Andaman and Nicobar Islands


Andaman and Nicobar Islands

Infobox Indian Jurisdiction
type = union territory
state_name = Andaman and Nicobar Islands
native_name = Andaman and
Nicobar Islands
base_

base_map_label = no
capital = Port Blair
largest_city = Port Blair
latd = 11.68
longd = 92.77
abbreviation = IN-AN
official_languages = Nicobarese, Bengali, English, Hindi,Tamil, Malayalam, Telugu
leader_title_1 = Lt. Governor
leader_name_1 = Lieutenant General Bhopinder Singh
established_date = 1956-11-01
area_total = 6496
area_rank = 27th
area_magnitude = 9
population_year = 2001
population_rank = 32
population_total = 356152
population_total_cite = 1
districts = 2
website = tourism.andaman.nic.in/


footnotes = Population data as per the Indian Census [ [http://www.censusindia.gov.in/ Indian Census] ] .

The Andaman & Nicobar Islands audio|Andaman.ogg|pronunciation is a union territory of India. Informally, the territory's name is often abbreviated to A & N Islands, or ANI. It is located in the Indian Ocean, in the southern reaches of the Bay of Bengal, near Myanmar and Indonesia. It comprises two island groups - the Andaman Islands and the Nicobar Islands - which separate the Andaman Sea to the east from the Indian Ocean. These two groups are separated by the 10° N parallel, the Andamans lying to the north of this latitude, and the Nicobars to the south. The capital of this territory is the Andamanese town of Port Blair.

The territory's population as per the most recent (2001) Census of India was 356,152. Added together, the total land area of the territory is approximately 6,496 km² or 2,508 sq mi.

History

First inhabitants

The Andaman and Nicobar islands have been inhabited for several thousand years, at the very least. The earliest archaeological evidence yet documented goes back some 2,200 years; however, the indications from genetic, cultural and linguistic isolation studies point to habitation going back 30,000 to 60,000 years, well into the Middle Paleolithic.

In the Andaman Islands, the various Andamanese peoples maintained their separated existence through the vast majority of this time, diversifying into distinct linguistic, cultural and territorial groups. By the 1850s when they first came into sustained contact by outside groups, the indigenous peoples of the Andamans were:
* the Great Andamanese, who collectively represented at least 10 distinct sub-groups and languages;
* the Jarawa;
* the Jangil (or "Rutland Jarawa");
* the Onge; and
* the Sentinelese (most isolated of all the groups).In total, these peoples numbered somewhere around 7,000 at the time of these first encounters. As the numbers of settlers from the mainland increased (at first mostly prisoners and involuntary indentured labourers, later purposely recruited farmers), these indigenous peoples lost territory and numbers in the face of land encroachment and the effects of various epidemic diseases. The Jangil and most of the Great Andamanese groups soon became extinct; presently there remain only approximately 400-450 indigenous Andamanese, the Jarawa and Sentinelese in particular maintaining a steadfast independence and refusing most attempts at contact.

The indigenous peoples of the Nicobars (unrelated to the Andamanese) have a similarly isolated and lengthy association with the islands. There are two main groups:
* the Nicobarese, or "Nicobari", living throughout many of the islands; and
* the Shompen, restricted to the interior of Great Nicobar.

Pre-colonial era

The islands provided a temporary maritime base for ships of the Marathas in the 17th century. The legendary admiral Kanhoji Angre harassed colonial shipping routes with a base in the islands.

British colonial period

After an initial attempt to set up a colony in the islands by the British was abandoned after only a few years (1789-1796), a second attempt from 1858 proved to be more permanent. The primary purpose was to set up a penal colony for dissenters and independence fighters from the Indian subcontinent.

The British used the islands as an isolated prison for members of the Indian independence movement. The mode of imprisonment was called "Kalapani". The Cellular Jail in Port Blair was regarded as the "Siberia" of British India.

The islands were administered as a Chief Commissioner's Province.

The British continued their occupancy until the Japanese Invasion and Occupation of the Andaman Islands during World War II.

Indian control

The islands were nominally put under the authority of the Arzi Hukumate Azad Hind of Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose. Netaji visited the islands during the war, and renamed them as "Shaheed" (Martyr) & "Swaraj" (Self-rule). General Loganathan, of the Indian National Army was made the Governor of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. On 22 February, 1944 he along with four INA officers-Major Mansoor Ali Alvi, Sub. Lt. Md. Iqbal, Lt. Suba Singh and stenographer Srinivasan arrived at Lambaline airport of Port Blair. On 21 March,1944 the Headquarters of the Civil Administration was established near the Gurudwara at Aberdeen Bazaar. On 2 October, 1944, Col. Loganathan handed over the charge to Maj. Alvi and left Port Blair, never to return. ["Black Days in Andaman and Nicobar Islands" by Rabin Roychowdhury, Pub. Manas Pubs. New Delhi]

At the independence of both India (1947) and Burma (1948), the departing British announced their intention to resettle all Anglo-Indians and Anglo-Burmese on the islands to form their own nation, although this never materialized. It became an Indian union territory (UT) in 1950.

Recent history

On 26 December 2004 the coasts of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands were devastated by a 10 metre high tsunami following the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake. At least 5,930 people (possibly an accurate estimate) were believed to have been killed on the Nicobar and Andaman Islands during the disaster. One of the worst affected island was Katchal.

While newer settlers of the islands suffered the greatest casualties from the tsunami, most of the aboriginal people survived because oral traditions passed down from generations ago warned them to evacuate from large waves that follow large earthquakes. [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/4181855.stm]

Recent earthquakes 20080628

http://earthquake.usgs.gov/eqcenter/recenteqsww/Quakes/us2008tvam.php

http://earthquake.usgs.gov/eqcenter/recenteqsww/Quakes/us2008tucd.php

http://earthquake.usgs.gov/eqcenter/recenteqsww/Quakes/us2008tvas.php

Geography

There are 572 islands in the territory, of which only some 38 are permanently inhabited. Most of the islands (about 550) are in the Andamans group, 26 of which are inhabited. The smaller Nicobars comprise some 22 main islands (10 inhabited). The Andamans and Nicobars are separated by a channel (the Ten Degree Channel) some 150 km wide.

The total area of the Andaman Islands is some 6,408 km²; that of the Nicobar Islands approximately 1,841 km².

Demographics

The major languages spoken in the Andamans in numerical order are Bengali, Hindi, Tamil, Nicobarese and Telugu. Other languages include Malayalam and English. [http://www.indax.com/basic.html INDAX - A comprehensive guide to India ] ] Majority of Andamans are Muslims as well a significant Cristian minority.

Flora

Andaman & Nicobar Islands are blessed with a unique tropical rainforest canopy, made of a mixed flora with elements from Indian, Myanmarese, Malaysian and endemic floral strains. So far, about 2,200 varieties of plants have been recorded, out of which 200 are endemic and 1,300 do not occur in mainland India.

The South Andaman forests have a profuse growth of epiphytic vegetation, mostly ferns and orchids. The Middle Andamans harbours mostly moist deciduous forests. North Andamans is characterised by the wet evergreen type, with plenty of woody climbers. The north Nicobar Islands (including Car Nicobar and Battimalv) are marked by the complete absence of evergreen forests, while such forests form the dominant vegetation in the central and southern islands of the Nicobar group. Grasslands occur only in the Nicobars, and while deciduous forests are common in the Andamans, they are almost absent in the Nicobars. The present forest coverage is claimed to be 86.2% of the total land area.

This atypical forest coverage is made-up of twelve types namely:
# Giant evergreen forest
# Andamans tropical evergreen forest
# Southern hilltop tropical evergreen forest
# Cane brakes
# Wet bamboo brakes
# Andamans semi-evergreen forest
# Andamans moist deciduous forest
# Andamans secondary moist deciduous forest
# Littoral forest
# Mangrove forest
# Brackish water mixed forest
# Submontane hill valley swamp forest

Timber

Andaman Forest abounds in a plethora of timber species numbering 200 or more, out of which about 30 varieties are considered to be commercial. Major commercial timber species are Gurjan (Dipterocarpus spp.) and Padauk (Pterocarpus dalbergioides). The following ornamental woods are noted for their pronounced grain formation:
# Marble Wood (Diospyros marmorata)
# Padauk (Pterocarpus dalbergioides)
# Silver Grey (a special formation of wood in white chuglam)
# Chooi (Sageraea elliptical)
# Kokko (Albizzia lebbeck)Padauk being sturdier than teak is widely used for furniture making.

Burr and the Buttress formation in Andaman Padauk are world famous for their exceptionally unique charm and figuring. The largest piece of Buttress known from Andaman was a dining table of 13' x 7'. The largest piece of Burr was again a dining table to seat eight persons at a time.

The holy Rudraksha (Elaeocarps sphaericus) and aromatic Dhoop/Resin trees also occur here.

Fauna

This tropical rain forest despite its isolation from adjacent land masses is surprisingly rich with a diversity of animal life.

Mammals

About 50 varieties of forest mammals are found to occur in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Some are endemic, including the Andaman Wild Boar. Rodents are the largest group with 26 species, followed by 14 species of bat. Among the larger mammals there are two endemicFact|Dec 2007|date=December 2007 varieties of wild boar, "Sus scrofa andamanensis" from Andaman and "S. s. nicobaricus" from Nicobar, which are protected by the Wildlife Protection Act 1972 (Sch I). The Spotted Deer "Axis axis", Barking Deer and Sambar were all introduced to the Andaman District, though the Sambar did not survive. Around 1962 there was an attempt to introduce the Leopard, which was unsuccessful because of unsuitable habitat. These were ill-considered moves as exotic introductions can cause havoc to island flora and fauna. Interview island (the largest wildlife sanctuary in the ANI) in Middle Andaman holds a population of feral elephants. These elephants were brought in for forest work by a timber company, which subsequently released them when it went bankrupt. This population has been subject to research studies.

Birds

ANI has also 270 species of birds (including endemics); the Nicobar island group has a higher endemicity than the Andamans and there are a total of 14 species endemic to ANI. The State Bird of the Andamans is the Andaman Wood pigeon. Some endemic birds of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands are:
* Andaman Hawk Owl
* Andaman Scops Owl
* Andaman Crake (a data deficient species [IUCN 2000] - endemic species
* Andaman Coucal, subspecies of Brown Coucal - endemic subspecies

Butterflies and moths

With about 225 species, the A&N Islands house some of the larger and most spectacular butterflies of the world. Ten species are endemic to these Islands. Mount Harriet National Park is one of the richest areas of butterfly and moth diversity on these Islands.

Shells

Shells are perhaps the most colourful and fascinating objects known to man other than gems since time immemorial. They served as money, ornaments, musical instruments, drinking cups, in magic and in the making of fine porcelains. They were also the symbols in rituals and religious observances, and the returning pilgrims wore them as a token of divine pardon.

These islands are traditionally known for their shell wealth, especially in the genera "Turbo", "Trochus", "Murex" and "Nautilus". Earliest recorded commercial exploitation began during 1929. Shells are important to these islands because some like turbo, trochus & nautilus etc. are used as novelties supporting many cottage industries producing a wide range of decorative items & ornaments. Shells such as giant clam, green mussel and oyster support edible shellfishery, a few like scallop, clam, and cockle are burnt in kilns to produce edible lime.

Economy

Agriculture

A total of 48,675 hectares of land is used for agriculture purposes. Paddy, the main food crop, is mostly cultivated in Andaman group of islands, whereas coconut and areca nut are the cash crops of Nicobar group of islands. Field crops, namely, pulses, oilseeds and vegetables are grown, followed by paddy during Rabi season. Different kinds of fruits such as mango, sapota, orange, banana, papaya, pineapple and root crops are grown on hilly land owned by farmers. Spices, viz., pepper, clove, nutmeg, and cinnamon are grown under multi-tier cropping system. Rubber, red oil, palm and cashew are grown on a limited scale in these islands.

Industry

There are 1,374 registered small scale, village and handicrafts units. Two units are export oriented in the line of fish processing activity. Apart from this, there are shell and wood based handicraft units. There are also four medium sized industrial units. SSI units are engaged in the production of polythene bags, PVC conduit pipes and fittings, paints and varnished, fibre glass and mini flour mills, soft drinks and beverages, etc. Small scale and handicraft units are also engaged in shell crafts, bakery products, rice milling, furniture making , etc. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands Integrated Development Corporation has spread its wings in the field of tourism, fisheries, industries and industrial financing and functions as authorised agents for Alliance Air/Jet Airways.

Macro-economic trend

This is a chart of trend of gross state domestic product of Andaman and Nicobar Islands at market prices [http://mospi.nic.in/mospi_nad_main.htm estimated] by "Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation" with figures in millions of Indian Rupees.

Andaman and Nicobar Islands' gross state domestic product for 2004 is estimated at $354 million in current prices.

See also

* 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake in India
* Andamanese languages
* Nicobarese languages
* Great Nicobar Biosphere Reserve
* Great Nicobar
* Endemic birds of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands

References

External links

* [http://www.and.nic.in/ Andaman & Nicobar Administration Web site]
* [http://tourism.andaman.nic.in/ Official Andaman & Nicobar Tourism Website]
*
*
* [http://timesfoundation.indiatimes.com/articleshow/1020219.cms/ Times Foundation - IndiaTimes]


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