qingjiang City on December 18, 1950 and District of Huaiyin then had 1 city and 9 counties.
With the establishment of
JiangsuProvince in January 1953, District of Huaiyin was transferred to the province. Xin'an County was renamed to Xinyi County and county office of Pisui was moved to town of Yunhe. District of Huaiyin then had Qingjiang City and 9 counties, Huanyin, Lianshui, Guanyun, Siyang, Shuyang, Xinyi, Suqian, Pisui and Suining. The district office was sited at Qingjiang City. Later in the year, Suining, Pisui and Xinyi was given to District of Xuzhou and then District of Huaiyin had one city and six counties.
Qingjiang City was promoted to prefectual level of Jiangsu Province though was still operated by District of Huaiyin. Soon the district was joined by Huai'an County from District of Yancheng and in December by Sihong County from District of Suxian and Xuyi County from District of Chuxian in Anhui Province. The amount of all counties belonging to District of Huaiyin was 9.
In 1956 Hongze County was created from parts of Sihong, Huaiyin and Xuyi County with the county office sited at town of Gaoliangjian. The amount of counties then was 10.
In 1957 Xin'an Administrative Office was built from joint parts of Guanyun and Lianshui County and soon later renamed to Guannan County. The counties number reached 11.
Huaiyin County was merged in 1958 to Qingjiang City which was renamed to Huaiyin City and operated by District of Huaiyin, which had one city and 10 counties then.
However in 1964, Huaiyin City was renamed back to Qingjiang City and Huaiyin County was restored but the county office was sited in Qingjiang City.
Xuyi County was transferred to District of Luhe in 1966 and District of Huaiyin then had one city and 10 counties.
District of Huaiyin was renamed to Huaiyin Region in 1970 with the region office sited at Qingjiang City, operating Qingjiang City and 10 counties, which were Guanyun, Guannan, Shuyang, Suqian, Siyang, Lianshui, Huaiyin, Huai'an, Hongze and Sihong.
Xuyi County was returned by Luhe Region in 1971 as well as new transferred Jinhu County. Then one city and 12 counties belonged to Huaiyin Region.
In 1975 the office of Huaiyin County was relocated at the town of Wangyin.
Qingjiang City was renamed to Huaiyin City again in 1983 and operated directly by Jiangsu Province with the end of Huaiyin Region. Meanwhile 11 counties, which were Guannan, Shuyang, Suqian, Siyang, Lianshui, Huaiyin, Sihong, Huai'an, Hongze, Xuyi and Jinhu, was transferred to new Huaiyin City while Guanyun County to Lianyungang City. The municipal area of Huaiyin City was split into two districts, Qinghe and Qingpu. Then 11 counties and 2 districts were belonging to Huaiyin City.
Suqian and Huai'an County was promoted to county-level cities in December 1987 by the order approved by Department of State, then renamed to Suqian and Huai'an City respectively. At the moment, Huaiyin City was operating 2 cities, 9 counties and 2 districts.
Suqian City was promoted to prefectual level of Jiangsu Province in 1996 and Shuyang, Siyang and Sihong County was transferred to Suqian City while Guannan County to Lianyungang City. After the adjustment, Huaiyin City had 5 counties, which were Huaiyin, Lianshui, Jinhu, Hongze and Xuyi, and 2 districts, Qinghe and Qingpu and was operating Huai'an City.
By the order approved by Department of State on December 21, 2000, Huaiyin City was renamed to Huai'an City with the city office sited at Qinghe District while Chuzhou District was established from original Huai'an City with the district office at town of Huaichen and Huaiyin District was established from original Huaiyin County with the district office at town of Wangyin. The county borders were also be slightly modified.
Now Huai'an City are operating over 4 districts, Qinghe, Qingpu, Chuzhou and Huaiyin, and 4 counties, Xuyi, Lianshui, Jinhu and Hongze.
Han Xin(died 196 BC), late Qin Dynastymilitary general under Liu Bang, enfeoffed the Marquess of Huaiyin.
Wu Cheng'en(1500–1582), Ming Dynastynovelist, author of the " Journey to the West".
*Guan Tianpei (January 8, 1781-February 26, 1841), Chinese national hero; martyred during the Opium Wars.
Zhou Enlai(1898–1976), prominent Communist Party of Chinaleader, Premier of the People's Republic of Chinasince 1949till death.
* [http://www.huaian.gov.cn Government website of Huai'an] (in Simplified Chinese)
* [http://huaian.jiangsu.net Huai'an comprehensive guide with open directory] (Jiangsu.NET)
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