- Panther (computer game)
title = Panther
caption= Panther Game Screen
John Edo Haefeli
Vehicle simulation game
modes = Team play
Panther, a battle
tank-driving simulation, is one of the earliest first-person computer games developed. Developed by John Edo Haefeli in 1975 (then aged 19) at Northwestern University, the game was originally delivered on the multi-user interactive PLATO systemand programmed in the TUTOR programming language and utilizes scalable vector graphicscalled linesets. A 1977 development of Panther, with more refined graphics, was named Panzer, the German word for tank.
Version A (1975) of Panther has recently been restored to active status on the Cyber1 CYBIS-based (a PLATO descendant) system, with direct permission of the developer.
The game play is what is commonly known today as
teamdeathmatch. There are two teams, Squares and Triangles. The object of the game is to destroy the opposing team's base. Game play is straightforward; the player selects a pseudonymand a team, traverse the terrain looking for enemies to destroy on the way to their base. Perspective is maintained by the use of scalable vector graphics and visual interest is enhanced with special graphics for explosions using a custom character set to accomplish limited raster graphicsanimation.
When players enter the game their tanks are placed randomly in the playing arena near their bases and are temporarily camouflaged to allow time to orient themselves with the current map and state of play. The initial view of the game is in "on-board" mode, which is a first-person perspective of the arena. The other main view available is the map which shows the 5 mountains (Crag, Nixon, Og, Pathos, and Red) which vary in size and placement each time a new game is started. On the map view players can see all of their team members positions and can see enemies only when they are within range. Messaging between team members is available and broadcast-style messages (insults) to the opposing team are also allowed. Team coordination and cooperation is critical to winning in this game as each player has different skills, some players are better at hunting down and killing enemies (or at least engaging and distracting them), others are good at hiding and sneaking to the opposing base to begin bombardment. An interesting capability of the game is that players can donate ammunition and fuel to other players in order to facilitate their role in the game. Ammunition and fuel are loaded at the players base.
* Combining 3D arcade-style tactical warfare with strategic multi-player communication and planning, while allowing deceptive communication with enemy. (Unlimited players, historical peak over 50 simultaneous players).
* Use of a "community random number seed" to generate a common terrain for each scenario, down to rocks, trees, visibility, and other features (via hidden mode key) via storage-less algorithm.
* Virtual binoculars extensible to 360 degree view on a planar surface.
* Real-time system within a real-time system, tracking all changes without user intervention across all control and information displays.
* Hidden line removal of occluded objects.
* Attention to physics of trajectory, accuracy, and vision considering source and target speeds, direction and distance, with compensation for curvature of Earth.
* Reasonable performance on a 1200 baud vector terminal and 10 TIPS (thousands of instructions per second) CPU limit on the mainframe-based PLATO network supporting up to 1000 simultaneous users.
Spectre (computer game)
* [http://gamasutra.com/features/20060425/shahrani_01.shtml A History and Analysis of Level Design in 3D Computer Games]
* [http://www.slideshare.net/wuzziwug/how-college-students-influenced-gaming Slideshow of PLATO games including Panther]
* [http://www.cyber1.org cyber1.org: Panther can be played by typing in 'panther' at the author-mode prompt and pressing DATA]
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