Timeline of Argentine history


Timeline of Argentine history

This is a timeline of Argentine history. To read about the background to these events, see History of Argentina. See also List of Presidents of Argentina, Lists of office-holders and .

"This timeline is incomplete; some important events may be missing. Please help add to it."

5000 BC–1500 AD

*4000 BC Distinct nomadic cultures such as the Yámana emerged in the far south
*500 BC Irrigation permitted development of sedentary agriculture of staple crops in western and northwestern Andean region
*1 AD Several corn-based civilizations developed in the western and northwestern Andean region (Ansilta, Condorhuasi, Cienaga, Aguada, Santa Maria, Huarpes, Diaguitas, Sanavirones, among others)
*600 Development of metallurgical technologies, permitting elaborate bronzeworks
*850 Emergence of fortified urban settlements
*1480 The Inca Empire, under the rule of emperor Pachacutec, launched an offensive and conquered present-day northwestern Argentina, integrating it into a region called Collasuyu

1500s

*1516 Spanish navigator Juan Díaz de Solís first European explorer to visit Río de la Plata, on territory which is now Argentina; Díaz de Solís killed and supposedly cannibalised by native Charrúa, Querandí or Guaraní
*1526 Sebastian Cabot sailed up Paraná River and built short-lived fort near modern Rosario
*1536 "Santa María del Buen Ayre" founded by Pedro de Mendoza on site of modern Buenos Aires
*1541 Santa María del Buen Ayre settlement abandoned after indigenous attacks
*1553 Santiago del Estero founded by Francisco de Aguirre (some claim 1550)
*1561 Mendoza founded
*1562 San Juan founded
*1573 Córdoba and Santa Fe founded
*1580 Permanent colony re-established by Spain on the site of Buenos Aires as part of the Viceroyalty of Peru; initial settlement was primarily overland from Peru
*1582 Salta founded
*1591 La Rioja founded
*1593 San Salvador de Jujuy founded

1600s

*1609 First Jesuit missions to the Guaraní founded in the Upper Paraná area
*1622 University of Córdoba founded by Jesuits
*1657 Diaguita rebellion led by Spanish rebel, Pedro Bohórquez
*1661 San Ignacio school in Córdoba founded by Jesuits
*1685 City of Tucumán moved to present location

1700s

*1767 Jesuits expelled from Spanish territories
*1776 Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata ("Virreinato del Río de la Plata") comprising today's Argentina, Uruguay, and Paraguay, as well as much of present-day Bolivia, declared with Buenos Aires as its capital

1800–1825

*1806, 1807 British invasions of the Río de la Plata unsuccessfully attempt to establish control over Spain's southern colonies as part of the Napoleonic Wars. Spanish troops offer no defence but British repelled by local civilians and militias
*1810
** May 1810 - News of Napoleon's invasion of Spain caused a power vacuum in Buenos Aires leading to a series of events known as the May Revolution:
**Secret meetings in May 1810 organised a petition for an open meeting - "Cabildo Abierto"
**The petition was refused by viceroy Baltasar Hidalgo de Cisneros but popular protest forced his hand on 22 May.
**The "Cabildo" opened its session on 22 May with 251 of the city's most prominent citizens, and discussed the future government of the provinces
**On 23 May the assembly voted for the removal of the viceroy and the creation of the Primera Junta of locals to govern Buenos Aires, proclaiming loyalty to Ferdinand VII. This was properly agreed and the Junta sworn in on 25 May
**December 1810 Junta Grande, with delegates from other provinces of the United Provinces of the River Plate, replaced Primera Junta
*1810-11 Unsuccessful military campaigns in Paraguay and Alto Perú failed to gather support for joint action by the entire viceroyalty against Spanish forces
*1811 First Triumvirate of Feliciano Chiclana, Juan José Paso and Manuel de Sarratea replaced Junta Grande in September 1811
*1812
**The Jujuy Exodus of August 1812 was led by Manuel Belgrano, with several thousand soldiers and civilians retreating from Jujuy and Salta, to avoid military defeat and defections
**Second Triumvirate of Nicolás Rodriguez Peña, Antonio Álvarez Jonte and Juan José Paso replaced First Triumvirate
*1813
**The Battle of San Lorenzo in February first full battle of the Argentine War of Independence
**The "Asamblea del año XIII called in February to plan further military campaigns and organise defence of Buenos Aires
*1814
**Action of 14 May 1814 saw United Provinces' fleet defeat Spanish navy securing coast
**Second Triumvirate replaced by position of Supreme Director, first occupied by Gervasio Antonio de Posadas
*1815 Defeats in battles in late 1815 led to final loss of modern Bolivia
*1816
**In March an assembly of provincial delegates met as the Congress of Tucumán to discuss future military and political developments
**On 9 July 1816, the Congress declared the independence of Argentina
*1820 The Battle of Cepeda took place between Unitarians who supported a strong centralised state, and Federals, largely provincial "caudillo" warlords who wanted decentralised authority. The Federals won and the February 1820 Treaty of Pilar declared Argentina as a federal country, although Unitarian ideals continued

1825–1900

*1825 The United Kingdom recognises Argentine independence.
*1825 Deputies from the eastern bank of the Río de la Plata declare independence from Brazil, leading to the Argentina-Brazil War. The 1827 Battle of Ituzaingó saw tactical success for Argentina. The war ended in 1828 with a treaty giving independence to Uruguay
*1829 Juan Manuel de Rosas became governor of Buenos Aires Province
*1830 Yaghan aboriginal Jemmy Button (Orundellico) taken from Tierra del Fuego to England by Robert FitzRoy on "HMS Beagle"
*1831 Pacto Federal signed between provinces to protect federal nature of country
*1831-1834 The Voyage of the Beagle with Charles Darwin and Robert FitzRoy visited the Río de la Plata, Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego
*1831 Argentine Governor of the Falkland Islands Luis Vernet is expelled by "USS Lexington" following his seizure of United States interests. New governor murdered in 1832 mutiny
*1833 Argentine state launches a campaign of genocide against the aboriginal peoples under the command of Juan Manuel de Rosas
*1833 British forces re-occupy the Falkland Islands
*1859 Rosas made Supreme Chief of the Argentine Confederation
*1852 Rosas overthrown by Justo José de Urquiza following Battle of Caseros
*:Signature of the San Nicolás Agreement between all provinces but Buenos Aires, Urquiza named Supreme Director
*1853 Constitution of Argentina agreed by assembly in Santa Fe, creating modern system of government
*1854 Urquiza became first President of Argentina in modern sense but opposed by Buenos Aires, still opposed to federal project
*1859 Defeat of Unitarian forces led by Bartolomé Mitre by Urquiza and federals at Battle of Cepeda; Buenos Aires re-enters confederation
*1861 Mendoza earthquake kills 8,000 to 10,000 citizens of Mendoza
*1864 Start of War of the Triple Alliance between Paraguay and the Triple Alliance of Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay, leading to utter defeat of Paraguay by 1870
*1878 Commencement of the genocidal Conquest of the Desert against indigenous inhabitants of the south led by Julio Argentino Roca; final surrender by 1884
*1880 Roca became president, finally defeated federals and moved capital to Buenos Aires from Rosario
*1890 Founding of the Radical Civic Union (UCR) or Radical Party
*1890 The Panic of 1890 brought the Baring Brothers bank in London close to collapse after disastrous investments in Argentina
*1895 Mandatory military service (Conscription) established

1900s

*1912 Sáenz Peña Law introduces universal, secret and compulsory male suffrage, end of the Generation of '80
*1914 Start of presidency of Hipólito Yrigoyen, UCR democratic reformist
*1918 Students strikes and demonstrations enforce the university reform of shared powers between teachers, graduates and students
*1927 Fabrica Militar de Aviones aircraft factory founded in Cordoba
*1930 Military coup deposed Yrigoyen, starting the 'Infamous Decade'
*1931 General Agustín Justo declared winner of Presidency following 'patriotic fraud' in election
*1943 'National Revolution' led by nationalist military officers including Colonel Juan Perón; ensured continued non-intervention in World War II
*1944 San Juan earthquake destroys provincial capital, kills 10,000
*1945 Argentina enters World War II on the side of the Allies and admitted as founding member of United Nations
*1945 Perón arrested then freed after major popular protest by those known as the "Descamisados"
*1946 Perón elected President; re-elected to presidency in 1951
*1946 Indigenous people march in Malón de la Paz to Buenos Aires to demand land rights
*1947 Women's suffrage is approved
*1950 First flight of the FMA IAe 33 Pulqui II, the first jet fighter to be entirely developed and built in Latin America and the 6th in the World.
*1950 The National Atomic Energy Commission ("Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica", CNEA) is founded
*1952 Death of Eva Perón
*1955 Perón ousted in 'Liberating Revolution' military coup
*1956 INTA, the National Agricultural Technology Institute, is created
*1957 INTI, the National Industrial Technology Institute, is created
*1958 ARA Independencia, the first aircraft carrier of the Argentine Navy enter service
*1962 Military coup ended presidency of civilian Arturo Frondizi
*1966 General Juan Carlos Onganía assumed power and represses political parties
*1967 Death of Ernesto 'Che' Guevara
*1969 In the Cordobazo popular protests of May 1969, thousands of citizens routed the army and police and took control of Córdoba for two days
*1969 A counter-insurgency aircraft, the FMA IA 58 Pucará, flies for the first time
*1969 Aircraft carrier ARA Veinticinco de Mayo replaces ARA Independencia
*1970 General Alejandro Lanusse emerged as President after Onganía toppled
*1970-76 Civil conflict and terrorist attacks, principally by left-wing "Montoneros" and "Ejercito Revolucionario del Pueblo" opposed by paramilitary Argentine Anticommunist Alliance
*1973 The Ezeiza massacre takes place upon Perón's return from exile, when members of the Triple A open fire on the crowd awaiting him.
*1973 Democratic elections brought Peronist Héctor Cámpora to power; Perón elected president in fresh elections later that year
*1974 Atucha I nuclear power plant, the first nuclear power plant in Latin America, began operation
*1974 Perón died, leaving widow Isabel Martínez de Perón as president
*1976 Military coup in March deposed Martínez de Perón
*1976 The high-technology company INVAP is created
*1976-1983 The Proceso de Reorganización Nacional military government led by Jorge Vileda repressed political and armed opposition through use of torture, forced disappearance and extra-judicial killing up of to 30,000 people
*1978 Argentina hosted and won the 1978 Football World Cup
*1978 Argentina refused the binding Beagle Channel Arbitration and started the Operation Soberania in order to invade Chile
*1982 Leader General Leopoldo Galtieri sent troops to the Falkland Islands triggering Falklands War; British task force retook islands by mid-June
*1983 Military government collapsed; election of Radical Raúl Alfonsín as president
*1984 The Treaty of Peace and Friendship of 1984 between Chile and Argentina ends border dispute over Picton,Nueva and Lennox islands
*1984 Embalse nuclear power plant began operations
*1984 The trainer aircraft FMA IA 63 Pampa flight for the first time.
*1985 "La Historia Oficial" film won the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film
*1986 Argentina wins 1986 Football World Cup, captained by Diego Maradona
*1987 First uprising by "Carapintadas", commanded by Colonel Aldo Rico, two arrested. Alfonsín delares "La casa está en orden" (The house is in order)
*1988 Second "Carapintada" revolt, again under Rico's command in January, 300 arrested
*1988 Third and last "Carapintada" uprising, led by Mohammed Alí Seineldín, two arrested
*1989 Dissident military group attacks "La Tablada" regiment, but are finally seized
*1989 Hyper-inflation and political turmoil brings Peronist Carlos Menem to power in election
*1990-1999 Neo-liberal economic policies and privatisations brought general strikes, hunger strikes and political party realignments
*1991 Peso pegged to US Dollar
*1991 Argentina is the only Latin American country to participate in the first Gulf War under mandate of the United Nations
*1991 Mercosur customs union founded by the Treaty of Asunción
*1991 Argentina, Brazil and Chile signed the Mendoza Declaration prohibiting Chemical Weapons
*1992 Israeli Embassy attack in Buenos Aires killed 29 in terrorist attack
*1993 Argentina joins UNFICYP mission at Cyprus. As of 2006, ground troops and helicopters are serving there and since 1999 have other Latin American countries troops embedded.
*1994 Following the Pacto de Olivos, the constitution reform is agreed, allowing Presidents to serve second consecutive term
*1994 Bombing of AMIA Jewish Community Centre in Buenos Aires, killing 85
*1994 The murder of Conscript Omar Carrasco led to the abolition of Conscription
*1995 Menem won second term
*1995 Argentina acceded to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
*1995 FMA privatized into Lockheed Martin Aircraft Argentina
*1996 Radical Fernando de la Rúa elected first Mayor of Buenos Aires
*1997 Radicals, left-wing FrePaSo and others joined forces as "Alianza" electoral alliance to oppose Menem and Peronists
*1997 The A-4AR Fightinghawk enter service in the Argentine Air Force
*1998 U.S. President Bill Clinton designated Argentina as a major non-NATO ally
*1999 De la Rúa won Presidency as head of the Alianza, but was confronted by growing economic crisis
*1999 In one of the worst accidents in the history of Argentinian aviation, LAPA flight 3142 crash at Aeroparque Jorge Newbery airport resulted in 65 fatalities.

ince 2000

[


thumb|200px|right|Néstor Kirchner]
*2000 Hitech company INVAP is chosen by Australia to design and construct the OPAL nuclear reactor
*2000 Vice-President Carlos Álvarez resigned in protest political bribes scandal, precipitating crisis in ruling alliance
*2001 In March, the remaining FrePaSo ministers resigned from government in protest at economic and labour reforms
*2001 In November, the government responded to a run on banks by limiting access to bank deposits in the "corralito"
*2001 In December, events that have become known as the "Argentinazo" took place:
**middle classes, exasperated with constraints of "corralito", took to streets in protest in the "Cacerolazo"
**Trade unions and "piqueteros" began protests, and shops and businesses were ransacked
**Violent protests and mass demonstrations in the Plaza de Mayo; 26 die in protests nationwide
**Finance minister Domingo Cavallo and President de la Rúa resigned in quick succession on 19 and 20 December
**Provincial governor Adolfo Rodríguez Saá appointed president by Argentine Congress on 22 December
**Rodríguez Saá declared a short-lived debt moratorium. After a few days, Argentina officially defaulted on $93 billion of its debt to the International Monetary Fund and creditors
**Rodríguez Saá resigned after a week following lack of support from colleagues
**Eduardo Duhalde, losing candidate in the 1999 presidential elections, appointed president with broad cross-party support
*2002 Duhalde imposes further financial measures, including converting dollar accounts to pesos, scrapping 1:1 parity with the dollar, and social measures to bring economy under control
*2003 Former President Carlos Menem wins first round of presidential election but pulls out facing certain defeat, handing victory to fellow Peronist Néstor Kirchner
*2004 In April more than 100,000 people demonstrated in Buenos Aires in support of Juan Carlos Blumberg, father of murdered student Axel Blumberg, demanding harsher criminal laws
*2004 Kirchner pursued Argentine debt restructuring
*2004 Natural gas supply shortage produced tension with Chile
*2004 Antarctic Treaty Secretariat established in Buenos Aires
*2004 A fire in the República Cromagnon nightclub in Buenos Aires kills 194 people and injures 714
*2005 Relations between Catholic Church and government broke down in February row between military chaplain and minister over abortion
*2005 Supreme Court overruled 'Laws of Pardon' that were used to pardon military figures of the Dirty War
*2005 First disputes of the Cellulose plant conflict between Argentina and Uruguay
*2005 Mid-term elections in October saw a massive split in the Justicialist Party between Kirchner's centre-left Front for Victory faction and the rump of his former patron Duhalde and other provincial leaders; Front for Victory wins by large margin
*2005 Massive demonstrations against U.S. President George W. Bush at the Fourth Summit of the Americas in Mar del Plata
*2005 In December, Kirchner announced cancellation of IMF debt with single, final payment
*2006 Buenos Aires mayor Aníbal Ibarra removed from office following accusations of negligence regarding the República Cromagnon nightclub fire of 2004
*2007 Catholic priest Christian Von Wernich is found guilty of involvement in seven murders and 42 cases of kidnapping and torture related to the state-sponsored Dirty War. Von Wernich is sentenced to life imprisonment.
*2007 Cristina Kirchner assumes as new president of Argentina.

ee also

*Historical exchange rates of Argentine currency

References

*López Levy, Marcela, 2004. "We are Millions: Neo-liberalism and new forms of political action in Argentina", Latin America Bureau, London. ISBN 1-899365-63-X
*Nouzeilles, Gabriela and Montaldo, Graciela (eds), 2002. "The Argentina Reader: History, Culture, Politics", Duke University Press, Durham and London. ISBN 0-8223-2914-X


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