- Glomus (fungus)
name = "Glomus"
genus = "Glomus"
subdivision_ranks = Species
("ca." 90 species described)
"Glomus" is a
genusof arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, and all speciesform symbioticrelationships ( mycorrhizas) with plant roots. "Glomus" is the largest genus of AM fungi, with "ca." 90 species described, but as currently defined is non- monophyletic. [ [http://www.lrz-muenchen.de/~schuessler/amphylo/amphylogeny.html AMF-phylogeny.com] ]
"Glomus" is the only genus in the family Glomeraceae, in the division
Glomeromycota. Some members of the genus were originally described as "Sclerocystis" species, but this genus has been entirely transferred to "Glomus". However, further taxonomic changes are likely as the phylogeny of AM fungi becomes better understood.
"Glomus" is likely related to the fossil fungus "
Glomites", discovered in the Rhynie chertdeposits from the Early Devonian (400 million years ago).
As with other AM fungi, all "Glomus" species are thought to be obligate symbionts, dependent on their mycorrhizal association with plant roots to complete their life cycle. They cannot be cultured in the laboratory in the absence of a plant host. "Glomus" species are found in nearly all terrestrial habitats, including
arable land, deserts, grasslands, tropical forests, and tundras.
Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi can provide numerous benefits to their plant hosts, including improved nutrient uptake,
droughtresistance, and disease resistance. However, the symbiosis is not mutualisticin all circumstances and may often be parasitic, with a detrimental effect on plant growth. Rarely, some plant species can parasitise the fungi.cite journal
author=Bidartondo, M.I., Redecker, D., Hijri, I., Wiemken, A., Bruns, T.D., Dominguez, L., Sersic A., Leake, J.R., Read, D.J.
title= Epiparasitic plants specialized on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi
"Glomus" species are entirely
asexual. Spores are produced at the tips of hyphaeeither within the host root or outside the root in the soil. Thought to be chlamydospores, these spores germinate and the germination tube that is produced grows through the soil until it comes into contact with roots. The fungus then penetrates the root and grows between root cells, or it may penetrate the cell walland grow within root cells. Inside the root, the fungus forms arbuscules, which are highly branched hyphal structures that serve as sites of nutrient exchange with the plant. Arbuscules are formed within plant cell walls but are surrounded by an invaginated cell membrane, so remain within the apoplast. The fungus may also form vesicles, swollen structures which are thought to function as food storage organs.
Several species of "Glomus", including "G. aggregatum", are cultured and sold as mycorrhizal
inoculantfor agricultural soils. One species, "G. macrocarpum" (and possibly also "G. microcarpum"), causes tobaccostunt disease.cite journal
author=Modjo, H.S., Hendrix, J.W.
title= The mycorrhizal fungus "Glomus macrocarpum" as a cause of tobacco stunt disease
* [http://annual.sp2000.org/browse_taxa.php?path=0,16963400,16964022,16964023,16964032,16964033,17008904&selected_taxon=17008904 "Genus "Glomus" at the Catalogue of Life Checklist]
* [http://invam.caf.wvu.edu/index.html International Culture Collection of (Vesicular) Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi]
* [http://www.biologie.uni-hamburg.de/b-online/library/steur/engrhyn/eglomit.html Symbiotic Fungi]
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