- Srinivasa Ramanujan
Infobox_Scientist

name=Srinivasa Ramanujan

thumb|Srinivasa_Ramanujan

birth_date = birth date|1887|12|22|df=y

birth_place =Erode ,Tamil Nadu , India

death_date = death date and age|1920|4|26|1887|12|22|df=y

death_place =Chetput , (Madras),Tamil Nadu , India

residence = , UK

field =Mathematician

alma_mater =Trinity College, Cambridge

academic_advisors =G. H. Hardy and J. E. Littlewood

known_for =Landau-Ramanujan constant Mock theta function sRamanujan prime Ramanujan-Soldner constant Ramanujan theta function Ramanujan's sum Rogers-Ramanujan identities

religion =Hindu **transl|ta|ISO|Srīnivāsa Rāmāṇujaṇ**FRS ( _ta. ஸ்ரீநிவாச ராமானுஜன்) (22 December 1887 – 26 April 1920) was an Indianmathematician .cite web

url=http://www.las.uiuc.edu/alumni/news/fall2006/06fall_lostnotebook.html|title=Raiders of the Lost Notebook|accessdate=2007-06-22|last=Peterson|first=Doug|publisher=UIUC College of Liberal Arts and Sciences ] With almost no formal training inpure mathematics , he made substantial contributions in the areas ofmathematical analysis ,number theory ,infinite series andcontinued fraction s.Born and raised in

Erode ,Tamil Nadu , India, Ramanujan first encountered formal mathematics at age ten. He demonstrated a natural ability, and was given books on advancedtrigonometry by S. L. Loney. [*cite book |last=Berndt |first=Bruce C. |title= Ramanujan: Essays and Surveys|year= 2001 |publisher=*] He had mastered them by age thirteen, and even discovered theorems of his own. He demonstrated unusual mathematical skills at school, winning accolades and awards. By the age of seventeen, he was conducting his own mathematical research onAmerican Mathematical Society |location=Providence, Rhode Island|isbn= 0-8218-2624-7 | pages=p9Bernoulli number s and theEuler–Mascheroni constant . He received a scholarship to study at Government College inKumbakonam , but lost it when he failed his non-mathematical coursework. He joined another college to pursue independent mathematical research, working as a clerk in the Accountant-General's office at the Madras Port Trust Office to support himself. In 1912-1913, he sent samples of his theorems to three academicians at theUniversity of Cambridge . OnlyG. H. Hardy recognized the brilliance of his work, and he asked Ramanujan to study under him at Cambridge.Ramanujan independently compiled nearly 3900 results (mostly identities and

equation s) during his short lifetime. [*cite book |last=Berndt |first=Bruce C. |title= Ramanujan's Notebooks Part V|year= 2005 |publisher= SpringerLink |isbn= 0-387-94941-0 | pages=p4*] Although a small number of these results were actually false and some were already known, most of his claims have now been proven to be correct. [*cite journal |year=1999 |month=August |title=Rediscovering Ramanujan |journal= Frontline|volume=16 |issue=17 |pages=650|url=http://www.hinduonnet.com/fline/fl1617/16170810.htm |accessdate=2007-06-23*] He stated results that were both original and highly unconventional, such as theRamanujan prime and theRamanujan theta function , and these have inspired a vast amount of further research. [*cite journal |last=Ono |first= Ken|authorlink=Ken Ono |year=2006 |month=June-July |title=Honoring a Gift from Kumbakonam |journal=*] However, some of his major discoveries have been rather slow to enter the mathematical mainstream. Recently, Ramanujan's formulae have found applications in the field ofNotices of the American Mathematical Society |volume=53 |issue=6 |pages=650|url=http://www.ams.org/notices/200606/fea-ono.pdf |accessdate=2007-06-23 |doi=10.2307/2589114crystallography and instring theory . The "Ramanujan Journal", an international publication, was launched to publish work in all the areas of mathematics that were influenced by his work. [*cite book | last=Alladi | first=Krishnaswami | title=Analytic and Elementary Number Theory: A Tribute to Mathematical Legend Paul Erdös| publisher=Kluwer Academic Publishers | location=Norwell, Massachusetts | year = 1998|isbn=0-7923-8273-0 | pages=p6*]**Biography****Early life**Ramanujan was born on 22 December 1887 in

Erode ,Tamil Nadu , India, at the place of residence of his maternal grandparents. [*cite book | last=Kanigel | first=Robert | title=| publisher=*] His father, K. Srinivasa Iyengar worked as a clerk in a sari shop and hailed from the district ofCharles Scribner's Sons | location=New York | year = 1991|isbn=0-684-19259-4 | pages=p11Thanjavur . [*Kanigel (1991), p17-18.*] His mother, Komalatammal or Komal Ammal ( Ammal in Tamil is equivalent of Madam in English or Frau in German) was a housewife and also a singer at a local temple. They lived in Sarangapani Street in a south-Indian-style home (now a museum) in the town of Kumbakonam. When Ramanujan was a year and a half old, his mother gave birth to a son named Sadagopan. The newborn died less than three months later. In December 1889, Ramanujan hadsmallpox and fortunately recovered, unlike the thousands in theThanjavur district who had succumbed to the disease that year.Kanigel (1991), p12.] He moved with his mother to her parents' house inKanchipuram , nearMadras . In November 1891, and again in 1894, his mother gave birth, but both children died before their first birthdays.On 1 October 1892, Ramanujan was enrolled at the local school. [

*Kanigel (1991), p13.*] In March 1894, he was moved to a Telugu medium school. After his maternal grandfather lost his job as a court official in Kanchipuram, [*Kanigel (1991), p19.*] Ramanujan and his mother moved back to Kumbakonam and he was enrolled in the Kangayan Primary School.Kanigel (1991), p14.] After his paternal grandfather died, he was sent back to his maternal grandparents, who were now living in Madras. He did not like school in Madras, and he tried to avoid going to school. His family enlisted a local constable to make sure he would stay in school. Within six months, Ramanujan was back in Kumbakonam again.Since Ramanujan's father was at work most of the day, his mother took care of him as a child. He had a close relationship with her. From her, he learned about tradition and

puranas . He learned to sing religious songs, to attend pujas at the temple and eating habits – all of which were necessary for Ramanujan to be a goodBrahmin child. [*Kanigel (1991), p20.*] At the Kangayan Primary School, Ramanujan performed well. Just before the age of ten, in November 1897, he passed his primary examinations in English, Tamil,geography andarithmetic . With his scores, he finished first in the district. [*Kanigel (1991), p25.*] In 1898, his mother gave birth to a healthy boy named Lakshmi Narasimhan. That year, Ramanujan entered Town Higher Secondary School where he encountered formal mathematics for the first time. [*Kanigel (1991), p25.*]By age eleven, he had exhausted the mathematical knowledge of two college students, who were lodgers at his home. He was later lent a book on advanced trigonometry written by S.L. Loney. [

*cite book | last=Hardy | first=G. H. |authorlinks=*] [G. H. Hardy | title=Ramanujan: Twelve Lectures on Subjects Suggested by His Life and Work| publisher=American Mathematical Society | location=Providence, Rhode Island | year = 1999|isbn=0-8218-2023-0 | pages=p2*cite book | last=Berndt | first=Bruce C. |authorlinks=*] He completely mastered this book by the age of thirteen and he discovered sophisticated theorems on his own. By fourteen, he achieved merit certificates and academic awards throughout his school career and also assisted the school in theBruce C. Berndt |coauthors=Robert A. Rankin| title=Ramanujan: Essays and Surveys| publisher=American Mathematical Society | location=Providence, Rhode Island | year = 2001|isbn=0-8218-2624-7 | pages=p9logistics of assigning its 1200 students (each with their own needs) to its 35-odd teachers.Kanigel (1991), p27.] He completed mathematical exams in half the allotted time, and showed a familiarity withinfinite series . When he was sixteen, Ramanujan came across the book, "A synopsis of elementary results in pure and applied mathematics" written byGeorge S. Carr . [*Kanigel (1991), p39.*] This book was a collection of 5000 theorems, and it introduced Ramanujan to the world of mathematics. The next year, he had independently developed and investigated theBernoulli number s and had calculated Euler's constant up to 15 decimal places. [*Kanigel (1991), p90.*] His peers of the time commented that they "rarely understood him" and "stood in respectful awe" of him.When he graduated from Town High in 1904, Ramanujan was awarded the K. Ranganatha Rao prize for mathematics by the school's headmaster, Krishnaswami Iyer. Iyer introduced Ramanujan as an outstanding student who deserved scores higher than the maximum possible marks. He received a scholarship to study at Government College in

Kumbakonam , [*Kanigel (1991), p28.*] known as the "Cambridge of South India." [*Kanigel (1991), p45.*] However, Ramanujan was so intent on studying mathematics that he could not focus on any other subjects and failed most of them, losing his scholarship in the process. [*Kanigel (1991), p47.*] In August 1905, he ran away from home, heading towardsVisakhapatnam . [*Kanigel (1991), p48-49.*] He later enrolled atPachaiyappa's College in Madras. He again excelled in mathematics, but performed poorly in other subjects such asphysiology . Ramanujan failed his F. A. degree exam in December 1906 and again a year later. Without a degree, he left college and continued to pursue independent research in mathematics. At this point in his life, he lived in extreme poverty and was often near the point ofstarvation . [*Kanigel (1991), p55-56.*]**Adulthood in India**On 14 July 1909, Ramanujan was married to a nine-year old bride, Janaki Ammal. [

*Kanigel (1991), p71.*] It is important to note that in this particular sect that Ramanujan belonged to, marriage was a formal engagement that was actually consummated only after the bride turned 17-18, as per the traditional calendar. After the marriage, Ramanujan developed ahydrocele testis , an abnormal swelling of thetunica vaginalis , an internal membrane in the testicle. [*Kanigel (1991), p72.*] The condition could be treated with a routine surgical operation that would release the blocked fluid in the scrotal sac. His family did not have the money for the operation, but in January 1910, a doctor volunteered to do the surgery for free. [*cite book |last=Ramanujan|first=Srinivasa|editor = P. K. Srinivasan |title= Ramanujan Memorial Number: Letters and Reminiscences |year= 1968|publisher= Muthialpet High School |location=Madras|isbn= | pages=Vol. 1, p100*] After his successful surgery, Ramanujan searched for a job. He stayed at friends' houses while he was travelling door to door around the city of Madras (now Chennai) looking for a clerical position. To make some money, he tutored some students at Presidency College who were preparing for their F. A. exam. [*Kanigel (1991), p73.*] In late 1910, Ramanujan was sick again, possibly as a result of the surgery earlier in the year. He was fearful for his health, and he even told his friend, R. Radakrishna Iyer, to "hand these [my mathematical notebooks] over to Professor Singaravelu Mudaliar [mathematics professor at Pachaiyappa's College] or to the British professor Edward B. Ross, of theMadras Christian College ." [*Kanigel (1991), p74-75.*] After Ramanujan recovered and got back his notebooks from Iyer, he took a northbound train from Kumbakonam to Villupuram, a coastal city under French control. [*cite book |last=Ranganathan|first=S. R. |title=Ramanujan: The Man and the Mathematician |year= 1967|publisher=Asia Publishing House |location=Bombay|isbn= | pages=p23*] [*Srinivasan (1968), Vol. 1, p99.*]**Getting noticed by mathematicians**He met deputy collector V. Ramaswami Iyer who had recently founded the Indian Mathematical Society.Kanigel (1991), p77.] Ramanujan, wishing for a job at the revenue department where Iyer worked, showed him his mathematics notebooks. As Iyer later recalled:

I was struck by the extraordinary mathematical results contained in it [the notebooks] . I had no mind to smother his genius by an appointment in the lowest rungs of the revenue department." [

Iyer sent Ramanujan, with introduction letters, to his mathematical friends in Madras. Some of these friends looked at his work and gave him letters of introduction to R. Ramachandra Rao, the district collector for*Srinivasan (1968), Vol. 1, p129.*]Nellore and the secretary of the Indian Mathematical Society. [*Srinivasan (1968), Vol. 1, p86.*] [*cite journal |last=Neville |first=Eric Harold |year=1921|month=January |title=The Late Srinivasa Ramanujan |journal=Nature|volume=106 |issue=2673 |pages=661–662 |accessdate= 2007-06-29 |doi=10.1038/106661b0*] [*Ranganathan (1967), p24.*] Ramachandra Rao impressed by Ramanujan's work, but was doubtful that it was actually his own work. Ramanujan mentioned a correspondence he had with Professor Saldhana, a notable Bombay (nowMumbai ) mathematician, in which Saldhana expressed a lack of understanding for his work, but concluded that he was not a phony.Kanigel (1991), p80.] Ramanujan's friend, C. V. Rajagopalachari, persisted with Ramachandra Rao and tried to quell any doubts over Ramanujan's academic morality. Rao agreed to give him another chance, and he listened as Ramanujan discussedelliptic integral s,hypergeometric series , and his theory ofdivergent series which Rao said ultimately "converted me" to believe Ramanujan's mathematical brilliance. Rao asked him what he wanted, and Ramanujan replied that he needed some work and financial support. Rao consented and sent him to Madras. He continued his mathematical research with Rao's financial aid supporting his daily needs. Ramanujan, with the help of Ramaswami Iyer, had his work published in the "Journal of Indian Mathematical Society". [*Kanigel (1991), p86.*]One of the first problems he posed in the journal was:

: $sqrt\{1+2sqrt\{1+3\; sqrt\{1+cdots\}.$

He waited for a solution to be offered in three issues, over six months, but failed to receive any. At the end, Ramanujan supplied the solution to the problem himself. On page 105 of his first notebook, he formulated an equation that could be used to solve the infinitely

nested radical s problem.: $x+n+a\; =\; sqrt\{ax+(n+a)^2\; +xsqrt\{a(x+n)+(n+a)^2+(x+n)\; sqrtmathrm\{cdots\}$

Using this equation, the answer to the question posed in the "Journal" was simply 3. [

*Kanigel (1991), p87.*] Ramanujan wrote his first formal paper for the "Journal" on the properties ofBernoulli number s. One property he discovered was that the denominators (sequence [*http://www.research.att.com/cgi-bin/access.cgi/as/njas/sequences/eisA.cgi?Anum=A027642 A027642*] in OEIS) of the fractions of Bernoulli numbers were always divisible by six. He also devised a method of calculating "B"_{"n"}based on previous Bernoulli numbers. One of these methods went as follows:It will be observed that if "n" is even but not equal to zero,

(i) "B"_{"n"}is a fraction and the numerator of $\{B\_n\; over\; n\}$ in its lowest terms is a prime number,

(ii) the denominator of "B"_{"n"}contains each of the factors 2 and 3 once and only once,

(iii) $2^n(2^n-1)\{b\_n\; over\; n\}$ is an integer and $2(2^n-1)B\_n,$ consequently is an "odd" integer.In "Some Properties of Bernoulli's Numbers", Ramanujan gave three proofs, two corollaries and three conjectures in his 17–page paper. [

*Kanigel (1991), p91.*] Ramanujan's writing initially had many flaws. As "Journal" editor M. T. Narayana Iyengar noted:Mr. Ramanujan's methods were so terse and novel and his presentation so lacking in clearness and precision, that the ordinary [mathematical reader] , unaccustomed to such intellectual gymnastics, could hardly follow him. [

Ramanujan later wrote another paper and also continued to provide problems in the "Journal". [*cite journal |last=Seshu Iyer |first=P. V. |year=1920|month=June |title=The Late Mr. S. Ramanujan, B.A., F.R.S.|journal=Journal of the Indian Mathematical Society|volume=12 |issue=3 |pages=83 |accessdate= 2007-06-29*]*Neville (March 1942), p292.*] In early 1912, he got a temporary job in the MadrasAccountant General 's office, with a 20 rupee/month salary. He kept the job for only a few weeks. [*Srinivasan (1968), p176.*] Towards the end of his job at the Account General's office, he applied for a job under the Chief Account of the Madras Port Trust. In a letter dated "9 February 1912", Ramanujan wrote:Sir,

Attached to his application was a recommendation from E. W. Middlemast, a mathematics professor at the Presidence College who wrote that Ramanujan was "a young man of quite exceptional capacity in Mathematics." [

I understand there is a clerkship vacant in your office, and I beg to apply for the same. I have passed the Matriculation Examination and studied up to the F.A. but was prevented from pursuing my studies further owing to several untoward circumstances. I have, however, been devoting all my time to Mathematics and developing the subject. I can say I am quite confident I can do justice to my work if I am appointed to the post. I therefore beg to request that you will be good enough to confer the appointment on me. [*Srinivasan (1968), p31.*]*Srinivasan (1968), p49.*] Three weeks after he had applied, on 1 March, Ramanujan learned that he was accepted for a job as a Class III, Grade IV accounting clerk, making thirty rupees per month. [*Kanigel (1991), p96.*] At his office, Ramanujan easily and quickly completed the work he was given, so he spent his spare time doing his mathematical research. Ramanujan's boss, Sir Francis Spring, and S. Narayana Iyer, a colleague who was also treasurer of the Indian Mathematical Society, encouraged Ramanujan in his mathematical pursuits.**Contacting English mathematicians**Spring, Narayana Iyer, Ramachandra Rao and E. W. Middlemast tried to expose Ramanujan's work to British mathematicians. One mathematician, M. J. M. Hill of

University College London , commented that Ramanujan's papers were riddled with holes. [*Kanigel (1991), p105.*] He said that although Ramanujan had "a taste for mathematics, and some ability", he lacked the educational background and foundation needed so that his work would be accepted by higher-up mathematicians. [*Letter from M. J. M. Hill to a C. L. T. Griffith (a former student who sent the request to Hill on Ramanujan's behalf), 28 November 1912.*] Although Hill did not offer to take Ramanujan in as a student, he did give thorough and serious professional advice on his work. With the help of friends, Ramanujan drafted letters to leading mathematicians at Cambridge University. [*Kanigel (1991), p106.*]The first two professors,

H. F. Baker andE. W. Hobson , returned Ramanujan's papers without any comments. [*Kanigel (1991), p170-171.*] On 16 January 1913, Ramanujan wrote to G. H. Hardy, who had the foresight to quickly recognize Ramanujan's mathematical skills. The nine pages of mathematical wonder seemed like it could hardly have come from an unestablished mathematician. Hardy originally viewed Ramanujan's manuscripts as a possible "fraud." [*cite book |last=Snow|first=C. P. |title= Variety of Men |year= 1966|publisher=*] Hardy knew some of Ramanujan's formulas, but others "seemed scarcely possible to believe." [Charles Scribner's Sons |location=New York|isbn= | pages=p30-31*cite journal |last=Hardy |first=G. H.|authorlink=G. H. Hardy|year=1920|month=June |title=Obituary, S. Ramanujan |journal=Nature|volume=105 |issue= |pages=494 |accessdate= 2007-06-30 |doi=10.2307/2589114*] One of the theorems Hardy found hard to believe was found on the bottom of page three (valid for 0: $int\_0^infty\; cfrac\{1+\{x\}^2/(\{b+1\})^2\}\{1+\{x\}^2/(\{a\})^2\}\; imescfrac\{1+\{x\}^2/(\{b+2\})^2\}\{1+\{x\}^2/(\{a+1\})^2\}\; imescdots;;dx\; =\; frac\{sqrt\; pi\}\{2\}\; imesfrac\{Gamma(a+frac\{1\}\{2\})Gamma(b+1)Gamma(b-a+frac\{1\}\{2\})\}\{Gamma(a)Gamma(b+frac\{1\}\{2\})Gamma(b-a+1)\}.$Hardy was also impressed by some of Ramanujan's other work relating to infinite series:

: $1\; -\; 5left(frac\{1\}\{2\}\; ight)^3\; +\; 9left(frac\{1\; imes3\}\{2\; imes4\}\; ight)^3\; -\; 13left(frac\{1\; imes3\; imes5\}\{2\; imes4\; imes6\}\; ight)^3\; +\; cdots\; =\; frac\{2\}\{pi\}$

: $1\; +\; 9left(frac\{1\}\{4\}\; ight)^4\; +\; 17left(frac\{1\; imes5\}\{4\; imes8\}\; ight)^4\; +\; 25left(frac\{1\; imes5\; imes9\}\{4\; imes8\; imes12\}\; ight)^4\; +\; cdots\; =\; frac\{2^frac\{3\}\{2\{pi^frac\{1\}\{2\}left\; lbrace\; Gammaleft(frac\{3\}\{4\}\; ight)\; ight\; brace^2\}.$

The first result had already been determined by a mathematician named Bauer. The second one was new to Hardy. It was derived from a class of functions called a hypergeometric series which had first been researched by

Leonhard Euler andCarl Friedrich Gauss . Compared to Ramanujan's work on integrals, Hardy found these results "much more intriguing." [*Kanigel (1991), p167.*] After he saw Ramanujan's theorems on continued fractions on the last page of the manuscripts, Hardy commented that the " [theorems] defeated me completely; I had never seen anything in the least like them before."Kanigel (1991), p168.] He figured that Ramanujan's theorems "must be true, because, if they were not true, no one would have the imagination to invent them." Hardy contacted a colleague, J. E. Littlewood, to take a look at the papers. Littlewood was amazed by the mathematical genius of Ramanujan. After discussing the papers with Littlewood, Hardy concluded that the letters were "certainly the most remarkable I have received" and commented that Ramanujan was "a mathematician of the highest quality, a man of altogether exceptional originality and power." [*Hardy (June 1920), p494-495.*] One colleague, E. H. Neville, later commented that "not one [theorem] could have been set in the most advanced mathematical examination in the world."cite journal |last=Neville |first=Eric Harold |year=1942|month=March |title=Srinivasa Ramanujan |journal=Nature|volume=149 |issue=3776 |pages=293 |accessdate= 2007-06-26 |doi=10.1038/149292a0 ]On 8 February 1913, Hardy wrote a letter back to Ramanujan, expressing his interest for his work. Hardy also added that it was "essential that I should see proofs of some of your assertions." [

*Letter, Hardy to Ramanujan, 8 February 1913.*] Before his letter arrived in Madras during the third week of February, Hardy contacted the Indian Office to set up plans for Ramanujan's trip to Cambridge. Secretary Arthur Davies of the Advisory Committee for Indian Students met with Ramanujan to discuss the overseas trip. [*Letter, Ramanujan to Hardy, 22 January 1914.*] In accordance with his Brahmin upbringing, Ramanujan refused to leave his country to "go to a foreign land." [*Kanigel (1991), p185.*] Meanwhile, Ramanujan sent a letter packed with theorems to Hardy, writing, "I have found a friend in you who views my labour sympathetically." [*Letter, Ramanujan to Hardy, 27 February 1913,*]Cambridge University Library .To supplement Hardy's endorsement, a former mathematical lecturer at

Trinity College, Cambridge , Gilbert Walker, looked at Ramanujan's work and expressed amazement and urged him to spend time at Cambridge. [*Kanigel (1991), p175.*] As a result of Walker's endorsement, B. Hanumantha Rao, a mathematics professor at an engineering college, invited Ramanujan's colleague Narayana Iyer to a meeting of the Board of Studies in Mathematics to discuss "what we can do for S. Ramanujan." [*cite book |last=Ram|first=Suresh |title= Srinivasa Ramanujan |year= 1972|publisher= National Book Trust |location=New Delhi|isbn= | pages=p29*] The board met and agreed to grant Ramanujan a research scholarship of 75 rupees per month for the next two years at theUniversity of Madras . [*Ranganathan (1967), p30-31.*] While he was engaged as a research student, Ramanujan continued to submit papers to the "Journal of the Indian Mathematical Society". In one paper, Ramanujan anticipated the work of a Polish mathematician who had published his work shortly after. [*Ranganathan (1967), p12.*] In his quarterly papers, Ramanujan drew up theorems to make definite integrals more easily solvable. Working off Giuliano Frullani's 1821 integral theorem, Ramanujan formulated generalizations that could be made to evaluate formerly unyielding integrals. [*Kanigel (1991), p183.*]Hardy's correspondence with Ramanujan soured after Ramanujan refused to come to England. Hardy enlisted a colleague lecturing in Madras, E. H. Neville, to mentor and bring Ramanujan to England. [

*Kanigel (1991), p184.*] Neville asked Ramanujan why he was not coming to Cambridge. Ramanujan apparently had now accepted the proposal, as Neville put it, "Ramanujan needed no converting and that his parents' opposition had been withdrawn." Apparently, Ramanujan's friends convinced his mother to accept the journey to Cambridge. Ramanujan was personally convinced by a vivid dream his mother had, in which the family goddessNamagiri commanded her "to stand no longer between her son and the fullfilment of his life's purpose."**Life in England**Ramanujan went aboard the S. S. "Nevasa" on 17 March 1914, and at ten o'clock in the morning, the ship departed from Madras. [

*Kanigel (1991), p196.*] He arrived in London on 14 April, with E. H. Neville waiting for him with a car. Four days later, Neville took him to his house on Chesterton Road in Cambridge. Ramanujan immediately began his work with Littlewood and Hardy. After six weeks, Ramanujan moved out of Neville's house and took up residence on Whewell's Court, just a five-minutes walk away from Hardy's room. [*Kanigel (1991), p202.*] Hardy and Ramanujan began to take a look at Ramanujan's work in his notebooks. Hardy had already received 120 theorems from Ramanujan in the first two letters, but there were many more results and theorems to be found in the notebooks. Hardy saw that some were wrong, some were already discovered and the rest were new breakthroughs. [*cite book |last=Hardy |first=G. H. |title= Ramanujan|year= 1940 |publisher=*] Ramanujan left a deep impression on Hardy and Littlewood. Littlewood commented, "I can believe that he's at least aCambridge University Press |location=Cambridge|isbn=| pages=p10Carl Gustav Jacob Jacobi ", [*Letter, Littlewood to Hardy, early March 1913.*] while Hardy said he "can compare him only with [Leonhard] Euler or Jacobi." [*cite book |last=Hardy |first=G. H. |title= Collected Papers of G. H. Hardy|year= 1979 |publisher= Clarendon Press |location=Oxford, England|isbn=| pages=Vol. 7, p720*]Ramanujan spent nearly five years in Cambridge collaborating with Hardy and Littlewood and published a part of his findings there. Hardy and Ramanujan had highly contrasting personalities. Their collaboration was a clash of different cultures, beliefs and working styles. Hardy was an atheist and an apostle of proof and mathematical rigour, whereas, Ramanujan was a deeply religious man and relied very strongly on his intuition. While in England, Hardy tried his best to fill the gaps in Ramanujan's education without interrupting his spell of inspiration.

Ramanujan was awarded a B.A. degree by research (this degree was later renamed PhD) in March 1916 for his work on

highly composite number s which was published as a paper in the "Journal of theLondon Mathematical Society ". The paper was over 50 pages with different properties of such numbers proven. Hardy remarked that this was one of the most unusual papers seen in mathematical research at that time and that Ramanujan showed extraordinary ingenuity in handling it. On 6 December 1917, he was elected to the London Mathematical Society. He was the second Indian to become a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1918, the first having beenArdaseer Cursetjee in 1841, and he became one of the youngest Fellows in the entire history of the Royal Society. [*Kanigel (1991), p295.*] He was elected "for his investigation in Elliptic Functions and the Theory of Numbers." On 13 October 1918, he became the first Indian to be elected a Fellow of Trinity College, Cambridge. [*Kanigel (1991), p299-300.*]**Illness and return to India**Plagued by health problems all through his life, living in a country far away from home, and obsessively involved with his mathematics, Ramanujan's health worsened in England, perhaps exacerbated by stress, and by the scarcity of

vegetarian food during the First World War. He was diagnosed withtuberculosis and a severevitamin deficiency and was confined to a sanatorium. Ramanujan returned to Kumbakonam, India in 1919 and died soon thereafter at the age of 32. His wife, S. Janaki Ammal, lived in Chennai (formerly Madras) until her death in 1994. [*citeweb |url = http://www.imsc.res.in/~rao/ramanujan/newnow/janaki.pdf |title =Ramanujan’s wife: Janakiammal (Janaki)*]A 1994 analysis of Ramanujan's medical records and symptoms by Dr. D. A. B. Young concluded that it was much more likely he had hepatic amoebiasis, a parasitic infection of the liver. This is supported by the fact that Ramanujan had spent time in Madras, where the disease was widespread. He had two episodes of

dysentery before he left India. When not properly treated, dysentery can lie dormant for years and lead to hepatic amoebiasis. It was a difficult disease to diagnose, but once diagnosed would have been readily curable.**Personality and spiritual life**Ramanujan has been described as a person with a somewhat shy and quiet disposition, a dignified man with pleasant manners.cite web |url= http://www.imsc.res.in/~rao/ramanujan/newnow/pcm5.htm

title=Ramanujan's Personality] He lived a rather spartan life while at Cambridge. Ramanujan's first Indian biographers describe him as rigorously orthodox. Ramanujan credited his acumen to his family goddess,Namagiri , and looked to her for inspiration in his work. [*Kanigel (1991), p36.*] He often said, "An equation for me has no meaning, unless it represents a thought of God." [*citeweb | url = http://lagrange.math.trinity.edu/aholder/misc/quotes.shtml | title = Quote by Srinivasa Ramanujan Iyengar*] [*cite journal |title=Less Proof, More Truth|journal=NewScientist |issue=2614 |date=*]2007-07-28 |pages=49 |author=Chaitin, Gregory |doi=10.2307/2589114 |volume=107G. H. Hardy cites Ramanujan as remarking that all religions seemed equally true to him. Hardy further argued that Ramanujan's religiousness had been overstated—in the point of belief, not practice—by his Indian biographers, and romanticised by Westerners. At the same time, he remarked on Ramanujan's strict observance of vegetarianism.

**Mathematical achievements**In mathematics, there is a distinction between having an insight and having a proof. Ramanujan's talent suggested a plethora of formulae that could then be investigated in depth later. It is said that Ramanujan's discoveries are unusually rich and that there is often more in it than what initially meets the eye. As a by-product, new directions of research were opened up. Examples of the most interesting of these formulae include the intriguing infinite series for π, one of which is given below

:$frac\{1\}\{pi\}\; =\; frac\{2sqrt\{2\{9801\}\; sum^infty\_\{k=0\}\; frac\{(4k)!(1103+26390k)\}\{(k!)^4\; 396^\{4k.$

This result is based on the negative

fundamental discriminant "d" = −4×58 with class number "h"("d") = 2 (note that 5×7×13×58 = 26390) and is related to the fact that:$e^\{pi\; sqrt\{58\; =\; 396^4\; -\; 104.000000177dots.$

Ramanujan's series for π converges extraordinarily rapidly (exponentially) and forms the basis of some of the fastest algorithms currently used to calculate π. Truncating the sum to the first term also gives the approximation $9801sqrt\{2\}/4412$ for π, which is correct to six decimal places.

One of his remarkable capabilities was the rapid solution for problems. He was sharing a room with P. C. Mahalanobis who had a problem, "Imagine that you are on a street with houses marked 1 through n. There is a house in between (x) such that the sum of the house numbers to left of it equals the sum of the house numbers to its right. If n is between 50 and 500, what are n and x." This is a bivariate problem with multiple solutions. Ramanujan thought about it and gave the answer with a twist: He gave a

continued fraction . The unusual part was that it was the solution to the whole class of problems. Mahalanobis was astounded and asked how he did it. "It is simple. The minute I heard the problem, I knew that the answer was a continued fraction. Which continued fraction, I asked myself. Then the answer came to my mind", Ramanujan replied.His intuition also led him to derive some previously unknown identities, such as

:$left\; [\; 1+2sum\_\{n=1\}^infty\; frac\{cos(n\; heta)\}\{cosh(npi)\}\; ight\; ]\; ^\{-2\}\; +\; left\; [1+2sum\_\{n=1\}^infty\; frac\{cosh(n\; heta)\}\{cosh(npi)\}\; ight\; ]\; ^\{-2\}\; =\; frac\; \{2\; Gamma^4\; left\; (\; frac\{3\}\{4\}\; ight\; )\}\{pi\}$

for all $heta$, where $Gamma(z)$ is the

gamma function . Equating coefficients of $heta^0$, $heta^4$, and $heta^8$ gives some deep identities for thehyperbolic secant .In 1918, G. H. Hardy and Ramanujan studied the partition function "P"("n") extensively and gave a very accurate non-convergent asymptotic series that permits exact computation of the number of partitions of an integer. Hans Rademacher, in 1937, was able to refine their formula to find an exact convergent series solution to this problem. Ramanujan and Hardy's work in this area gave rise to a powerful new method for finding asymptotic formulae, called the circle method.cite web |url = http://mathworld.wolfram.com/PartitionFunctionP.html |title=Partition Formula]

He discovered

mock theta function s in the last year of his life. For many years these functions were a mystery, but they are now known to be the holomorphic parts ofharmonic weak Maass forms.**The Ramanujan conjecture**Although there are numerous statements that could bear the name "Ramanujan conjecture", there is one statement that was very influential on later work. In particular, the connection of this conjecture with conjectures of

André Weil in algebraic geometry opened up new areas of research. ThatRamanujan conjecture is an assertion on the size of the tau function, which has as generating function the discriminant modular form Δ("q"), a typicalcusp form in the theory ofmodular forms . It was finally proved in 1973, as a consequence ofPierre Deligne 's proof of theWeil conjectures . The reduction step involved is complicated. Deligne won aFields Medal in 1978 for his work on Weil conjectures. [*Ono (June-July 2006), p649.*]**Ramanujan's notebooks**While still in India, Ramanujan recorded the bulk of his results in four notebooks of

loose leaf paper. These results were mostly written up without any derivations. This is probably the origin of the misperception that Ramanujan was unable to prove his results and simply thought up the final result directly. MathematicianBruce C. Berndt , in his review of these notebooks and Ramanujan's work, says that Ramanujan most certainly was able to make the proofs of most of his results, but chose not to.This style of working may have been for several reasons. Since paper was very expensive, Ramanujan would do most of his work and perhaps his proofs on slate, and then transfer just the results to paper. Using a slate was common for mathematics students in India at the time. He was also quite likely to have been influenced by the style of

G. S. Carr 's book, which stated results without proofs. Finally, it is possible that Ramanujan considered his workings to be for his personal interest alone; and therefore only recorded the results.cite web |url = http://www.amazon.com/Ramanujans-Notebooks-Part-Bruce-Berndt/dp/0387949410 |title = Ramanujans Notebooks]The first notebook has 351 pages with 16 somewhat organized chapters and some unorganized material. The second notebook has 256 pages in 21 chapters and 100 unorganized pages, with the third notebook containing 33 unorganized pages. The results in his notebooks inspired numerous papers by later mathematicians trying to prove what he had found. Hardy himself created papers exploring material from Ramanujan's work as did

G. N. Watson , B. M. Wilson, and Bruce Berndt.cite web |url = http://www.amazon.com/Ramanujans-Notebooks-Part-Bruce-Berndt/dp/0387949410 |title = Ramanujans Notebooks] A fourth notebook, the so-called "lost notebook", was rediscovered in 1976 by George Andrews.**Other mathematicians' views of Ramanujan**Ramanujan is generally hailed as an all time great mathematician, like

Leonhard Euler ,Carl Friedrich Gauss orCarl Gustav Jacob Jacobi , for his natural mathematical genius. [*K. Srinivasa Rao, citeweb | url=http://www.imsc.res.in/~rao/ramanujan.html |title= Srinivasa Ramanujan*] G. H. Hardy quotes: "The limitations of his knowledge were as startling as its profundity. Here was a man who could work outmodular equation s and theorems... to orders unheard of, whose mastery of continued fractions was... beyond that of any mathematician in the world, who had found for himself the functional equation of thezeta function and the dominant terms of many of the most famous problems in the analytic theory of numbers; and yet he had never heard of adoubly-periodic function or of Cauchy's theorem, and had indeed but the vaguest idea of what a function of acomplex variable was...". [*citeweb |url = http://www-groups.dcs.st-and.ac.uk/~history/Biographies/Ramanujan.html | title = Ramanujan quote*] Hardy went on to claim that his greatest contribution to mathematics was discovering Ramanujan.In his book "Scientific Edge", noted physicist

Jayant Narlikar stated that "Srinivasa Ramanujan, discovered by the Cambridge mathematician G.H. Hardy, whose great mathematical findings were beginning to be appreciated from 1915 to 1919. His achievements were to be fully understood much later, well after his untimely death in 1920. For example, his work on the highly composite numbers (numbers with a large number of factors) started a whole new line of investigations in the theory of such numbers." Narlikar also goes on to say that his work was one of the top ten achievements of 20th century Indian science and "could be considered in theNobel Prize class." [*citeweb |url = http://www.amazon.com/Scientific-Edge-Indian-Scientist-Modern/dp/0143030280 | title = Narlikar's book*] The work of other 20^{th}century Indian scientists which Narlikar considered to be of Nobel Prize class were those ofChandrasekhara Venkata Raman ,Megh Nad Saha andSatyendra Nath Bose .**Recognition**Ramanujan's home state of

Tamil Nadu celebrates 22 December (Ramanujan's birthday) as 'State IT Day', memorializing both the man and his achievements, as a native of Tamil Nadu. A stamp picturing Ramanujan was released by theGovernment of India in 1962 – the 75^{th}anniversary of Ramanujan's birth – commemorating his achievements in the field of number theory.A prize for young mathematicians from developing countries has been created in the name of Ramanujan by the

International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), in cooperation with theInternational Mathematical Union , who nominate members of the prize committee. During the year 1987 (Ramanujan's centennial), the printed form of "Ramanujan's Lost Notebook" by the Narosa publishing house of Springer-Verlag was released by the late Indian prime minister,Rajiv Gandhi , who presented the first copy to S. Janaki Ammal Ramanujan (Ramanujan's late widow) and the second copy to George Andrews in recognition of his contributions in the field of number theory.**Projected films***An international feature film on Ramanujan's life was announced in 2006 as due to begin shooting in 2007. It was to be shot in Tamil Nadu state and Cambridge and be produced by an Indo-British collaboration and co-directed by

Stephen Fry andDev Benegal . [*cite news*] A play "First Class Man" by Alter Ego Productions [

author=

title=Film to celebrate maths genius

date=2006-03-16

work=BBC News

url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/4811920.stm

accessdate=2008-08-08*[*] was based on David Freeman's "First Class Man". The play is centered around Ramanujan and his complex and dysfunctional relationship with G. H. Hardy.*http://www.alteregoproductions.org/blog/2006/06/alteregos_new_theater_season_b.htm First Class Man*]

*Another film based on the book "The Man Who Knew Infinity: A Life of the Genius Ramanujan" by Robert Kanigel is being made by Edward Pressman and Matthew Brown. [*[*]*http://sify.com/news/othernews/fullstory.php?id=14173864 Two Hollywood movies on Ramanujan*]**ee also**

*List of topics named after Srinivasa Ramanujan

*Ramanujan-Peterssen conjecture

*1729 (number)

*Landau-Ramanujan constant

*Ramanujan-Soldner constant

*Ramanujan summation

*Ramanujan theta function

*Ramanujan graph

*Ramanujan's tau function

*Rogers-Ramanujan identities

*Ramanujan prime

*Ramanujan's constant (hoax)

*Ramanujan's sum

*Ramanujan modular functions**References****elected publications by Ramanujan***"Collected Papers of Srinivasa Ramanujan", by Srinivasa Ramanujan, G. H. Hardy, P. V. Seshu Aiyar, B. M. Wilson, Bruce C. Berndt (AMS, 2000, ISBN 0-8218-2076-1)

This book was originally published in 1927 after Ramanujan's death. It contains the 37 papers published in professional journals by Ramanujan during his lifetime. The third re-print contains additional commentary by Bruce C. Berndt.

*"Notebooks (2 Volumes)", S. Ramanujan, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bombay, 1957.

These books contain photo copies of the original notebooks as written by Ramanujan.

*"The Lost Notebook and Other Unpublished Papers", by S. Ramanujan, Narosa, New Delhi, 1988.

This book contains photo copies of the pages in the "Lost Notebook".

**elected publications about Ramanujan and his work***Berndt, Bruce C. "An Overview of Ramanujan's Notebooks." "Charlemagne and His Heritage: 1200 Years of Civilization and Science in Europe". Ed. P. L. Butzer, W. Oberschelp, and H. Th. Jongen. Turnhout, Belgium: Brepols, 1998. 119-146. [

*http://www.math.uiuc.edu/~berndt/articles/aachen.pdf Text*]

*Berndt, Bruce C., and George E. Andrews. "Ramanujan's Lost Notebook, Part I". New York: Springer, 2005. ISBN 0-387-25529-X.

*Berndt, Bruce C., and George E. Andrews. "Ramanujan's Lost Notebook, Part II". New York: Springer, 2008. ISBN 9780387777658

*Berndt, Bruce C., and Robert A. Rankin. "Ramanujan: Letters and Commentary." Vol. 9. Providence, Rhode Island: American Mathematical Society, 1995. ISBN 0-8218-0287-9.

*Berndt, Bruce C., and Robert A. Rankin. "Ramanujan: Letters and Commentary." Vol. 22. Providence, Rhode Island: American Mathematical Society, 2001. ISBN 0-8218-2624-7.

*Berndt, Bruce C. "Number Theory in the Spirit of Ramanujan". Providence, Rhode Island:American Mathematical Society , 2006. ISBN 0-8218-4178-5.

*Berndt, Bruce C. "Ramanujan's Notebooks, Part I". New York: Springer, 1985. ISBN 0-387-96110-0.

*Berndt, Bruce C. "Ramanujan's Notebooks, Part II". New York: Springer, 1999. ISBN 0-387-96794-X.

*Berndt, Bruce C. "Ramanujan's Notebooks, Part III". New York: Springer, 2004. ISBN 0-387-97503-9.

*Berndt, Bruce C. "Ramanujan's Notebooks, Part IV". New York: Springer, 1993. ISBN 0-387-94109-6.

*Berndt, Bruce C. "Ramanujan's Notebooks, Part V". New York: Springer, 2005. ISBN 0-387-94941-0.

*Hardy, G. H. "Ramanujan". New York, Chelsea Pub. Co., 1978. ISBN 0-8284-0136-5

*Hardy, G. H. "Ramanujan: Twelve Lectures on Subjects Suggested by His Life and Work". Providence, Rhode Island: American Mathematical Society, 1999. ISBN 0-8218-2023-0.

*Henderson, Harry. "Modern Mathematicians". New York: Facts on File Inc., 1995. ISBN 0-8160-3235-1.

*Kanigel, Robert. "The Man Who Knew Infinity: a Life of the Genius Ramanujan". New York:Charles Scribner's Sons , 1991. ISBN 0-684-19259-4.

*Leavitt, David. "The Indian Clerk". London: Bloomsbury, 2007. ISBN 978-0-7475-9370-6 (paperback).

*Narlikar, Jayant V. "Scientific Edge: the Indian Scientist From Vedic to Modern Times". New Delhi, India:Penguin Books , 2003. ISBN 0143030280.

*T.M.Sankaran. "Srinivasa Ramanujan- Ganitha lokathile Mahaprathibha", (in Malayalam), 2005, Kerala Sastra Sahithya Parishath, Kochi.**External links****Media links***cite web | title=Film to celebrate mathematics genius | work=BBC

url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/4811920.stm| accessmonthday=24 August | accessyear=2006

* [*http://devbenegal.com/2006/03/15/feature-film-on-math-genius-ramanujan/ Feature Film on Mathematics Genius Ramanujan by Dev Benegal and Stephen Fry*]

* [*http://www.bbc.co.uk/radio4/science/further5.shtml BBC radio programme about Ramanujan - episode 5*]

* [*http://www.archive.org/details/Ramanujan A biographical song about Ramanujan's life*]**Biographical links***

*

* [*http://home.student.uva.nl/s.rajkumar/ramanujan.html Biographical essay on Ramanujan*]

* [*http://www.worldofbiography.com/9094-S.Ramanujan/ Biography of this mathematical genius at World of Biography*]

* [*http://www.tamilnation.org/hundredtamils/ramanujan.htm Srinivasan Ramanujan in One Hundred Tamils of 20th Century*]

* [*http://intranet.woodvillehs.sa.edu.au/pages/resources/maths/History/Rmnjn.htm Srinivasa Aiyangar Ramanujan*]

* [*http://www.usna.edu/Users/math/meh/ramanujan.html A short biography of Ramanujan*]

* [*http://www.hinduonnet.com/folio/fo0102/01020480.htm "A passion for numbers"*]**Other links*** A Study Group For Mathematics: [

*http://groups.yahoo.com/group/srinivasaramanujan/ Srinivasa Ramanujan Iyengar*]

* [*http://www.math.ufl.edu/~frank/ramanujan.html "The Ramanujan Journal"*] - An international journal devoted to Ramanujan

* [*http://www.mathunion.org/General/Prizes/ International Math Union Prizes*] , including a Ramanujan Prize.

* Complicite Production of [*http://www.complicite.org/productions/detail.html?id=43 "A Disappearing Number"*] - a play about Ramanujan's work

* Hindu.com: [*http://www.hindu.com/mag/2004/12/26/stories/2004122600610400.htm Norwegian and Indian mathematical geniuses*] , [*http://www.hindu.com/thehindu/br/2003/08/26/stories/2003082600120300.htm RAMANUJAN — Essays and Surveys*] , [*http://www.hindu.com/2003/12/22/stories/2003122204061100.htm Ramanujan's growing influence*] , [*http://www.hindu.com/thehindu/mag/2002/12/22/stories/2002122200040400.htm Ramanujan's mentor*]

* cite journal

author = Bruce C. Berndt; Robert A. Rankin

title = The Books Studied by Ramanujan in India

journal =American Mathematical Monthly

volume = 107

year = 2000

issue = 7

pages = 595–601

url = http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0002-9890(200008/09)107:7%3C595:TBSBRI%3E2.0.CO;2-6

doi = 10.2307/2589114

id = MathSciNet | id = 1786233

* [*http://www.maa.org/news/030807puzzlesolved.html "Ramanujan's mock theta function puzzle solved"*]

* [*http://www.imsc.res.in/~rao/ramanujan/contentindex.html Ramanujan's papers and notebooks*]

* [*http://www.cecm.sfu.ca/organics/papers/borwein/paper/html/local/ramnotebook.html Sample page from the second notebook*]Persondata

NAME= Ramanujan, Srinivasa

ALTERNATIVE NAMES=

SHORT DESCRIPTION=Mathematician

DATE OF BIRTH= 22 December 1887

PLACE OF BIRTH=Erode ,Tamil Nadu , India

DATE OF DEATH= 26 April 1920

PLACE OF DEATH=Chetput , (Madras),Tamil Nadu , India

*Wikimedia Foundation.
2010.*

### Look at other dictionaries:

**Srinivasa Ramanujan**— S. Ramanujan S. Ramanujan [ˈɾɑːmɑːnudʒən] (Srinivasa Ramanujan Aiyangar; FRS); (Tamilisch: ஸ்ரீனிவாஸ ராமானுஜன் ஐயங்கார்); (* 22. Dezember 1887 in Erode, Tamil Nadu; † 26. April 1920 in … Deutsch Wikipedia**Srinivasa Ramanujan**— Ne doit pas confondu avec cet autre mathématicien : C. P. Ramanujam (en). Srinivasa Ramanujan … Wikipédia en Français**List of topics named after Srinivasa Ramanujan**— Srinivasa Ramanujan (1887 1920) is the eponym of all of the topics listed below.*Dougall Ramanujan identity *Hardy Ramanujan number *Landau Ramanujan constant *Ramanujan s congruences *Ramanujan Nagell equation *Ramanujan Peterssen conjecture… … Wikipedia**Srinivasa Aaiyangar Ramanujan**— Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Srinivasa Ramanujan Srinivasa Aaiyangar Ramanujan Nacimiento … Wikipedia Español**Srinivasa Aiyangar Ramanujan**— Srinivasa Ramanujan Srinivasa Aiyangar Ramanujan Nacimiento 22 de diciembre de 1887 Erode, Tamil Nadu, Raj Británico … Wikipedia Español**Srinivasa Aaiyangar Ramanujan**— Srinivasa Ramanujan Srinivasa Ramanujan Srinivâsa Aiyangâr Râmânujan, en tamoul : ஸ்ரீனிவாஸ ஐயங்கார் ராமானுஜன், (22 décembre 1887 – 26 avril 1920) est un mathématicien indien. Ramanujan travailla principalement en théorie analytique des… … Wikipédia en Français**Ramanujan**— Srinivasa Ramanujan Srinivasa Ramanujan Srinivâsa Aiyangâr Râmânujan, en tamoul : ஸ்ரீனிவாஸ ஐயங்கார் ராமானுஜன், (22 décembre 1887 – 26 avril 1920) est un mathématicien indien. Ramanujan travailla principalement en théorie analytique des… … Wikipédia en Français**Ramanujan's lost notebook**— Srinivasa Ramanujan s lost notebook is the manuscript in which Ramanujan, a widely admired Indian mathematician from Cambridge University, recorded the mathematical discoveries of the last year of his life. It was rediscovered by George Andrews… … Wikipedia**Ramanujan summation**— is a technique invented by the mathematician Srinivasa Ramanujan for assigning a sum to infinite divergent series. Although the Ramanujan summation of a divergent series is not a sum in the traditional sense, it has properties which make it… … Wikipedia**Ramanujan's constant**— is the transcendental number [MathWorld|title=Transcendental Number|urlname=TranscendentalNumber gives e^{pisqrt{d, d in Z^*] e^{pi sqrt{163.Its value is extraordinarily close to an integer::262,537,412,640,768,743.999 999 999 999 25ldots… … Wikipedia