- Ernst Cassirer
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Ernst Cassirer (
July 28, 1874– April 13, 1945) was a German Jewish philosopher. Coming out of the Marburg tradition of neo-Kantianism, he developed a philosophy of cultureas a theory of symbols founded in a phenomenology of knowledge. His son, Heinz Cassirer, was also a Kantian scholar.
Cassirer was born in Breslau (
Wrocław), Silesia, into a Jewish family. He studied literature and philosophy at the University of Berlin. As a Jew, he had no easy academic career. After long years as Privatdozentat the Friedrich Wilhelm University in Berlin(Cassirer turned down the offer of a visiting professorship at Harvardwhich he and his wife considered obscure and remote), he was elected to a chair of philosophyat the newly-founded University of Hamburgin 1919, where he lectured until 1933, and supervised the doctoral thesis of Leo Strauss. Cassirer was forced to leave Germany because the Nazis came to power.
After leaving Germany he found first refuge as a lecturer in
Oxford1933–1935; he was then professor at Gothenburg University1935–1941. When Cassirer - who considered Sweden too unsafe by then - tried to go to the United States and specifically to Harvard, the university turned him down because he had turned Harvard down thirty years earlier. Thus, he first had to work as a visiting professor at Yale University, New Haven1941–1943, and only then moving to Columbia Universityin New York, where he lectured from 1943 until his death in 1945. As he had been naturalized in Sweden, he died on the Columbia campus a Swedish citizen of German-Jewish descent.
Philosophy of Symbolic Forms
Cassirer was both a genuine
philosopherand an historianof philosophy. His major work, "Philosophy of Symbolic Forms" (3 vols., 1923–1929) is considered a benchmark for a philosophy of culture. Man, says Cassirer later in his more popular "Essay on Man" (1944), is a "symbolic animal". Whereas animals perceive their world by instincts and direct sensory perception, man has created his own universe of symbolicmeaning that structures and shapes his perceptionof reality- and only thus, for instance, can conceive of utopias and therefore progress in the form of shared human culture. In this, Cassirer owes much to Kant's transcendental idealism, which claimed that the actual world cannot be known, but that the human view on realityis shaped by our means of perceiving it. For Cassirer, the human world is created through symbolic forms of thought which are linguistic, scholarly, scientific, and artistic, sharing and extending through communication, individual understanding, discovery and expression.
The Myth of the State
Cassirer's last major work was "The Myth of the State". The book was published posthumously in 1946 after Cassirer's sudden death. Cassirer argues that the idea of a totalitarian state evolved from ideas advanced by
Plato, Dante, Machiavelli, Gobineau, Carlyle and Hegel. He concludes that the Fascist regimes of the 20th century were symbolised by a myth of destiny and the promotion of irrationality.
Hermann Cohen Paul Natorp
Hans Reichenbach Leo Strauss
* "Substance and Function" (1910), English translation 1923
* "Kant's Life and Thought" (1918), English translation 1981
* "Philosophy of Symbolic Forms" (1923–29), English translation 1953–1957
* "Language and Myth" (1925), English translation (1946) by Susanne K. Langer
* "Philosophy of the Enlightenment" (1932), English translation 1951
* "The Logic of the Humanities" (1942), English translation 1961
* "An Essay on Man" (written and published in English) (1944)
* "The Myth of the State" (written and published in English) (posthumous) (1946)
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe
* [http://cassirer.metastudies.net/ History of the Cassirer family]
* [http://www.cis.arts.gla.ac.uk/cassirerproject.htm Centre for Intercultural Studies]
* [http://www.informationphilosopher.com/solutions/philosophers/cassirer/ Information Philosopher on Ernst Cassirer on Free Will]
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Ernst Cassirer — Foto von Cassirer Ernst Cassirer (* 28. Juli 1874 in Breslau; † … Deutsch Wikipedia
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Ernst Cassirer — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Ernst Cassirer (28 de julio de 1874, Breslau 13 de abril de 1945, Nueva York) fue un filósofo de origen alemán, ciudadano sueco desde 1939. Fue conocido por su obra Filosofía de las formas simbólicas del campo de la… … Wikipedia Español
Ernst Cassirer — (1874 1945) es un filósofo alemán neokantiano que pertenece a la Escuela de Marburgo. Fue discípulo de Hermann Cohen y Paul Natorp. De profesión profesor en Berlín y Hamburgo tuvo que exiliarse con la llegada de Hitler. Para Cassirer el hombre es … Enciclopedia Universal
Ernst Cassirer — noun German philosopher concerned with concept formation in the human mind and with symbolic forms in human culture generally (1874 1945) • Syn: ↑Cassirer • Instance Hypernyms: ↑philosopher … Useful english dictionary
Cassirer — Ernst Cassirer Ernst Cassirer. Ernst Cassirer, né le 28 juillet 1874 à Breslau, en Silésie (aujourd hui Wrocław, Pologne) territoire du Reich allemand, et mort le 13 avril 1945 à New York est un … Wikipédia en Français
CASSIRER, ERNST — (1874–1945), philosopher. Son of a well to do merchant from Breslau, Cassirer received his doctorate at the University of Marburg as a student of hermann cohen with whom he maintained a lifelong friendship. In 1906 he started his teaching career… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Cassirer — Cassirer, 1) Bruno, Verleger, * Breslau 12. 12. 1872, ✝ Oxford 29. 10. 1941; arbeitete zuerst mit seinem Vetter Paul Cassirer zusammen, gründete 1901 den Verlag Bruno Cassirer in Berlin; Hauptgebiete: bildende Kunst, Literatur und Philosophie… … Universal-Lexikon
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