- Polish Enigma doubles
Enigma "doubles" were machines produced by the Polish
Cipher Bureau, based on Marian Rejewski's reconstruction of the German Enigma machine's wirings.
Doubles built in Poland before World War II
In February 1933, the Polish
Cipher Bureauordered "doubles" of the military Enigma machinefrom the AVA Radio Manufacturing Company, in Warsaw. By 1934, fifteen "made-in- Poland" Enigmas with plugboardhad been delivered. Ultimately about seventy such units would be produced.
In 1939, two Enigma doubles were sent to Paris and London. Until then, German military Enigma traffic had utterly defeated the British and French, and they had faced the disturbing prospect that German communications would remain "black" to them for the duration of the coming war.
Doubles built in France
Germanyinvaded Polandin September 1939 and key Polish Cipher Bureaupersonnel evacuated to France, the Cipher Bureau resumed its interrupted work at PC Bruno, outside Paris. The Poles had only three Enigma doubles to work with, and these were wearing out from round-the-clock use. French Army intelligence officer Gustave Bertrandordered parts for forty doubles from a French precision-mechanics firm. Manufacture proceeded sluggishly, however; it was only after the fall of France and the opening of underground work in the Free Zoneof the south in October 1940 that "four" machines were finally assembled.
* Saxon Palace, in Warsaw, where German Enigma ciphers were first broken (December 1932).
* Cryptologic methods and technology
**Enigma "doubles" (1932).
**Card catalog (1935).
**Cryptologic bomb (1938): a machine designed by
Marian Rejewskito facilitate the retrieval of Enigma keys.
Zygalski sheets(1938): invented by Henryk Zygalski, and called "perforated sheets" by the Poles, the device made possible the reconstitution of the Enigma's entire cipher key.
Władysław Kozaczuk, "Enigma: How the German Machine Cipher Was Broken, and How It Was Read by the Allies in World War Two", edited and translated by Christopher Kasparek, Frederick, MD, University Publications of America, 1984.
Władysław Kozaczuk, Jerzy Straszak, "Enigma: How the Poles Broke the Nazi Code", Hippocrene Books, 2004, ISBN 0-7818-0941-X.
Zbigniew Brzezinski, "The Unknown Victors," pp.15–18 in Jan Stanisław Ciechanowski, ed., "Marian Rejewski, 1905–1980: Living with the Enigma Secret", Bydgoszcz, Bydgoszcz City Council, 2005, ISBN 83-7208-117-4.
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