P-38 can opener

P-38 can opener
Vietnam war-era P-38

The P-38, developed in 1942,[1] is a small can opener issued in the canned field rations of the United States Armed Forces from World War II to the 1980s. Originally designed for and distributed in the K-ration, it was later included in the C-ration.

Contents

Design

J.W. Speaker manufactured P38 can opener measured by digital calipers.

The P-38 is known as a "John Wayne" by the U.S. Marine Corps either because of its toughness and dependability [2] or because of an unsubstantiated story that the actor had been shown in an as-yet-unidentified training film opening a can of K-Rations. The can opener is pocket-sized (approximately 1.5 inches, 38mm, in length) and consists of a short metal blade that serves as a handle (which doubles as a flat-blade screwdriver), with a small, hinged metal tooth that folds out to pierce the can lid. A notch just under the hinge point keeps the opener hooked around the rim of the can as the device is "walked" around to cut the lid out. A larger version called the P-51 is somewhat easier to operate.

Official military designations for the P-38 include 'US ARMY POCKET CAN OPENER' and 'OPENER, CAN, HAND, FOLDING, TYPE I'. As with some other military terms (e.g. jeep), the origin of the term is not known with certainty; the P-38 opener coincidentally shares a designation with the P-38 'Lightning' fighter plane, which could allude to its fast performance. However, the P-51 can opener, while larger and easier to use than the P-38 can opener, also has a fighter plane namesake in the P-51, which is faster and smaller than the P-38 fighter. One rumored explanation for the origin of the name is that the P-38 is approximately 38 mm (1.5 in) long. This explanation also holds for the P-51, which measures approximately 51 mm (2.0 in) in length. U.S. Army sources, however, indicate that the origin of the name is rooted in the 38 punctures around the circumference of a C-ration can required for opening.[1]

Size comparison of P-51 and P-38 openers

P-38s are no longer used for individual rations by the United States Armed Forces, as canned C-rations were replaced by uncanned MREs in the 1980s. The larger P-51s are, however, included with US military "Tray Rations" (canned bulk meals). They are also still seen in disaster recovery efforts and have been handed out alongside canned food by rescue organizations, both in America and abroad in Afghanistan. The original US-contract P-38 can openers were manufactured by J.W. Speaker Corp. (stamped "US Speaker") and by Washburn Corp. (marked "US Androck"), they were later made by Mallin Hardware (now defunct) of Shelby, Ohio and were variously stamped "US Mallin Shelby O." or "U.S. Shelby Co.".

Advantages

The P-38 is cheaper to manufacture than a standard can opener, and is smaller and lighter to carry. The device can be easily attached to a keyring or dog tag chain using the small punched hole.

Usage

The P-38 is easily used. First, the cutting point is pivoted to its 95-degree position,[3] from its stowed, folded position. Then, for a right-handed user, the P-38 is held in the right hand by the flat long section, with the cutting point pointing downward and away from the user, while also hooking the edge of the can through the circular notch located on the flat long section next to the cutting edge. The can is held in the left hand, and the right hand is rotated slightly clockwise, causing the can lid to be punctured. The can is then rotated counter clockwise in the left hand, while the right hand rotates alternatively slightly counterclockwise and slightly clockwise, until the can has been rotated nearly 360 degrees and the lid is nearly free. The lid of the now opened can is lifted, most often with the P-38 cutting edge, and the P-38 is wiped clean, and the cutting point is rotated back to its stowed, folded position; then, the P-38 is returned to its stored location, whether that is dangling on a dogtag chain around one's neck, or in one's pocket if the P-38 is attached onto a key ring. Left-handed users simply hold the P-38 in their left hand, with the cutting point aimed towards themselves, while holding the can to be opened in their right hand, while also reversing the sense of the cutting hand movements just described. By tradition, 38 cuts as just described were supposedly required to open a can of C-Rations.

Similar devices

Standard issue "FRED" can opener of the Australian Defence Force

A similar device that incorporates a small spoon at one end and a bottle opener at the other is currently employed by the Australian Defence Force and New Zealand Army in its ration kits. The Field Ration Eating Device is known by the acronym "FRED". It is also known widely in its derogative term, the "Fucking Ridiculous Eating Device".[4][5]

Another similar device was included with British Army 'Operational Ration Pack, General Purpose' 24-hour ration pack and 'Compo' Composite (14 man) Ration pack rations. At one stage they were manufactured by W.P. Warren Engineering Co. Ltd, 79 Alma Street, Birmingham B19 2RL (021-359-2808). The instructions printed on the miniature greaseproof paper bag they were supplied in read:

TO OPEN CAN:
Place opener on the can with rim of can inside the slot. Hold between thumb and forefinger and twist forward to puncture. Repeat motion until can is open.

Their design is similar, but not identical, to the P-38 and P-51 can openers.

The Swedish army also employs a variant of this opener, again very similar but not identical. Official designation is M7481-021000 Konservbrytare Mini which was distributed with the infamous "Golden Cans" (swedish field rations is packaged in metallic tins with a golden hue).

In 1924, a similar device was featured in Popular Mechanics, with no mention of a military provenance.[6]

An opener similar to P-38, but with a non-folding blade, was popular in Poland for years; now it still can be found in shops along butterfly – type ones.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b The best Army invention ever, Renita Foster, U.S. Army News, 8-11-2009.
  2. ^ http://www.olive-drab.com/od_rations_p38.php
  3. ^ http://www.georgia-outfitters.com/p3851milspecs.htm
  4. ^ Hardiman, Graeme. "The Malayan Emergency. 2RAR 1956/57". 2RAR. Digger History: an unofficial history of the Australian & New Zealand Armed Forces. http://www.diggerhistory.info/pages-conflicts-periods/malaya-korea/malaya-2rar.htm. Retrieved 2007-11-05. "I remember the spoon come tin opener that was in later years nicknamed "Fred" (Fucking ridiculous eating device)" 
  5. ^ "Australian Ration pack Contents". Ration Pack. Australian Defence News & Opinion - MilitaryPeople.com.au. 2007. Archived from the original on 2007-10-12. http://web.archive.org/web/20071012083346/http://www.militarypeople.com.au/mainsite/content/view/175/50/. Retrieved 2007-11-05. 
  6. ^ "Womens Workshop". Popular Mechanics (image of article at www.blog.modernmechanix.com). April 1924. http://blog.modernmechanix.com/2007/05/16/time-and-money-saving-tools-for-womans-workshop-in-home-3/?Qwd=./PopularMechanics/4-1924/womens_workshop&Qif=womens_workshop_1.jpg&Qiv=thumbs&Qis=XL#qdig. Retrieved 2007-05-16. 

External links


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См. также в других словарях:

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