- Virginia Military District
The Virginia Military District was an approximately 4.2 million acre (17,000 km²) area of land in what is now the state of
Ohiothat was reserved by Virginiato use as payment for veterans of the American Revolutionary War.
Virginia had historic claims to much of the
Northwest Territory, which included Ohio, dating from its colonial charter. Virginia and the other states with claims over western lands had to cede those claims to overcome other states' objections to ratifying the Articles of Confederation. In return for ceding its claims in 1784, Virginia was granted this area to provide military bounty land grants. The Ohio district was a surplus reserve, in that military land grants were first made in an area southeast of the Ohio River, in what is now Kentucky. The Ohio land was to be used only after the land southeast of the river was exhausted.
The land was located in southern Ohio, bordered by the
Ohio Riveron the south, the Little Miami Riveron the west, and the Scioto Riveron the east and the north. The District encompassed all of the following Ohio counties: Adams, Brown, Clinton, Clermont, Highland, Fayette, Madison and Union, and portions of these counties: Scioto, Pike, Ross, Pickaway, Franklin, Delaware, Marion, Hardin, Logan, Clark, Greene, Champaign. Warren, Hamilton and Auglaize.
The District was opened for settlement in
1794, although surveys had begun in the 1780s. Surveys were done using the metes and boundsmethod used in Virginia, rather than the Public Land Survey Systemestablished by the Land Ordinance of 1785which was more used for the most of the Northwest Territory. The precise boundaries of the district was a subject of contention for many years, involving multiple acts of Congress and a Supreme Court decision (Doddridge vs. Thompson et al., 9 Wheaton, 469). Further complicating the matter was the imprecise location of the line established with the Treaty of Greenville, which separated Native American lands from lands open to white settlers and which ran through the northern portion of the District.
Virginia issued bounty land grants in this District until Ohio became a state in
1803. However, rampant land speculation and outright frauds produced a contentious muddle for many years afterward. Congress extended the time allowed for claims to be made several times. The last extension act was passed on March 3, 1855, allowing two years for claims made prior to January 1, 1852to be surveyed and patented. After two years, unsurveyed lands became property of the United States. On February 18, 1871, this unsurveyed and unsold land was ceded by the federal government to the state of Ohio. In 1872, the Ohio legislature gave this land to the Ohio Agricultural and Mechanical College (now the Ohio State University). The college trustees aggressively claimed lands where there was not clear title, sometimes uprooting families who had been farming the land for 75 years. This caused such an uproar that Congress was forced to act and on May 27, 1880, passed legislation limiting the rights of the college to unappropriated lands. Some provisions of this legislation opened the doors to a new round of legal wrangling.
Massie's Station (now
Manchester, Ohio), founded in 1791, was the first permanent settlement in the District, named after Nathaniel Massie, a surveyor and land speculator. He also founded Chillicothe, Ohioin 1796.
Many Virginians settled in the area, even though it meant giving up their slaves, due to the provisions of the
Northwest Ordinanceof 1787.
Process of claiming land
Virginia soldiers of the Continental line, who served in the Revolutionary War, were eligible to procure a bounty award in the form of land, according to a formula based on rank and time of service. The first step was to secure a proper certificate of actual service and to then acquire a printed warrant from the land office in Virginia specifying the quantity of land. This warrant empowered the person to whom it was given, or heirs and assignees, to select the specified area from anywhere within the military reserve district. After the location was chosen and boundaries surveyed, the owner of the warrant exchanged it for a patent, which was equivalent to a deed in fee simple and passed all title of the government to the holder.
The land was never divided into regular townships, as in the
Public Lands Survey System, and because persons could select their allotment from anywhere within the district, there were frequently competing and overlapping claims.
* [http://gateway.library.uiuc.edu/ihx/rcanderson/index.html Richard Clough Anderson Papers (1784-1904)] Index and articles about the principal surveyor for the area in both Kentucky and Ohio
* [http://www.oplin.org/evolution/regions/vamd.html Map of the Virginia Military District] from the Ohio Public Library Information Network (OPLIN) and the Ohio Historical Society
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Virginia Military Institute — Infobox University name = Virginia Military Institute native name = image size = 125px caption = Seal of the Virginia Military Institute latin name = motto = Consilio et Animis mottoeng = By wisdom and courage established = 11 November 1839… … Wikipedia
Virginia Military Institute Historic District — Infobox nrhp | name =Virginia Military Institute Historic District nrhp type = nhld caption = location= VMI campus, Lexington, Virginia locmapin = Virginia area = built =1818 architect= A.J. Davis; Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue architecture=… … Wikipedia
First Military District — The First Military District existed in the American South during the Reconstruction era that followed the American Civil War included Virginia. Commanded by General John Schofield … Wikipedia
United States Army Military District of Washington — shoulder sleeve insignia … Wikipedia
District of Arizona — was a subordinate district of the Department of New Mexico territory created on August 30, 1862 and transferred to the Department of the Pacific in March 1865. Contents 1 District of Arizona (Dept. of New Mexico) Commanders 2 District … Wikipedia
Virginia — • One of the thirteen original states Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Virginia Virginia † … Catholic encyclopedia
Virginia Union University — Established 1865 Type Private, HBCU Religious affiliation America … Wikipedia
District 5 — District 5, 5 District or 5th District may refer to: Contents 1 World 1.1 City districts 1.2 Constituency districts … Wikipedia
Military Division of the South — was a U. S. Army established in 1869 during the period of Reconstruction. Major General H. W. Halleck was assigned to the command of the military division of the South, which was composed of the Departments of the South and Louisiana, of the… … Wikipedia
District of California — The District of California was a Union Army command department formed during the American Civil War. The district was part of the Department of the Pacific, the commander of the department also being District commander. The district was created… … Wikipedia