- Religious communism
Religious communism is a form of
communismcentered on religious principles. The term usually refers to a number of egalitarian and utopian religious societies practicing the voluntary dissolution of private property, so that society's benefits are distributed according to a person's needs, and every person performs labor according to their abilities. "Religious communism" has also been used to describe the ideas of religious individuals and groups who advocate the application of communist policies on a wider scale, often joining secular communists in their struggle to abolish capitalism.
The use of the word "communism" in a religious context predates the use of the term to describe more secular forms of communism, such as that advocated by
François Babeufin the 18th century, and Karl Marxin the 19th century. Because of the secularnature of Marxism, many religious people on the political right oppose the use of the term "communism" to refer to religious communal societies, preferring names such as " communalism" instead.
Examples of religious communism
The term "religious communism" has been ascribed to the social arrangement practiced by many orders of
monks and nuns of such religions as Christianity, Taoism, Jainism, Hinduismand Buddhism. Though Islamdoes not follow such an arrangement, some scholars have found a number of other parallels between communism and Islamic economic jurisprudence, such as the Islamic ideas of zakatand riba. [ Bernard Lewis(1954), "Communism and Islam", "International Affairs (Royal Institute of International Affairs 1944-)" 30 (1), p. 1-12.] The teachings of Mazdak, a religious proto-socialist Persian reformer, has also been referred to as early " communism".Wherry, Rev. E. M. "A Comprehensive Commentary on the Quran and Preliminary Discourse", 1896. pp 66.]
It is argued that the
New Testamentof the Biblerelates how some of the early Christians lived in communities organized according to communist-like principles (see Christian communism).::"all who owned property or houses sold them and lay them at the feet of the apostles to be distributed to everyone according to his need." (Acts 4:32-35; see also 2:42-47)
Various other Christian communities have organized themselves along similar principles since then. Due to the generally small size of these communities, little is known about the ones that are believed to have existed more than a few centuries ago. There are several examples from recent history, however, including the pilgrims of
Plymouth Colony, the Shakers, the Harmony Society, Hutterites, some groups within the Religious Society of Friends, and the United Orderand the early Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.
Diggersmovement in Englandin the year 1649 may also be described as an example of religious communism. The Diggers were particularly concerned with the communal ownership of land.
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