Photogrammetry

Photogrammetry

Photogrammetry is the first remote sensing technology ever developed, in which geometric properties about objects are determined from photographic images. Historically, photogrammetry is as old as modern photography itself, and can be dated to mid-nineteenth century.

In the simplest example, the distance between two points which lay on a plane parallel to the photographic image plane can be determined by measuring their distance on the image, if the scale s of the image is known. This is done by multiplying the measured distance by 1/"s".

A more sophisticated technique, called stereophotogrammetry, makes it possible to estimate the three-dimensional coordinates of points on an object. These are determined by measurements made in two or more photographic images taken from different positions (see stereoscopy). Common points are identified on each image. A line of sight (or ray) can be constructed from the camera location to the point on the object. It is the intersection of these rays (triangulation) that determines the three-dimensional location of the point. More sophisticated algorithms can exploit other information about the scene that is known "a priori", for example symmetries, in some cases allowing reconstructions of 3D coordinates from only one camera position.

Photogrammetry is used in different fields, such as topographic mapping, architecture, engineering, manufacturing, quality control, police investigation, and geology, as well as by archaeologists to quickly produce plans of large or complex sites and by meteorologists as a way to determine the actual wind speed of a tornado where objective weather data cannot be obtained. It is also used to combine live action with computer generated imagery in movie post-production; "Fight Club" is a good example of the use of photogrammetry in film (details are given in the DVD extras).

Algorithms for photogrammetry typically express the problem as that of minimizing the sum of the squares of a set of errors. This minimization is known as bundle adjustment and is often performed using the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm.

Photogrammetric methods

"Photogrammetry" uses methods from many disciplines including optics and projective geometry. The data model on the right shows what type of information can go into and come out of photogrammetric methods.

The "3D co-ordinates" define the locations of object points in the 3D space. The "image co-ordinates" define the locations of the object points' images on the film or an electronic imaging device. The "exterior orientation" of a camera defines its location in space and its view direction. The "inner orientation" defines the geometric parameters of the imaging process. This is primarily the focal length of the lens, but can also include the description of lens distortions. Further "additional observations" play an important role: With "scale bars", basically a known distance of two points in space, or known "fix points", the connection to the basic measuring units is created.

Each of the four main variables can be an "input" or an "output" of a photogrammetric method.

Photogrammetry has been defined by ASPRS [http://www.asprs.org/society/about.html] as the art, science, and technology of obtaining reliable information about physical objects and the environment through processes of recoding, measuring and interpreting photographic images and patterns of recorded radiant electromagnetic energy and other phenomena.

Integration of Photogrammetric Data with LiDAR Data

Photogrammetry and LiDAR data complement each other. Photogrammetry is more accurate in the x and y direction while LiDAR is more accurate in the z direction. Photos can clearly define the edges of buildings when the LiDAR point cloud footprint can not. It is beneficial to incorporate the advantages of both systems and integrate it to create a better product.

A 3D visualization can be created by georeferencing the aerial photos and LiDAR data in the same reference frame, orthorectifying the aerial photos, and then draping the orthorectified images on top of the LiDAR grid.

ee also

*Aerial Survey
*Edouard Deville, inventor
*Land Surveying
*Photomapping
*Geomatics engineering
*Videogrammetry
*Panoscan
*SOCET SET
*RainStorm
*ERDAS IMAGINE

* [http://www.isprs.org/ International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing]
* [http://www.asprs.org/ American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing]
* [http://www.photogrammetry.ethz.ch/research/bamiyan/buddha/reconstruction_metric/reconstruction.html A real world example of usage in reconstructing destroyed historical statues by using photographs]

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

См. также в других словарях:

• Photogrammetry — Pho to*gram me*try, n. [Photogram + metry.] A method of surveying or map making by photography, used also in determining the height and motions of clouds, sea waves, and the like. [Webster 1913 Suppl.] …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

• photogrammetry — [fōt΄ō gram′ə trē] n. [photogram (var., modeled on GRAM, of PHOTOGRAPH) + METRY] the art or process of surveying or measuring, as in map making, by taking photographs, esp. aerial photographs photogrammetric [fōt΄ōgrə me′trik] adj.… …   English World dictionary

• photogrammetry — photogrammetric /foh toh greuh me trik/, photogrammetrical, adj. photogrammetrically, adv. photogrammetrist, n. /foh teuh gram i tree/, n. the process of making surveys and maps through the use of photographs, esp. aerial photographs. [1870 75;… …   Universalium

• photogrammetry — The science and art of obtaining accurate measurements by use of photographs for various purposes, such as construction of planimetric and topographic maps, classification of soils, interpretation of geology, acquisition of military intelligence …   Aviation dictionary

• photogrammetry — fotogrametrija statusas T sritis Standartizacija ir metrologija apibrėžtis Geodezijos šaka, kurios svarbiausias tikslas – iš fotografinių nuotraukų matavimų nustatyti įvairių objektų pavidalą, matmenis ir padėtį, sudaryti planus ir žemėlapius.… …   Penkiakalbis aiškinamasis metrologijos terminų žodynas

• photogrammetry — fotogrametrija statusas T sritis Gynyba apibrėžtis Karinis techninis dalykas, nustatantis nufotografuotų objektų formą, dydį ir išdėstymą. Pagal fotogravimo būdus būna antžeminė fotogrametrija ir aerofotogrametrija. Fotogrametrija reikalinga… …   Artilerijos terminų žodynas

• photogrammetry — fotogrammetrija statusas T sritis fizika atitikmenys: angl. photogrammetry; phototopography vok. Photogrammetrie, f; Phototopographie, f rus. фотограмметрия, f; фототопография, f pranc. photogrammetrie, f; phototopographie, f …   Fizikos terminų žodynas

• photogrammetry — fotogrametrija statusas T sritis Gynyba apibrėžtis Mokslas, tiriantis objektų formų, parametrų ir padėties erdvėje nustatymo būdus pagal jų fotografinius atvaizdus. atitikmenys: angl. photogrammetry pranc. photogrammétrie …   NATO terminų aiškinamasis žodynas

• photogrammetry — The science or art of obtaining reliable measurements from photographic images …   Military dictionary

• photogrammetry — noun Etymology: International Scientific Vocabulary photogram photograph (from phot + gram) + metry Date: 1875 the science of making reliable measurements by the use of photographs and especially aerial photographs (as in surveying) •… …   New Collegiate Dictionary

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