Chenin blanc

Chenin blanc
Chenin blanc
Grape (Vitis)
A cluster of Chenin blanc grapes.
Color of berry skin Blanc
Species Vitis vinifera
Also called Steen, Pineau de la Loire, Pinot Blanco (more)
Origin Loire, France
Notable regions Loire, South Africa
Notable wines Vouvray, Coteaux du Layon, sparkling Saumur
Hazards Bunch rot, sunburn, overproduction

Chenin blanc (known also as Pineau de la Loire among other names), is a white wine grape variety from the Loire valley of France. Its high acidity means it can be used to make everything from sparkling wines to well-balanced dessert wines, although it can produce very bland, neutral wines if the vine's natural vigor is not controlled. Outside the Loire it is found in most of the New World wine regions; it is the most widely planted variety in South Africa, where it is also known as Steen. The grape may have been one of the first to be grown in South Africa by Jan van Riebeeck in 1655,[1] or it may have come to that country with Huguenots fleeing France after the revocation of the Edict of Nantes in 1685. Chenin Blanc was often misidentified in Australia as well, so tracing its early history in the country is not easy. It may have been introduced in James Busby's collection of 1832, but C. Waterhouse was growing Steen at Highercombe in Houghton, South Australia by 1862.[2]

It provides a fairly neutral palate for the expression of terroir, vintage variation and the winemaker's treatment.[3] In cool areas the juice is sweet but high in acid with a full-bodied fruity palate. In the unreliable summers of northern France, the acidity of under ripened grapes was often masked with chaptalization with unsatisfactory results, whereas now the less ripe grapes are made into popular sparkling wines such as Crémant de Loire. The white wines of the Anjou AOC are perhaps the best expression of Chenin as a dry wine, with flavors of quince and apples. In nearby Vouvray AOC they aim for an off-dry style, developing honey and floral characteristics with age. In the best vintages the grapes can be left on the vines to develop noble rot, producing an intense, viscous dessert wine which may improve considerably with age.[4]



The writings of the French writer François Rabelais indicate that Chenin blanc was a major grape in the Loire by 16th century

The French ampelographer Pierre Galet has theorized that Chenin blanc originated in the Anjou wine region sometime in the 9th century and from there traveled to Touraine by at least the 15th century.[4] It was first mentioned in 845 the records of the abbey of Glanfeuil as growing on the left bank of the Loire river.[3] Chenin Blanc probably originated as a mutant of the Pineau d'Aunis (Chenin Noir) in Anjou.[2] In 1445 it was planted in near a site known as Mont Chenin in Touraine by the Lord of Chenonceaux and his brother in law, the abbot of Cormery. Ampelographers believe that this is the likely origin of the grape's name.[3] It then migrated throughout the Loire valley and later the Rhône. The French writer François Rabelais (1494–1553) wrote glowingly about the white wines of Anjou, and mentions the medicinal qualities of the grapes at the end of chapter XXV of Gargantua:

This done, the shepherds and shepherdesses made merry with these cakes and fine grapes, and sported themselves together at the sound of the pretty small pipe, scoffing and laughing at those vainglorious cake-bakers, who had that day met with a mischief for want of crossing themselves with a good hand in the morning. Nor did they forget to apply to Forgier's leg some fat chenin grapes, and so handsomely dressed it and bound it up that he was quickly cured.[5]

From France the grape spread to South Africa where it was most likely included among the vine cuttings sent to Jan van Riebeeck in the Cape Colony by the Dutch East India Company. In the 20th century it was discovered that a sub-variety of Chenin planted in the Loire was not actually Chenin blanc at all but rather the grape Verdelho which is banned from French AOC regulations in the Loire.[3] In 1999, DNA profiling conducted by ampelographers in Austria suggested that Chenin blanc may be a parent of Sauvignon blanc.[4]


Chenin blanc grapes, like these Sauvignon blanc grapes pictured, are highly sensitive to developing noble rot which produces a unique style of wine.

The Chenin blanc grapevine buds early in the growing season and ripens late-traits that would make the vine more ideal in warmer climates rather than the cool Loire Valley. However, in warm years, the balance between the Loire's marginal climate and the warmth needed to attain full ripeness has the potential of producing wines with some depth of complexity and finesse.[3] In recent years, new clonal varieties have developed that delays budding and increases sugar development during the ripening phase with six of these clones being officially sanctioned by the French government.[4] The vine is semi-upright in habit with 3-5 lobed leaves. It tends to break bud early, and the conical, winged bunches contain yellow-green grapes that ripen late.[2] The berries are typically 16.0 mm long x 14.2 mm wide, with an average weight of 1.79g.[6] The age of the vine can have an influence on wine quality with older vines producing naturally lower yields and when infected by noble rot (which also lowers yields and adds and intensifies certain flavors), producing wines with less overtly floral aroma notes but more depth and layers.[3]

The climate of a wine region will largely dictate whether Chenin blanc is produced in a predominately sweet or dry manner, while the vineyard soil type will generally influence the overall style of the wine. Heavy clay based soils, paired with the right climate, is favorable to the development of weighty, botrytized dessert wines that need times to age and mature. Well-drained and less organic, predominately sandy soils tend to produce lighter styles of wine that mature more quickly. Chenin blanc planted in soils with a high silex content will produce wines with distinctive minerally noted while limestone based soils will encourages wines with sharp acidity. In Vouvray the soil is predominately argilo-calcaire or calcareous clay which produces rounded wines with both acidity and weight. In areas where schist is plentiful in the soil, Chenin blanc grapes will generally ripen earlier than in vineyards with predominately clay based soils.[3]

Yields and harvest times

Producers will often harvest Chenin blanc by hand in a succession of pickings known as tries. The grapes may be harvested as whole clusters or individual berries.

While true for most wine grape varieties, the quality of Chenin blanc wine is intimately connected to the care taken in the vineyard. If the grapes are harvested too soon, before they ripen, the high acidity of the resulting wine will be (according to wine expert Oz Clarke) "one of the nastiest wines possible". If the grapes are harvested at too high of yields, the grapes will not retain any of Chenin blanc's distinctive character notes.[3] In the Loire, French regulations mandate that yields be kept low to 40-50hl/ha. At these levels more of Chenin blanc's varietal characteristics of floral, honeyed aromas can exhibited. When the grape is harvested at high yields, such as the California Central Valley average of 10 tons per acre (175 hl/ha), Chenin's flavors become more bland and neutral.[4] The vine is naturally vigorous and prone to overcropping if not kept in check. In fertile soils, such as those of some parts of South Africa, Chenin blanc can easily produce yields of 240 hl/ha. To keep yields in check, vineyard managers may choose to graft Chenin vines with less vigorous rootstock from Vitis riparia or Vitis rupestris vines. During the growing season, they may also elect to do a green harvest where excess grape clusters are removed.[3]

With optimal ripeness and balance between acidity and sugars being such a viticultural priority for Chenin blanc, many growers (such as those in the Loire Valley) will harvest the grapes in tries or successive pickings through the vineyards. During each series of picking only the ripest clusters or individual grapes are harvested by hand during a period that could last four to six weeks and include three to six passes through the vineyard. For the production of sweet botrytized wines, pickers will look for the grapes that have achieved the necessary amount of the noble rot. In hot and dry years where no noble rot occurs, pickers may leave ripen grapes on the vine long enough to shrivel or passerillé where it could later be effected by noble rot. In areas that experience a lot of vintage variation, winemakers may decide on a day by day basis what style and dryness of Chenin blanc that could make with the grapes harvested during eeach tries going to different styles of wine. For some producers in Vouvray, which may have up to six tries during harvest, the first few tries could go to sparkling and dry wine production while the later tries could go towards sweet wine production.[3]

Winemaking and wine styles

A South African (left) and Loire (right) Chenin blanc

Wine expert Jancis Robinson has noted that Chenin blanc is probably the world's most versatile grape being able to produce quality wines of various sweetness, including dessert wines noted for their aging ability, as well as sparkling made according to the méthode champenoise and fortified wines. The grape can distinguish itself as a single varietal wine or it can add acidity as a blending component. Its ability to be crafted into premium quality wines across a wide spectrum of dry and sweetness levels invites the comparison to German Rieslings-with Robinson noting that in many ways Chenin blanc is France's answer to the German Riesling.[4]

One of the major differences between Old world and New world styles of Chenin blanc is the fermentation temperature. Old World style producers in the Loire tend to ferment their Chenin blanc at higher temperatures, 60-68°F (16-20°C), than New World producers in South Africa and elsewhere which usually ferments their whites at temperatures around 50-54°F (10-12°C). This is because Old World wine producer tend not to put a premium on the tropical fruit flavors and aromas that come out more vividly with cooler fermentation temperatures. Chenin blanc can accommodate some skin contact and maceration which will allow extraction of phenolic compounds that could add to the complexity of the wine. Two of the aromas that skin contact can bring out is the characteristic greengage and angelica notes of Chenin. The grape's characteristic acidity can be softened by malolactic fermentation which will give the wine a creamier or "fattier" texture as would a period spent aging on the lees. The use of wood or oak aging is up to each individual producer. Old World producers tend to shy away from the use of new oak barrels which can impart flavors of vanilla, spice and toastiness-though these notes maybe desirable for a New World producer. In Savennières there is a tradition of using acacia and chestnut barrels for aging though acacia can impart a yellow tint to the wine and chestnut barrels may add some buttery notes.[3]

Wine regions

While Chenin blanc is planted across the globe from China to New Zealand to Canada and Argentina, it is considered a "major" planting in only a few locations.[3] Though France is the viticultural home of Chenin blanc, by the turn of the 21st century there was twice as much Chenin blanc planted in South Africa as there was in France. The grapes' versatility and ability to reflect terroir causes it to lead, what Jancis Robinson describes as, a "double life". In the Loire Valley of France it is prized as a premium quality wine grape able to produce world class wines while in many New World wine regions it used as a "workhorse variety", contributing acidity to bulk white blends and showing more neutral flavors rather than terroir. Throughout all its manifestations, Chenin blanc's characteristic acidity is found almost universally in all wine regions.[4]


Chenin blanc can be made in a variety of styles, such as this sparkling wine from Vouvray.

Ampelographers theorize that Chenin blanc originated in the Loire Valley of France sometime in the 9th century. Today the Loire is the French wine region most closely associated with the variety. Chenin blanc is an authorized planting in many Appellation d'origine contrôlée (AOC) regions but is mostly planted in the Middle Loire AOCs of Anjou, Bonnezeaux, Crémant de Loire, Coteaux de l'Aubance, Coteaux du Layon, Jasnières, Montlouis, Quarts de Chaume, Saumur, Savennières and Vouvray.[4] The wines of the Coteaux du Layon, Bonnezeaux and Quarts de Chaume are produced as sweet dessert wines, while Savennières produces predominately dry wines. The wines of Anjou, Crémant de Loire, Coteaux de l'Aubance, Jasnières, Montlouis, Saumur and Vouvray produces have a wide range of sweetness levels from dry to semi-sweet to sweet.[7] While most Chenin blanc is produced as a varietal wine, up to 20% of Chardonnay and Sauvignon blanc are permitted in wines with the basic Anjou, Saumur and Touraine designations. The high acidity of Chenin blancs lends itself well to sparkling wine production where it is an important component of Crémant de Loire, sparkling Vouvray and in the Languedoc wine region of Limoux where it is blended with Mauzac and Chardonnay.[4] Outside of the Loire, other French plantings of Chenin blanc can be found in Corsica, the Languedoc, Charentes and the Aveyron department.[3]

In the 1970s, plantings of Chenin blanc in the Loire was uprooted in favor of the more fashionable red Cabernet Franc and white Sauvignon blanc as well as the easier-to-grow Gamay. This consolidated Chenin's presence to the Middle Loire region around Anjou-Saumur and Touraine. In the 1980s, interest in the sweet dessert wines of the Loire renewed enthusiasm for Chenin blanc in the region. During this time the Bordeaux wine region of Sauternes had experienced a series of favorable vintages that saw a dramatic increase in prices as supply began to dwindle in face of high demand. Wine consumers who had developed an appreciation for these sweet wines began to look to the Loire as another source. The 1990s brought a string successful vintages to the Middle Loire that produced many highly rated Chenin wines affected by noble rot. As wine expert Oz Clarke noted, these wines became the "standard-bearer" for Chenin blanc.[3]

The climate of the wine region tends to dictate what style of Chenin blanc is most prevalent in the area. In the northernmost reaches of Jasnières, Chenin blanc is at its limits for cultivation with the wines being mostly dry and thin. While most of the Middle Loire experience a continental climate, the Coteaux du Layon receives more climatic influence from the Atlantic Ocean which promotes the development of Botrytis cinerea than in nearby Vouvray or Montlouis. While all three AOC produce sweet, botrytized wine there tends to be less vintage variation in the Coteaux du Layon. The cool continental influences of Montlouis and Vouvray lends itself to producing a wide range of Chenin blanc including grapes with the necessary balance of acidity to sugar needed to produced sparkling wine. In the AOC of Savennières, there is less fog and mist from the nearby rivers and lots of wind that makes it difficult for botrytis to take root. This part of the reason why Savennières is the one Loire AOC that produced predominately dry Chenin blanc. In the south of France, the warm Mediterranean climate of the Languedoc region encourages the production of much more dry styles of Chenin blanc rather sweet.[3]

South Africa

South African Chenin blancs tend to emphasize more tropical fruit flavors than their Loire counterparts.

In South Africa, Chenin blanc is the most widely planted variety—accounting for nearly one-fifth of all vineyard plantings in the early 21st century. The variety was most likely introduced to the country in the collection of vine cuttings sent to Jan van Riebeeck by the Dutch East India Company. For the next couple hundred years of South African wine history, the variety was known as Steen. It wasn't till 1965 that ampelographers were able to concretely identify the numerous plantings of Steen around the country as being Chenin blanc. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, Chenin blanc was the principal grape in the "white wine renaissance" of the South African wine industry that was ushered in by the introduction of new technologies such as temperature controlled fermentation vessels. During this time the focus was on producing off-dry, clean and crisp wine that was mostly neutral in flavor that could capitalize on the wine market's demand for white wine. Near the end of the century, several Chenin blanc specialist producers emerged that worked with vineyard managers to isolate older Chenin vines on suitable terroir that could produce wines that exhibit Chenin's unique aromas and trait. While plantings of Chenin blanc have decreased in recent years, the work of these producers has risen the quality profile of South African Chenin blanc.[4] The majority of Chenin blanc in South Africa is planted in the Stellenbosch, Paarl and Worcester regions with Malmesbury in Swartland also having sizable plantings.[3]

United States

While during the 1980s, the California wine industry had more acreage of Chenin blanc planted than France-in recent years the numbers of plantings have steadily declined. By 2006, there were 13,000 acres (5,300 ha) planted mostly in the hot Central Valley. For most of its history in the California wine industry, the grape was considered as "workhorse variety" that could be used anonymously in bulk and jug wine blends. Chenin's natural acidity and ability to adapt to wines of varying degrees of sweetness made it an ideal blending partner with Colombard and Chardonnay in these mass produced blends. It wasn't till close to the turn of the century that producers in the Clarksburg AVA in the Sacramento Valley started to make quality varietal Chenin blancs a specialty. Clarksburg designated Chenin blancs from these producers tend to show a characteristic musky melon aroma and have the potential to age well.[4]

In the United States, Chenin blanc is often blended with Chardonnay (pictured) or Colombard to produce low cost bulk wines.

While Chenin blanc is grown throughout the United States, the American Viticultural Areas with the most significant amount of plantings include the California AVAs of Clarksburg, Napa Valley and Mendocino, the Washington wine regions of the Yakima and Columbia Valley and the Texas High Plains AVA.[8] Other states in the United States with plantings of Chenin blanc include New York, Missouri, Wisconsin, Minnesota, Arizona, New Mexico, Maryland, North Carolina, Virginia, Idaho and Texas. In 1990 there was 44 acres (18 ha) of Chenin blanc planted in Oregon but by 2001 virtually all of it had been uprooted with only a few isolated plantings left.[3]

Other wine regions

In Australia, the country's 1,500 acres (610 ha) of Chenin blanc is mostly used as a blending variety often used with Chardonnay, Sauvignon blanc and Semillon. Australia Chenin plantings can be found in Tasmania, New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia as well as the Swan Valley and Margaret River area of Western Australia. Wine expert James Halliday describes the style of Australia Chenin blanc as "tutti-frutti" with pronounced fruit salad notes. However the wines produced in Western Australia have been garnering more critical attention.[3] In New Zealand, acreage of the variety has fallen to just under 250 acres (100 ha) by 2004. Planted primarily in the North Island, some examples of New Zealand Chenin blanc have drawn favorable comparisons to the sweet dessert styles Chenin from the Loire Valley.[4] Historically the grape has been used as a blending partner with Müller-Thurgau in mass produced blends. The success of some critically acclaimed New Zealand Chenin blanc has sparked interest in planting the variety however, as experts such as Oz Clarke have noted, as long as the value of New Zealand Chardonnay and Sauvignon blanc stays high there is little economic reason to pursue premium Chenin blanc production.[3]

The grape was exported to Israel in the 19th century where it still found in limited quantities. Chenin blanc is found planted throughout Mexico and South America, though for many years plantings in Mexico, Argentina, Brazil and Uruguay were confused for Pinot Blanc. The grape used primarily in mass produced white blends.[4] Canada has Chenin blanc planted in the Okanagan wine region of British Columbia and in Ontario. Some plantings of Chenin blanc can be found in the Spanish wine regions of Catalonia, Aragon and Navarra.[3]


The aroma of greengages are a common descriptor for Chenin blanc wines.

The aromas and flavor notes of Chenin blanc often include the descriptors of minerally, greengage, angelica and honey. Chenin wines produced from noble rot will often have notes of peaches and honey that develop into barley sugar, marzipan and quince as they age. Dry or semi-sweet Chenin blanc from the Loire will often have notes apple, greengage and chalky minerals that develop into more honey, acacia and quince aromas. New World styles of Chenin, such as those of South Africa, are more often made to be consume young and exhibit rich tropical fruit notes such as banana, guava, pear and pineapple. The alcohol level for dessert styles Chenin rarely go above 12% which keeps the wines more in balance. Drier styles of Chenin are more likely to be around 13.5%.[3]

The age ability of sweet Loire Chenin blanc is among the longest lived in the world of wine with well-made examples from favorable vintages regularly having the potential to last for at least 100 years. This longevity is attributed to the grape's naturally high acidity which acts as a preservative as the phenolic compounds in the wine breakdown, adding complexity and depth to the wine. Some off dry or "demi-sec" examples may need at least 10 years before they start drinking at peak levels and could continue to develop for another 20 to 30 years. Sparkling and dry examples of Chenin blanc from premium production and favorable vintages have also shown longevity levels not commonly associated with white wine. Chenin blanc wines are prone to going through "dumb phases" as it ages where the wine closes up, revealing little aroma and varietal characteristics.[3]

Food pairings

While Chenin blanc can be very versatile with food pairings, the different styles and sweetness of Chenin blanc are usually treated differently in pairings.

Chenin blanc can be a very versatile player in food and wine pairings but the wide range of wine styles needs to be taken into account. Lighter, dry styles can pair well with light dishes such as salads, fish and chicken. The sweeter styles Chenin blanc can balance the spicy heat of some Asian and Hispanic cuisines. The acidity and balance of medium-dry styles can pair well with cream sauces and rich dishes like pâté.[3]


Anjou, Blanc d'Aunis, Capbreton Blanc (Landes, France), Confort, Coue Fort, Cruchinet, Cugnette, Feher Chenin, Franc Blanc, Franche, Gout Fort, Luarskoe, Pineau d'Anjou, Pineau de Briollay, Pineau de la Loire, Pineau de Savennières, Pineau Gros, Pineau Gros de Vouvray, Pineau Nantais, Plant de Brézé (archaic), now more often applied to Romorantin, Plant de Salces, Plant de Salles, Plant du Clair de Lune, Quefort, Rajoulin, Rouchalin, Rougelin, Steen (South Africa), Stein, Tête de Crabe, Vaalblaar Stein, Verdurant,[6] Blanc d’Anjou, Gros Chenin, Gros Pinot Blanc de la Loire, Plant d’Anjou[2] and Gamet blanc (Aveyron, France).

See also


  1. ^ "Cultivating in Good Hope". National Library of South Africa. Archived from the original on 2007-06-08. Retrieved 2007-06-17. 
  2. ^ a b c d Radden, Rosemary. "Grapes and Wines of the World". The State Library of South Australia, GPO Box 419, Adelaide SA 5001. Retrieved 2007-06-17. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w Oz Clarke Encyclopedia of Grapes pg 75-83 Harcourt Books 2001 ISBN 0151007144
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m J. Robinson (ed) "The Oxford Companion to Wine" Third Edition pg 160-161 Oxford University Press 2006 ISBN 0198609906
  5. ^ Translation based on that of Gustave Doré (1894) at Project Gutenberg of the following French :Ce faict, et bergiers et bergieres feirent chere lye avecques ces fouaces et beaulx raisins, et se rigollerent ensemble au son de la belle bouzine, se mocquans de ces beaulx fouaciers glorieux, qui avoient trouvé male encontre par faulte de s'estre seignez de la bonne main au matin, et avec gros raisins chenins estuverent les jambes de Forgier mignonnement, si bien qu'il feut tantost guery.
  6. ^ a b Maul, E.; Eibach, R. (1999-06-00). "Vitis International Variety Catalogue". Information and Coordination Centre for Biological Diversity (IBV) of the Federal Agency for Agriculture and Food (BLE), Deichmanns Aue 29, 53179 Bonn, Germany. Retrieved 2007-06-17. 
  7. ^ T. Stevenson "The Sotheby's Wine Encyclopedia" pg 204-206 Dorling Kindersley 2005 ISBN 0756613248
  8. ^ Appellation American "Chenin blanc, Accessed: July 7th 2006

External links

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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Chenin Blanc — Chenin Blanc. Chenin Blanc, auch Chenin blanc, ist eine weit verbreitete, alte weiße Rebsorte, die in Frankreich (in Anjou Touraine) schon seit dem 9. Jahrhundert angebaut wird. Sie gehört zu den Edelreben. Sie heißt auch Pineau de la Loire oder… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Chenin blanc — Chenin Chenin B Caractéristiques phénologiques Débourrement A sec et sans élan Floraison À compléter Véraison À compléter Matu …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Chenin blanc — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Uvas chenin blanc. Chenin blanc o, simplemente, Chenin, es una cepa de uva blanca (Vitis vinifera) cuya calidad es mediana y garantizada. También se la conoce con otros nombres: Pineau d’Anjou, Pineau de la Loire,… …   Wikipedia Español

  • chenin blanc — [shə nan blän′; ] E [ shen′in bläŋk′] n. [Fr < OFr (reisin) chenin, (grape) of the dog + blanc, white] [also C B ] 1. a dry to semisweet white wine 2. the white grape from which it is made …   English World dictionary

  • Chenin blanc —   [ʃə nɛ̃ blã] der, , Pineau de la Loire [pi no dla lwaːr], alte französische Rebsorte mit großen und kompakten, hellen Trauben; ist v. a. im Loiregebiet vertreten und wird zu trockenen bis süßen Weißweinen sowie zu Schaumwein verarbeitet; auch… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Chenin Blanc — Uvas chenin blanc. Chenin blanc o, simplemente, Chenin, es una cepa de uva blanca (Vitis vinifera) cuya calidad es mediana y garantizada. También se la conoce con otros nombres: Pineau d’Anjou, Pineau de la Loire, Pineau Vert, Pinot Blanco,… …   Wikipedia Español

  • Chenin blanc — noun 1. white grape grown especially in California and the lower Loire valley of France • Hypernyms: ↑vinifera, ↑vinifera grape, ↑common grape vine, ↑Vitis vinifera 2. made in California and the Loire valley in France • Hypernyms: ↑white wine …   Useful english dictionary

  • chenin blanc — noun Usage: often capitalized C & B Etymology: French, literally, white Chenin (a grape variety) Date: 1913 any of various white wines ranging from dry to sweet made from a grape originally grown in the Loire valley …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • Chenin Blanc — франц. Шенен Блан, Шенен белый а) (белый сорт винограда, распространенный в Долине Луары (Анжу, Вувре), Новой Зеландиии и Южной Африке, идет на производство белых вин (сухих, полусладких, сладких) и игристых (Вувре); Шенен белый собирают после… …   Англо-русский толковый словарь "Вино"

  • Chenin Blanc — /shen in blahngk /; Fr. /sheuh naonn blahonn / a grape used in the making of white wine, esp. in the lower Loire valley of France and in California. * * * …   Universalium