- Electronic sports
Part of a series on: Video games
Electronic sports (e-sports) comprises the competitive play of video games. Other terms include competitive gaming, professional gaming and cybersports. One of the founding fathers of electronic sports leagues is Angel Munoz, founder of the Cyberathlete Professional League.
Games that are played as electronic sports normally belong to the real-time strategy (RTS), fighting, first-person shooter (FPS), massively-multiplayer online (MMOG), and racing genres. They are played competitively at amateur, semi-professional and professional levels including in leagues and tournaments. The definition of a pro gamer is someone who's sole income is generated from gaming.
Over the Internet
The easiest way to play an electronic sports match is over the Internet. General online play is subject to the lessened ability to detect cheating and the more unpredictable network latency not being the ideal environment for high level competition; however, due to its convenience, even players who are used to LAN games use Internet games for fun and exhibition games.
Usually teams (or "clans" as they are sometimes called) contact each other prior to matches. Internet Relay Chat (IRC) is very popular for doing this, due to the ability of each clan, league, or other gaming-related organisation to set up its own chat channel on the network, making them easy to find. (IRC has become so popular among gamers that the largest IRC network is QuakeNet, a network originally created for players of the first-person shooter Quake and now used by players of many different games.) The matches are then carried out on the server according to the rules of the leagues the teams are familiar with.
Popular online leagues include the Canada-based Pro Gaming League, along with Cyberathlete Amateur League, Cyber Evolution (CEVO), FraggedNation, eCompete-Online (ECO), Major League Gaming, ClanBase, and the Electronic Sports League. Video game competitions have referees or officials to monitor for cheating.[clarification needed] These video gaming tournaments also bring in fans, that either show up at the tournament or view it online Video gaming has sponsorship; for example, the CPL is sponsored by Sierra Entertainment, Razer, Cyber Shots Energy Drink, and Gamerail, and some teams even have sponsorship from big companies such as Intel, Western Digital or even Steelseries.
The largest online gaming network on the PC is Battle.net, used to play Warcraft, Diablo and StarCraft online. These networks have over 12 million active users with an average of 1,000,000 online at any given moment with peaks up to 1,500,000.
This service provided by Blizzard Entertainment is especially important for Warcraft III for which it features integrated ladders. The best on the one-one ladders compete in seasons stretching over a period of months, after which the top finishers gather at offline events to compete for a seasonal championship and tens of thousands of dollars in prize money.
Even though the PlayStation Network currently has the most individual profiles(sitting in around 28 million), it's chief competitor Xbox Live is currently the most popular and the most subscribed to console online gaming service, with over 17 million subscribers.
Over a local area network
Playing over a Local area network (LAN) has a number of advantages: the network has less lag and higher quality, and the competitors can be directly scrutinized for cheating. At professional events administrators will normally be present to ensure fair play. Because there is still a possibility of gamers using Modding to alter their hardware to unfairly modify certain aspects of the game or controller inputs to their advantage, some competitions prevent this by supplying all competitors with identical hardware for the event. LAN events also create a more social atmosphere as a result of all competitors being physically present. Due to the advantages of LAN many gamers organize LAN parties or visit LAN centres and most major tournaments are conducted over LANs.
Electronic sports history
Video games have been played competitively since their inception. Twin Galaxies is known for keeping track of high scores on many classic arcade games, and they created the U.S. National Video Game Team in 1983. The team ran a number of competitions, including the 1987 Video Game Masters Tournament for Guinness World Records.
Nintendo held their World Championships in 1990, touring across the United States, with the finals at Universal Studios Hollywood in California. There were 90 finalists, and the champions were Jeff Hanson (11 & under), Thor Aackerlund (12–17), and Paul White (18 & over). The Nintendo championships are notable for the silver cartridges distributed to all of the finalists, which now fetch high prices on eBay.. Gold cartridges were distributed as a prize in a Nintendo Power magazine contest.
Nintendo held a 2nd World Championships in 1994 for the Super Nintendo Entertainment System (SNES) called the Nintendo PowerFest '94. There were 132 finalists that played in the finals in San Diego, CA. Mike Iarossi took home 1st prize.
Blockbuster Video ran their own World Game Championships in the early 1990s, co-hosted by GamePro magazine. Citizens from the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Australia, and Chile were eligible to compete. Games from the 1994 championships included NBA Jam and Virtua Racing.
Developed as a successor to 1986's Xtrek, Netrek was first played in 1988. It is an Internet game for up to 16 players, written almost entirely in cross-platform open source software. It combines features of multi-directional shooters and team-based real-time strategy games. Players attempt to disable or destroy their opponents' ships in real-time combat, while taking over enemy planets by bombing them and dropping off armies they pick up on friendly planets. The goal of the game is to capture all the opposing team's planets.
Netrek was the third Internet game, the first Internet team game, the first Internet game to use metaservers to locate open game servers, and the first to have persistent user information. In 1993 it was credited by Wired Magazine as "the first online sports game".
As of 2010 it is the oldest Internet game still actively played.
Early PC era
The release of Doom on December 10, 1993 introduced multi-player death match games. Doom spawned newsgroups, chat rooms and among the first known users of IRC for gaming. Players connected to each other modem-to-modem and online competitive gaming was born. A handful of Doom fan sites report the favored maps of the time being e1m4 and e1m5.
Doom was swept aside by the release of its successor Doom II on October 10, 1994. Shortly thereafter the DWANGO (Dial up Wide Area Network Gaming Operations) firm launched their services. DWANGO, charged users the cost of a local telephone call to connect to their dial-up bulletin board services. With 20+ servers scattered throughout urban locations in North America DWANGO became the early hub of competitive gaming.
Initially, online gaming was available only to those with superior internet connections. These included ISP employees, university/college students and large businesses. Early client side software includes iDoom, Kali and iFrag.
To accompany the launch of Doom II, Microsoft held the first offline tournament for PC players, Deathmatch '95. Deathmatch '95 (aka Judgment Day Deathmatch 95 & Dwango’s Deathmatch 95) was aimed to be a competitive offline gaming tournament featuring the most popular title of the year, Doom II. This format, with gamers attending a single location and using standardized hardware, has defined eSports competitions since.
The tournament took place in Richmond, Virginia in October and a handful of national qualifiers witnessed players from Europe flying to play in the tournament. Prior to these events many players had competed online. Early favorites for the competition included Dennis Fong and Merlin.
Dennis Fong later recalled the tournament as follows:
By virtue of having already played most of the top players around the country and beaten them, I was considered one of the favorites to win the tournament. Another player who went by the handle "Merlock" was considered the other favorite. Due to a random draw, we ended up facing each other in the semi-finals. I ended up beating him something like 10-5. Merlock got so upset he slammed the keyboard and threw his chair off-stage. It was quite the scene, particularly since LAN tournaments weren't all that common back then. Although I didn't practice the game much, it was pretty evident that most players really favored the Cleric class as it was the easiest to learn and had a homing-type weapon that seemed more powerful than anything else in the game. Since everyone expected the finals to be played Cleric vs. Cleric, I decided to go against the grain and learn the Mage class. Anyway, to make a long story short, I found a way to counter the Cleric super-weapon and ended up shutting out my opponent in the finals, beating him 8-0.”
Formal events have grown dramatically since the release of Quake in 1996. At the earliest offline Quake tournament, "Red Annihilation" in May '97 of that year, Quake co-creator John Carmack promised his own red Ferrari 328 GTS convertible to the winner, Dennis Fong aka "Thresh".
Global tournaments era
Cyberathlete Professional League
In June 1997 Angel Munoz launched a league for computer video gamers, known as the Cyberathlete Professional League or CPL. Since then, the attendance and size of the venues for these events has grown and thousands of spectators typically connect over the internet to watch the final matches.
In 2005 the CPL moved to a World Tour format. The 2005 CPL World Tour focused on the one-on-one deathmatch game Painkiller and had a total prize purse of $1,000,000. The winner of the CPL Grand Finals event, Johnathan "Fatal1ty" Wendel, went home with the grand prize of $150,000, while Sander "Vo0" Kaasjager took home the MVP trophy for having the most tournament wins.
The Cyberathlete Amateur League (CAL) is the "minor league" of the CPL. It is based mainly on online game play. It hosts more than 600,000 online gamers. A 2003 competition hosted by CAL was played in a Hyatt Regency Ballroom. Several tables were placed together where 10 computers were set up for the professional gamers. The game was Half-Life: Counterstrike.
The CPL closed its doors in 2008 and in planning on re-opening May 2010. Controversy currently surrounds the league after a leaked report that the league faked its closing.
World Cyber Games
In the year 2000, the first World Cyber Games event was held in Seoul, Korea. There were competitions for Quake III Arena, StarCraft, FIFA 2000, and Age of Empires II: The Age of Kings. The competition initially had 174 competitors from 17 different countries with a total prize purse of $20,000. In 2006, the prize purse had risen to $462,000, and the event had grown to 9 different competitions and 700 qualified participants from 70 different countries.
Electronic Sports World Cup
Electronic Sports World Cup is an international championship held annually in France. Representatives must win their respective national qualifier to represent their country in the tournament. The first Electronic Sports World Cup event was held in 2000, with a total of 358 participants from 37 countries, and a prize purse of € 150.000. By 2006, the event had grown to 547 qualified participants from 53 countries and a prize purse of $400,000. The event also featured the first competition with a game specifically made for it; TrackMania Nations.
Major League Gaming
2002 saw the launch of Major League Gaming, a North American professional videogame league, the largest organized professional gaming league. Competitors from 28 different countries have participated in their tournaments, while over one million participants have competed online. In 2006, Major League Gaming was the first televised console gaming league in the United States, with their Halo 2 Pro Series being broadcast by USA Network. Now Major League Gaming has put Halo 3, Halo: Reach, Call of Duty 4: Modern Warfare, League of Legends, Call of Duty: Black Ops, Super Smash Bros. Brawl, and Starcraft II into their circuit. Events are now broadcast on their homepage.
World eSports Games
The first time the World e-Sports Games took place, was January 30 through March 20, 2005 and featured Counter-Strike and Warcraft III: Reign of Chaos as main titles. Players resided in Seoul, South Korea throughout most of the tournament and matches were broadcast on Korean television. The finals took place in Beijing, China. Attendees were all invited based on past performances and included the likes of Jang "Moon" Jae Ho, Team NoA and Li "Sky" Xiaofeng.
World Series of Video Games
2006 saw the first season of the World Series of Video Games event, a spin off of the CPL World Tour format. The WSVG held world championships for Counter-Strike, Warcraft III: Reign of Chaos, and Quake 4. The WSVG also held American championships for Halo 2, Tom Clancy's Ghost Recon Advanced Warfighter, and Project Gotham Racing 3.
Player contracts and professional electronic sports titles
There are a number of titles that have a professional gaming scene. The top players can make a living playing the games on the marketing value they gain as a result. Hundreds, thousands and even millions of dollars in prize money are turned out each year for competitors in these titles.
The most popular tournaments are those run by the World Cyber Games, the World e-Sports Games, and the Electronic Sports World Cup. The prize money for these events is mostly provided by the large technology corporations who sponsor the events; these companies also tend to sponsor eSports teams. A team sponsorship usually includes travel expenses and sometimes free hardware specific to that company.
Although sponsorships have evolved over the years, and oftentimes only sponsoring one gamer at a time—the first all inclusive team sponsorship was given to Team Abuse in June of 2000. Team Abuse was a well-respected Quake II team led by Doug 'Citizen' Suttles and a gamut of talented players [Toxic, Method, Lord Vader]. Upon their hosting of a grass roots event called Lansanity in Portland, OR Team Abuse was offered a complete sponsorship, setting precedence for many gamers to come. The Speakeasy sponsorship included a fully leased gaming studio in Lake Oswego, OR with a Speakeasy.net T1 connection. Additionally Team Abuse was sent to many CPL events, Quake Invitational League events, hosted Lansanity 2, and also found itself sending Marc 'pureluck' Naujock to the XSI Invitational in London as part of the Top 10 USA players vs the Top 10 European players tournament. Speakeasy paved the way for fully immersive corporate marketing sponsorship for professional gaming by applying merchandising, PR, grass root events, and a serious interest in the gaming community.
Major electronic sports games
- StarCraft: Brood War – Real Time Strategy (1vs1, PC)
This game has found a home in South Korea, where many play it professionally or as a spectator sport. It is the most popular professionally played game due to its immense popularity in South Korea, where the best pro-gamers are seen as celebrities.
In Korea, Starcraft has leagues such as Ongamenet Starleague, MBC Starleague, and Proleague. Finals for these league attract tens of thousands of fans and are viewed on cable TV with great popularity.
StarCraft is the very first game to have been accepted into the World Cyber Games tournament and has a tournament at their events since inception. It also enjoys significant competitive popularity in the west as well.
- Counter-Strike – Tactical Team FPS (5vs5, PC)
Played all around the world with hot spots in North America and Europe, there are a few dozen professional teams that gather at just as many tournaments all around the world every year. Without a uniting body in competitive gaming many of these claim to be the game's "World Championship" tournament.
While none of them stand out enough to justify this claim, six tournament finals are generally identified as being the "biggest". The six "Major tournaments" are listed below and are led by WCG (World Cyber Games) and the CPL (Cyberathlete Professional League).
Teams can be observed playing professionally in leagues such as, CEVO, ESEA League, ESL, and others.
The defunct league Championship Gaming Series franchised teams with contracted players who played Counter-Strike: Source
- Warcraft III: The Frozen Throne – Real Time Strategy (1vs1, PC)
Played professionally all around the world with hot spots in South Korea, China , France and Germany, there are a few dozen professional teams. The game lacks a uniting body and has no definable world championship.
Some of the biggest Warcraft III tournaments include the six "Major tournaments" listed below as well as events organised by Blizzard Entertainment, televised Korean leagues and several large tournaments held in China.
Warcraft III is seen as the competitive RTS-game with the second biggest playerbase, with the number players online at Battle.net ranging between 70,000 and 100,000 at any given moment. It must also be noted that the Chinese scene, which has over three million players, uses their own clients for online competition due to a poor connection to the outside world. In Korea, Warcraft III has significantly less popularity than Starcraft, which is the most popular.
Wiki articles about Warcraft III competitions include a historical overview of "world championships" as well as a ranking based on them and a number of player biographies such as: Xiaofeng "Sky" Li, Dae Hui "FoV" Cho, Jang "Moon" Jae Ho, Fredrik "MaDFroG" Johansson and Manuel "Grubby" Schenkhuizen.
- FIFA Football – Sports (PC)
FIFA Football is a part of the World Cyber Games since its beginning in 2000 and also at every regional WCG Tourney like the SEC or the Pan-American WCG. In 2003 a FIFA tournament was also held at the CPL Europe and is therefore the only sports game that has ever been part of a Cyberathlete Professional League competition.
Germany has the biggest FIFA Football community with two professional leagues (Electronic Sports League EPS and the World League eSport Bundesliga which is aired on the national TV-broadcaster Deutsches Sportfernsehen). Besides Germany, South Korea is a strong FIFA Football nation with 3 World Cyber Games titles. There are also leagues in South Korea like the Ongamenet FifaLeague that are televised. In 2006 prizes with a value of over a quarter million US-Dollar were handed out to professional FIFA gamers.
- Halo – Tactical Team FPS (Xbox)
The Halo series has a large impact on the national professional scene in the United States of America. See Major League Gaming for more information. This has also been picked up in Europe, with the European Gaming League hosting their first event at the end of July 2010 in Liverpool attracting 30 of Europe's biggest teams. Australia have also started their own leagues with the Australian Cyber League hosting their Pro Circuit with tournaments in several major cities in Australia.
- Quake 4 – DeathMatch FPS (1vs1, PC)
Played professionally in western society, there are a dozen professional players signed to a few professional teams and a number of players marketing themselves through other means. As of 2008, Quake 4 has fallen out of favor in competition for the previous game in the series Quake III Arena.
Four "world championships" took place using Quake 4 in the 2006 season. Most notable are those of the Electronic Sports World Cup and the World Series of Video Games as the game had a top tier status with these organizations, the game had the smallest status of all games played at the World Cyber Games and KODE5.
So far only the Electronic Sports World Cup has announced that they will be using Quake 4 again. It is generally expected that the World series of Video Games will do the same and it is also seen as a potential candidate for a top status game at the World Cyber Games.
- Street Fighter – Fighting (1vs1, Arcade, PS2)
Street Fighter series, The King of Fighters series, Mortal Kombat series, Marvel vs. Capcom series (also known as crossover or versus series), and Tekken series are amongst those fighting games played at a professional level. Popular tournaments have taken place in the whole world, primarily the Evolution Championship Series in the USA, TOOHON in South Korea, Tougeki - Super Battle Opera in Japan.
- StarCraft 2 – Real time strategy (PC)
Following the success of Starcraft as an e-sport, StarCraft 2 has become one of the most popular e-sports in the world. Hosted in South Korea, where Starcraft originally began to flourish as an e-sport, the GOMTV Global Starcraft II League (GSL) is generally acknowledged as the most prestigious StarCraft 2 tournament by the game's community and players.
Unlike its predecessor, which never found notable success as an e-sport outside of Korea, StarCraft 2 has become truly international. There have since been many leagues and e-sports organizations outside of Korea and across the world hosting StarCraft 2 tournaments, including the Team Liquid StarLeague (TSL), Major League Gaming (MLG), North American Star League (NASL), IGN Pro League (IPL), DreamHack, and the Intel Extreme Masters (IEM). As of July 2011, StarCraft 2 tournaments have paid out over $1.4 million USD in cash prizes.
- TrackMania Nations Forever – Racing (1vs1vs1vs1, PC)
TrackMania Nations ESWC released in January 2006, and was the first game to be conceived for a competition (Electronic Sports World Cup). The game permits players to create their own tracks. Except ESWC, the Electronic Sports League, Electronic Tournaments and the FuturTech Gaming League organize competitions on this game. In April 2008, a new version of the game, called TrackMania Nations Forever, released and added new features to the original game. The ESWC committee decided to use this new version for ESWC 2008. This game is downloadable free of charge and counts around 8,000 players at least on any moment. On esports, the game is most popular in Europe, especially in France, where the game was created.
ARTS games (Action Real Time Strategy)
- Defense of the Ancients - Dota (5v5, PC, Mac)
- Dota 2 - ARTS (5v5 PC, Mac)
- Heroes of Newerth - ARTS (5v5, PC, Mac, Linux)
- League of Legends - ARTS (5v5, PC, Mac)
The term ARTS was coined by Valve during its recent development of Dota 2 to better describe the genre. Defense of the Ancients, League of Legends (LoL) and Heroes of Newerth (HoN), are played professionally. All 3 games have been played at Dreamhack. The League of Legends Grand Finals was broadcasted live over the Internet where the winning team received $50,000. LoL has been added to the Intel Extreme Masters lineup for the 2011 Electronic Sports League season. Both LoL and DotA have been included in the World Cyber Games and DotA will also be included in ESWC. It was recently announced that HoN will be included in the second season of the North American Star League as a promotional title.
In September 2006 FUN Technologies held the first WorldWide Web Games for a $1 million prize. The competition had 71 contestants and featured the casual games Bejeweled 2, Solitaire, and Zuma. The champion was 21-year-old Kavitha Yalavarthi of Odessa, Texas. Some online games can be played using a variety of peripheral input devices that require physical activity. These include game cycles, bicycles both upright and recumbent, steppers like the Gamercize peripheral and treadmills. In March 2009 a new sort of computer video game (exergaming) peripheral was launched, the FootPOWR peripheral. Until this time the majority of electronic game competitions consisted of players using the mouse and select keyboard input for game play. The FootPOWR peripheral is quite versatile since each of the nine area of the item can be mapped to specific keys or mouse functions. Like other online game competitions it is difficult for those using activity-driven (exergaming) input devices to be certain they are playing in a similar fashion as others who may be using conventional mouse or keyboard input.
The main medium for electronic sports coverage is the Internet. Electronic sports websites generally focus on professional tournaments and the top level amateur games, leaving the other games to be covered by the leagues themselves or smaller game-specific community websites if at all.
Mainstream coverage in North America and Europe has increased, and more mainstream news websites are starting to regularly provide some coverage of the major events with occasional television coverage. One of the biggest contributors to the video game media coverage are professional video gamers such as Lil Poison and Fatal1ty.
In South Korea, electronic sports and events are regularly televised by dedicated 24-hour cable TV game channels Ongamenet and MBCGame. The most frequent games in South Korean electronic sports are the real-time strategy games StarCraft and Warcraft III. The South Korean scene is often cited as an example of popularised electronic sports by those who would like to see a similar level of popularity in the west.
In Germany, GIGA Television's majority of shows are covering e-sports. ESL TV was transformed into GIGA II in June 2006 but the concept failed and ESL TV was reintroduced in autumn 2007. ESL TV features e-sports only.
In the UK, XLEAGUE.TV broadcasts on SKY channel 208, showing both features on eSports and broadcasting matches from its online leagues and tournaments, which for the purpose of television shows, are shot from its studio rather than played online. This channel has ceased broadcasting as of 1 March 2009.
In France, Game One propose some e-sport matches in a show called "Arena Online" and is a partner of the Xfire Trophy, an invitational tournament. They broadcasted matches on games like Counter-Strike, Counter-Strike: Source, Command & Conquer 3: Tiberium Wars, and recently Call of Duty 4: Modern Warfare.
In the United States, gaming is seen on a variety of channels. ESPN has a show called Madden Nation, which shows gamers playing the Madden NFL game for Xbox 360. These players are competing for a cash prize. DirecTV shows live video game matches for the Championship Gaming Series. CBS aired footage of the 2007 World Series of Video Games tournament that was held in Louisville, Kentucky. G4 (TV channel) is dedicated to keeping viewers up to date on video games.
League name Game Country Since Global Warfighter League (GWL) Team Fortress 2, Combat Arms, Star Wars Battlefront 2, Red Orchestra 2, Battlefield 3, Call of Duty: Black Ops, any new game competition worthy. Also host events for gaming communities. North America/International 2003 Ongamenet Starleague (OSL) Starcraft Korea 2000 MBCgame Starleague (MSL) Starcraft Korea 2003 Proleague Starcraft Korea 2005 SIXAXIS Gaming COD4, Gran Turismo 5, FIFA '11, NBA 2K11, Killzone 3 Australia/New Zealand 2008 CyberGamer Left 4 Dead 2, Call of Duty, Counter-Strike: Source, StarCraft 2 Australia/NZ, North America 2007 Major League Gaming Halo: Reach, StarCraft II, Super Smash Bros. Brawl, Call of Duty: Black Ops, League of Legends, Gears of War 3 (Possible) North America 2003 Pro Gaming League Halo 3, Halo: Reach, NHL 11 North America ESL Extreme Masters Multiple. Changes occasionally. International 2007 ESL Major Series Multiple and not included in the "Extreme Masters" European 2007 ESL Pro Series Multiple. Changes occasionally. European 2002 European Team Fortress 2 League (ETF2L) Team Fortress 2 European 2004 NGL One Warcraft 3 and StarCraft 2 European Poznań Game Arena European 2004 ClanBase EuroCup European 2000 UKeSA Dell XPS Premiership United Kingdom National Professional Cybersport League Russia Evolution Championship Series Multiple. Changes per year North America 2003 Athens Gaming League CS:Source, CS 1.6, Call of Duty 4, PES, DotA Allstars Greece World Cyber Games Multiple. Changes per year International 2000 E-Sports Entertainment League International Cyber Evolution Counter-Strike, Counter-Strike: Source, Call of Duty, Team Fortress 2, Left 4 Dead International Tougeki – Super Battle Opera Multiple. Changes per year Japan 2003 Xtreme Professional League CS 1.6, CS:Source, COD4, America's Army, and more International 2003 Electronic Sports World Cup CS 1.6, Quake Live, WarCraft 3, Trackmania, NFS Shift, DotA, CS Female, Super Street Fighter IV, Guitar Hero 5, StarCraft II: Wings of Liberty International 2000 World e-Sports Games International Total Gaming League International GOMTV Global Starcraft II League (GSL) StarCraft II: Wings of Liberty Korea/International 2010 North American Star League (NASL) StarCraft II: Wings of Liberty North America/International 2011 iRacing.com World Championship Series Road Racing iRacing.com International 2009 iRacing.com NVIDIA Series iRacing.com International NASCAR iRacing.com Series iRacing.com International NASCAR iRacing.com World Championship Series iRacing.com International Formula SimRacing rFactor International Armaroli Sim Racing World Cup rFactor International Australian Cyber League (ACL) Halo: Reach, Call of Duty: Black Ops, FIFA 11, Marvel vs Capcom 3, Streetfighter IV, Super Smash Bros: Brawl, Super Smash Bros. Melee Australia/New Zealand 2009
- List of electronic sports players
Associations and governing bodies
- Cybersports & Online Gaming Association (Singapore) [SCOGA] (Singapore)
- International eSport Federation (International)
- eSport Verband Österreich (Austria)
- Belgian Electronic Sport Federation (Belgium)
- E-sport Denmark (Denmark)
- Deutscher eSport Bund (Germany)
- Nederlandse Electronic Sport Bond (Netherlands)
- Swiss E-sport Federation (Switzerland)
- Korea e-Sports Association [Kespa] (South Korea)
- Taiwan eSports League (Taiwan)
- United Kingdom eSports Association (United Kingdom)
- eSports Vietnam (Vietnam)
- Mind Sports South Africa (South Africa)
- Versus (Brazil)
- France Esport Console
- ^ PC PowerPlay Magazine 2003
- ^ GotFrag eSports - All Games News Story - TF2 Referees Wanted
- ^ a b Are video games a sport? | csmonitor.com
- ^ Cyberathlete Professional League » Sponsors
- ^ NES Player ()
- ^ GamePro Magazine, June 1994 ()
- ^ http://www.gamespot.com/features/6091348/p-7.html
- ^ http://www.netrek.org/about/wired_article.php
- ^ http://www.gotfrag.com/portal/story/29730/?spage=2
- ^ CPL: Game Informer
- ^ Cyberathlete Professional League » About Us
- ^ Electronic Sports World Cup (ESWC.COM)
- ^ About Major League Gaming | Major League Gaming
- ^ http://www.usanetwork.com/sports/mlg/
- ^ http://www.mlgpro.com/pro-circuit/2010/
- ^ http://www.sk-gaming.com/content/20050-Dreamhack_will_be_held_on_DotA_v657b
- ^ http://www.neutralcreeps.com/2010/11/heroes-of-newerth-dreamhack-winter-2010.html
- ^ http://www.gamepro.com/article/news/220622/league-of-legends-season-finale-draws-record-crowds/
- ^ http://fnatic.com/news/8954/FnaticMSI-LoL-jet-off-to-LA.html
- ^ http://www.sk-gaming.com/content/33716-IEM_Season_VI_announced_LoL_added
- ^ http://www.eswc.com/additional-rts-announcement
- ^ http://nasl.tv/News/Article/20110714nasl-and-hon-to-cooperate
- ^ GameSpot, September 11, 2006 ()
- ^ FootGaming, June 2009 ()
- ^ FootGaming World of Warcraft, June 2009 ()
- ^ a b League beginning for video gamers
- ^ ESPN - Madden Nation 3 - Tuesday Nights On ESPN 2 11:00 p.m. EST / 8:00 p.m. PST - Videogames
- ^ World Series of Video Games - CBS - TV - New York Times
- ^ G4 - About
Electronic sports competitions ProfessionalWorld Cyber Games · Electronic Sports World Cup · Championship Gaming Series · Tougeki – Super Battle Opera · Pro Gaming League · Major League Gaming · Cyberathlete Professional League · XLEAGUE.TV · World e-Sports Games · Evolution Championship Series · Starleague (Ongamenet) · Starleague (MBCgame) · World Series of Video Games · World League eSport Bundesliga · Intel Extreme Masters · GOMTV Global Starcraft II League · iRacing.com (NASCAR Series · NASCAR World Championship) Amateur Governing bodiesIeSF · UKeSA · KeSPA
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Electronic Sports World Cup — Logo des Electronic Sports World Cup Der Electronic Sports World Cup (ESWC) ist eine, mit Ausnahme von 2009, jährlich stattfindende E Sport Veranstaltung. Auf Grund ihrer Größe und der Höhe des Preisgeldes gilt sie als eine der bedeutendsten und… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Electronic Sports World Cup — Для улучшения этой статьи желательно?: Найти и оформить в виде сносок ссылки на авторитетные источники, подтверждающие написанное … Википедия
Electronic Sports World Cup — L Electronic Sports World Cup (ESWC) ou Coupe du monde des jeux vidéo est un évènement de sport électronique annuel qui rassemble les meilleures équipes du monde sur des jeux vidéo conçus ou adaptés aux confrontations entre joueurs. Venus de tous … Wikipédia en Français
Electronic Sports League — Официальный логотип ESL Electronic Sports League (дословно рус. Электронная спортивная лига; ESL; ранее ESPL) европейск … Википедия
Electronic Sports League — L’Electronic Sports League, Ligue de sport électronique en français (ESL, avant ESPL) est une ligue pour les joueurs de sport électronique. Fondée en 1997 sous le nom de Deutsche Clanliga DeCL, Ligue de Clan Allemande, elle est la ligue la plus… … Wikipédia en Français