- Fengtian clique
The Fengtian Clique (zh-cp|c=奉系|p=Fèng Xì) was one of several mutually hostile
cliques or factions that split from the Beiyang Clique in the Republic of China's warlord era. It was named for Fengtian Province (now Liaoning) and led by Zhang Zuolin. The Fengtian clique participated in conflicts with the Zhili cliquefor control of Beijing: the First Zhili-Fengtian War(1922) and the Second Zhili-Fengtian War(1924). The power of the Fengtian Clique began to decrease in the midst of the Kuomintang's Northern Expedition. While retreating North Zhang Zuolin's Japanese sponsors blew up his Train killing him. After the assassination of Zhang Zuolin in 1928 by the Japanese, his son, Zhang Xueliangtook over the leadership of the clique. Zhang Xueliang then went on to pledge himself and his army to Chiang Kai-Shek.
The Fengtian Army
The Fentian Army was named after the home province of its leader Zhang Zuolin, which was Fengtian (奉天), called Liaoning (辽宁) today.
The army of Zhang Zuolin was one of the most modern of the Chinese warlord armies, employing technology that many Chinese warlords did not have. This technology included the
Renault FT-17tank and even a lage airforce of around 100 aircraft including Breguet-14light Bombers and Breguet Type 15 fighters. The Airforce of the Fengtian Clique were commanded by Zhang Zuolin's son, Zhang Xueliang who had, while in Japan, taken a great interest in Military Aviation.Along with these more modern units, Zhang Zuolins army was not too different with other Warlord armies of the time including 'Dare to Die' unites which were virtual suicide squads, one unit of Zhang's army lost 5,000 men in one attack.Alongside these Chinese troops, the Fengtian army employed many White Russianvolunteers in its army, one unit of White Russians in the Fengtian Army was the Mukden Lancers. Zhang made good use of White Russian officers, the Soviet documentary film 'Modern Warfare in China in 1924-1925'showed these White Russians, they are named as General Nechaev, Brigadier-General Chekhov and his second-in-command Colonel Makarenko.
Zhang Zuolin- Overall Fengtian Commander
Zhang Xueliang- Heir to Zhang Zuolin, Commander of the Fengtian Air Force
Zhang Zongchang- Ruler of Shandong
Wu Junsheng- Commander of Fengtian Cavalry
Guo Songling- Defected to the Guominjun
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