- John Carroll (bishop)
name = John Carroll †
Archdiocese of Baltimore
Archbishop of Baltimore
November 6, 1789— December 3, 1815
Predecessor = None
February 14, 1761
date of birth =
January 8, 1735
place of birth =
Upper Marlboro, Maryland
date of death =
December 3, 1815
place of death =
Baltimore, Maryland| Infobox bishopstyles
dipstyle=The Most Reverend
John Carroll, (
January 8 1735– December 3 1815) was the first bishopand archbishopin the United States— serving as the ordinaryof the Roman CatholicArchdiocese of Baltimore. He is also known as the founder of Georgetown University, the oldest Catholic university in the United States, and the Georgetown Preparatory School, the oldest Catholic day and boarding school in the United States. John Carroll University, a Jesuit university in University Heights, Ohio; is named in his honor [ [http://www.jcu.edu/about/history.htm About JCU - John Carroll University ] ] , as is Archbishop Carroll High Schoolin Washington, DC [ [http://www.archbishopcarroll.com WELCOME! | Archbishop Carroll High School ] ] and the John Carroll School, in Bel Air, Maryland.
Carroll was born in Upper Marlboro,
Maryland, and educated at the College of St. Omerin French Flanders(during the upheavals following the French Revolutionthe college migrated to Brugesand then Liègebefore finally settling at Stonyhurstin Englandin 1794 where it remains to this day). He joined the Society of Jesusin 1753 and was ordained to the priesthood in 1761. Carroll remained in Europe until he was almost 40, teaching at St-Omer and Liège, and acting as chaplain to several British aristocrats traveling on the continent.
When the Society of Jesus was dissolved in 1773, Carroll made arrangements to return to Maryland, where he founded St. John the Evangelist Parish at Forest Glen (Silver Spring) in 1774. In 1776, the
Continental Congressasked Carroll, his cousin Charles Carroll, Samuel Chase, and Benjamin Franklinto travel to Quebecand attempt to persuade the French Canadianpopulation to join the revolution. Although the group was unsuccessful, it made Carroll well known to the government of the new republic. Carroll was in fact excommunicated by the local Quebec bishop, Jean-Olivier Briand. [ [http://www.catholicnewsagency.com/new.php?n=13448 Cardinal Foley entertains Knight’s dinner, asks for lifting of excommunication ] ]
In 1783, the Jesuit Fathers, led by Carroll and five other priests, began a series of meetings at White Marsh beginning on 27 June, 1783 called the General Chapters that organized the Catholic Church in the United States on what is now the site of Sacred Heart Church in Maryland. [cite web
title =Sacred Heart Church - The Parish with Colonial Roots - since 1728
publisher =Sacred Heart Church
accessdate = 2007-06-14 ] cite encyclopedia
title = John Carroll
encyclopedia =Catholic Encyclopedia (1913)
accessdate = 2007-10-03 ]
In 1784, based on Franklin's recommendation to the papal
nuncioin Paris, Carroll was made "Superior of Missions in the United States of North America", establishing a hierarchyin the United Statesand removing the Catholic Church in the U.S. from the authority of the Vicar Apostolic of the London District. He was appointed Bishop of Baltimore on November 6 1789, by Pope Pius VI, becoming the first bishopin the United States.
In 1791, Bishop Carroll convened the first
synodof priests in the U.S. In 1806, he oversaw the construction of America's first Catholic Cathedral, the Basilica of the National Shrine of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Maryin Baltimore, Maryland, which was designed by Benjamin Henry Latrobe, architect of the United States Capitol. He became the first Catholic archbishopin the U.S. in 1808 when Baltimore was elevated to an archdiocese.
Carroll's remains are interred in the crypt of the Basilica of the National Shine of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, which can be visited by the public.
* [http://www.baltimorebasilica.org Basilica of the National Shrine of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary]
* [http://www.archbalt.org Archdiocese of Baltimore]
* [http://www.archbalt.org/our-history/ordinaries-detail.cfm?customel_datapageid_999=1343 Archdiocese of Baltimore Page About John Carroll]
* [http://www.ewtn.com/library/BISHOPS/BC1792.htm Pastoral letter of 1792]
* [http://www.jcu.edu John Carroll University]
Also, Carroll College, in Helena, Montana is named after John Carroll.
*Louis O'Donovan (1908); [http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/03381b.htm "John Carroll"] , "
Catholic Encyclopedia"; url accessed March 29, 2007
* [http://www.baltimorebasilica.org/history.php?page=history/content_history_carroll.php&img1=history/images/carroll01.jpg&img2=history/images/carroll02.jpg&img3=history/images/carroll03.jpg "Archbishop John Carroll (1790-1815)"] ;
Basilica of the National Shrine of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, url accessed March 29, 2007
*Thomas W. Spalding , CFX (1997); [http://www.archbalt.org/our-history/ordinaries-detail.cfm?customel_datapageid_999=1343 "Most Rev. John Carroll"] ;
Archdiocese of Baltimore;, url accessed March 29, 2007
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