- Roberto Devereux
"Roberto Devereux" (or "Roberto Devereux, ossia Il conte di Essex" ["Roberto Devereux, or the Earl of Essex"] ) is a "tragedia lirica", or tragic
opera, by Gaetano Donizetti. Salvatore Cammaranowrote the Italian librettoafter François Ancelot's tragedy "Elisabeth d'Angleterre".
It is loosely based on the life of
Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, an influential member of Queen Elizabeth's court. It is one of a number of operas by Donizetti which deal with the Tudor periodin English history and include " Anna Bolena", " Maria Stuarda" and " Il castello di Kenilworth".
It was first performed on
October 29 1837at the Teatro San Carlo, Naples.
The plot of "Roberto Devereux" was hardly original and was liberally taken from "Il Conte d'Essex" by
Felice Romani(1833). Romani's widow charged Cammarano with plagiarism though the practice of stealing plots was very common between rival Italian opera houses.
Robert Devereux was the subject of at three least French plays: "Le Comte d'Essex" by
Pierre Corneille, "Le Comte d'Essex" by La Calprenede, and the source of this opera "Elisabeth d'Angleterre" by François Ancelot.
There are many historical inaccuracies in the libretto but it makes for an excellent drama.
Though the opera is rarely performed today, it contains some of Donizetti's best vocal writing. The opera is raw and emotional; it is a powerful vehicle for the soprano. Some of the highlights include the Act I duet between Elizabeth and Robert "Nascondi, frena i palpiti". The final scene is one of the most dramatic and difficult in bel canto opera. As Elizabeth is going mad with the death of her lover, "Quel sangue versato" pushes romantic opera to the limits of melodic expression.
The story revolves around a love quadrangle involving Elizabeth, Queen of England; Robert Devereux, Duke of Essex; the Duke of Nottingham; and Sara, the Duchess of Nottingham. Robert and Sara had been lovers, but while Robert was fighting in Ireland, the Queen forced Sara to marry Nottingham. Elizabeth has given Robert a special ring to guarantee his safety. The Queen is in love with Robert and is willing to forgive his treachery to the throne of England if he pledges his love to her. He is arrested with incriminating evidence including a blue scarf that belongs to Sara. Robert refuses to name his secret lover. This enrages Elizabeth who orders him sent to the
Tower of Londonand executed.
Robert refuses to betray Sara and further enrages Elizabeth and Nottingham. While in the Tower of London, Robert sends Sara his ring and tells her to beg Elizabeth for mercy. Nottingham stops Sara and imprisons her to enact his revenge on Robert.
Elizabeth is mournful about the pending death of her lover and wonders where Sara is. Finally, Sara arrives disheveled and gives Elizabeth the ring. The Queen in vain tries to stop the execution but then hears the cannons announcing Robert's death. She demands to know why Nottingham prevented this evidence from being given to her and he says, "Blood I wanted, and blood I got!" Elizabeth is haunted by the headless corpse of Robert. She longs for her own death and for James' accession to her throne. The opera ends with Elizabeth kissing Robert's ring to her lips.
* [http://www.karadar.com/Librettos/donizetti_roberto.html Libretto] (Italian)
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