Kamehameha Schools

Kamehameha Schools

Infobox School

image_size = 100px
caption = The Kamehameha Schools' seal.
name = Kamehameha Schools
streetaddress = 1887 Makuakāne Street
city = Honolulu
state = Hawaiʻi
zipcode = 96813
country = USA
religion = Protestant
established = 1887
founder = Bernice Pauahi Bishop
president = Michael J. Chun, Ph.D.
gender = Coeducational
type = Independent
Primary and Secondary
grades = Preschool to 12
campus = Kapālama, Pukalani, Keaʻau
campus type = Urban
song = Sons of Hawaiokinai
fightsong = I Mua Kamehameha
motto = I Mua Kamehameha
motto_translation = Forward, Kamehameha
alma mater = Sons of Hawaiokinai
accreditation = Western Association of Schools and Colleges
mascot = Warriors
school_colors = Blue and White
yearbook = Ka Naokinai Aupuni
newspaper = Ka Mōokinaī
free_label = Distinctions
free_text = Largest endowment of all independent schools in the United States. At the end of the 2007 fiscal year, the endowment was valued at $9.0 billion. [ [http://graphics8.nytimes.com/images/2008/01/25/business/2008prepgraphic.jpgEndowment Figures] ]
homepage = http://www.ksbe.edu

Kamehameha Schools, formerly called Kamehameha Schools/Bishop Estate, is a private co-educational college-preparatory institution in Hawaiokinai that operates three campuses statewide: Kapālama (Oahu), Pukalani (Maui), and Keaokinaau. Kamehameha serves over 6,500 students from preschool through the twelfth grade. Kamehameha was established in 1887 under the terms of the last will and testament of Bernice Pauahi Bishop [ [http://www.ksbe.edu/pauahi/will.php Will and Codicils of Ke Ali'i Bernice Pauahi Paki Bishop] ] , a direct descendant of Kamehameha the Great and last of the House of Kamehameha. Bishop's will established a trust currently called the Bernice Pauahi Bishop Estate, the largest private landowner in the state of Hawaiokinai. Income from the trust is used to operate the schools.

The schools' controversial admissions policy gives preference to applicants with Native Hawaiian ancestry and has effectively excluded all but two non-Hawaiians from attending since 1965. A lawsuit challenging the school's admission policy resulted in a narrow victory for Kamehameha in the Ninth Circuit Court; however, Kamehameha ultimately settled the case out of court, paying the plaintiff $7 million.cite news |first=Jim |last=Dooley |title=Kamehameha Schools settled lawsuit for $7M |url=http://the.honoluluadvertiser.com/article/2008/Feb/08/ln/hawaii802080371.html |work=The Honolulu Advertiser |date=2008-02-08 |accessdate=2008-02-08]


In 1883, Princess Bernice Pauahi Bishop directed that the remainder of her estate, inherited through her cousin Princess Ruth Keelikolani, be held in trust "to erect and maintain in the Hawaiian Islands two schools... one for boys and one girls, to be known as and called the Kamehameha Schools." She directed her five trustees to invest her estate at their discretion and use the annual income to operate the schools, and also:

...to devote a portion of each years income to the support and education of orphans, and others in indigent circumstances, giving the preference to Hawaiians of pure or part aboriginal blood.

She also directed:
* that replacement trustees be appointed by the Hawaiokinai Supreme Court, and that they be Protestants, and
* that all teachers be Protestant, without regard to denomination. [http://www.ksbe.edu/endowment/bpbishop/will/allwill.html]

After Mrs. Bishop's death in 1884, her husband Charles Reed Bishop started work in carrying out her will. The original Kamehameha School for Boys was established in 1887 on the site which is currently occupied by Bishop Museum. The girls' school was established in 1894 on a nearby campus. By 1955 both schools moved to their current 600 acre (2.4 km²) headquarters in Kapālama Heights.


Before 1997, the KSBE trustees were appointed by the Hawaiokinai State Supreme Court. Many of the Bishop Estate trustees that were appointed in recent history were also former government leaders. Commissions paid to the trustees in 1997 were about $800,000 to $900,000 annually.

At the same time, there were allegations by some at Kamehameha Schools that the trustees were micromanaging the schools. Duties among the trustees were divided so that each trustee would be a "lead trustee" overseeing a particular part of the estate's operations. In particular, trustee Lokelani Lindsey, lead trustee for educational affairs, was blamed for low morale among students and faculty.

On August 9, 1997, University of Hawaii Board of Regents Chair Gladys Brandt, retired judge Walter Heen, Msgr. Charles Kekumano, federal judge Samuel King, and UH professor Randall Roth released a report titled "Broken Trust," which, among other things, called on the State Attorney General's office to fully investigate the management of KSBE. The report alleged, among other things, that:
* the method of selecting trustees (appointment by the Hawaiokinai Supreme Court) was flawed,
* the trustees did not fully understand their fiduciary responsibilities, and
* the trustees were not held accountable for their actions. [http://starbulletin.com/specials/bishop/story2.html]

On August 12, 1997, Governor Ben Cayetano directed Attorney General Margery Bronster to perform a preliminary investigation into the allegations against KSBE. In her report on September 10, 1997, she found that "the rights of the beneficiaries may be at substantial risk," and that there were "credible allegations that the intent of Bernice Pauahi Bishop is not being implemented." [http://starbulletin.com/97/09/10/news/story1.html]

This investigation continued through 1998, and reached its climax when Bronster sought the permanent removal of Lindsey and fellow trustees Richard Wong and Henry Peters. On May 6, 1999, after a six-month trial, Lindsey was permanently removed as trustee (Lindsey later appealed her removal). A day later, trustees Wong, Peters, and Gerard Jervis were also temporarily removed. The fifth trustee, Oswald Stender, voluntarily resigned. An interim board was appointed by the Probate Court to run the estate in the meantime.

The investigation also proved to be costly for Attorney General Bronster, whose renomination to her post was defeated by the State Senate on April 28, 1999 by a vote of 14-11.

Jervis resigned permanently on August 20, 1999. The trials for permanent removal of the remaining three trustees were set on December 13, 1999. Wong offered his permanent resignation on December 3, 1999; Peters did the same on December 13; and Lindsey voluntarily resigned on December 17.

Campuses and governance

Kamehameha Schools operates three campuses. The main campus, established in 1887 as the Kamehameha Schools for Boys, is located on Kapālama Heights. In 2007, it served 5,394 students K-12 [ [http://www.ksbe.edu/pdf/ar07/annualreport07.pdf Kamehameha Schools 2006-2007 Annual Report] ] , including 550 boarding students from the neighbor islands. There are two additional campuses on the islands of Hawaii and Maui, which serve a combined student body of 2,200. In addition to the three campuses, Kamehameha Schools operates thirty-two preschools throughout Hawaiokinai. The preschools serve over 1,000 students statewide.Fact|date=July 2008

Kamehameha Schools is administered by the five-member Board of Trustees of the Estate of Bernice Pauahi Bishop. The 1999 reorganization prompted the creation of a plan that would limit micromanagement by the Board of Trustees. In response to that need, day-to-day operations are currently managed by an appointed Chief Executive Officer who is invested with autonomy over educational matters.

Bishop's original bequest consisted of convert|375000|acre|km2 of land worth around $474,000. As of the end of the 2005 fiscal year, the Kamehameha Schools' endowment was US$6.8 billion. As of the end of the 2006 fiscal year, the Kamehameha Schools' endowment was US$7.7 billion. Approximately 25% of the Endowment Fund is in real estate and 75% in financial assets. [http://www.ksbe.edu/allpdfs/annualreport04/6_strengthening_endowment.pdf] When compared against the endowment funds of major U.S. colleges and universities, the endowments of only six schools (Harvard University, Yale University, Stanford University, Princeton University, Duke University, and Massachusetts Institute of Technology) exceed that of Kamehameha Schools.

Admissions policy

Until recently, in accordance with a century-old interpretation of the will of Bernice Pauahi Bishop, the Kamehameha Schools has given preference in admissions to applicants of Native Hawaiian descent "to the extent permitted by law." Special consideration is also given to orphans and "indigent" applicants. [http://www.ksbe.edu/services/admissions/mainpage.html] Applicants wishing to claim the preference for Native Hawaiian descent need to submit evidence verifying that at least one ancestor born before 1959 is of Hawaiian ancestry. [http://www.ksbe.edu/datacenter/hooulu-faq.php]

The admissions policy of Kamehameha Schools has been a subject of controversy in recent years. Because there are far more applicants that claim Hawaiian ancestry than there are spaces available, the result is a student body where virtually all the students have some Hawaiian blood and where non-Hawaiians are effectively excluded. Non-Hawaiians have been admitted to the school but this is an extremely rare occurrence. In 2002, Kamehameha Schools admitted a non-Hawaiian student, Kalani Rosell, to its Maui campus for the first time in 40 years. The student was admitted after all qualified Hawaiian applicants were admitted to the Maui campus. This decision sparked protest from the Hawaiian community and Kamehameha alumni.

Kamehameha's admissions policy, and whether its provision giving preference to Native Hawaiians is a race-based exclusion that runs afoul of civil rights law, was the point of contention in two lawsuits in U.S. federal court in which Kamehameha was a defendant. Both lawsuits have since been settled, generally in Kamehameha's favor.

The plaintiff in one of the suits, filed by attorney John Goemans in August 2003, was Brayden Gay Mohica-Cummings, a seventh-grade applicant who had been admitted to the Kapālama Heights campus after his mother, who had been adopted by a Hawaiian family, said he was Hawaiian. The school rescinded its offer when his mother was unable to document his Hawaiian ancestry [http://starbulletin.com/2003/11/29/news/story3.html] . Because the offer was rescinded only a week before the school year was scheduled to start, U.S. District Judge David Ezra issued a temporary restraining order requiring Kamehameha to admit Mohica-Cummings pending a final decision on the case. The case was settled out-of-court in November 2003, when Kamehameha Schools agreed to let Mohica-Cummings attend until he graduates, in exchange for dropping the lawsuit. [http://starbulletin.com/2003/11/29/news/story3.html]

John Doe v. Kamehameha

The most recent lawsuit, filed by Goemans in June 2003 on behalf of an unidentified non-Hawaiian student, claimed that giving preference to Hawaiian applicants violates a federal statute prohibiting racial discrimination in private contracts. In November, U.S. District Judge Alan Kay dismissed the lawsuit, finding that Kamehameha Schools' policy served a "legitimate, remedial purpose by improving native Hawaiians' socioeconomic and educational disadvantages" [http://starbulletin.com/2003/11/18/news/story1.html] .

In August 2005, however, a three-judge panel of the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit voted 2–1 to reverse that decision, ruling the policy racially exclusionary. [http://the.honoluluadvertiser.com/article/2005/Aug/03/ln/508030350.html] Hawaiians and also many non-Hawaiians in the community expressed strong dismay at the decision. A protest march to okinaIolani Palace and rally on the palace grounds attracted an estimated 10,000–15,000 participants ( [http://the.honoluluadvertiser.com/article/2005/Aug/07/ln/508070340.html] ; [http://www.hotspotshawaii.com/melpages/kamehameha/kamehameha-Pages/Image1.html photos] ), including Hawaiokinai's governor and lieutenant governor. [http://www.hawaii.gov/gov/eNewsletters/Folder.2005-08-11.0742/Document.2005-08-12.2942]

The Ninth Circuit agreed to rehear the appeal before a 15-judge "en banc" panel in February 2006. [http://starbulletin.com/2006/02/23/news/story01.html] On December 5, 2006, by a vote of 8–7, the "en banc" panel reversed the earlier decision by the three-judge panel, affirming Kay's ruling. The majority of the court ruled that Kamehameha's admissions policy does not run afoul of a civil rights law, citing what it said were unique factors in the history of Hawaii, the plight of Native Hawaiians and the schools’ distinctively remedial mission, which Congress has repeatedly endorsed. The minority dissent had grave reservations, and stated that civil rights law "prohibits a private school from denying admission to prospective students because of their race", and was very skeptical of the majority interpretation of the intention of Congress towards native Hawaiians stating, "The fact that Congress has passed some measures promoting Native Hawaiian education says nothing about whether Congress intended to exempt Native Hawaiian schools from § 1981 [civil rights law] ".

Following the Ninth Circuit's decision, attorneys for the unnamed student appealed the case to the United States Supreme Court. However, before the Supreme Court could issue a writ of certiorari and decide to hear the case, Doe v. Kamehameha was also settled out of court. Both this settlement and the Ninth Circuit's decision in December prompted a procession at the Kapalama High School, leading up to an all-school assembly. On 8 February 2008, attorney John Goemans disclosed that the amount of the settlement was $7 million USD.

On 6 August 2008, Kamehameha announced that it had sued John Doe for publically releasing the amount of money paid in the confidential settlement. On the same day, John Doe's attorneys, Eric Grant and David Rosen, filed another lawsuit against Kamehameha on behalf of four non-Hawaiian children who wanted to be able to be admitted to the school. [cite news |title=Kamehameha Sues Over Breach Of Confidentiality |url=http://www.kitv.com/education/17115795/detail.html |publisher=KITV Honolulu |date=2008=08-06 |accessdate=2008-08-07 ]

Focus on Hawaiiana

As the only private school to give preference to Native Hawaiian students, Kamehameha is greatly involved in Hawaiian language and culture revitalization. The Kapālama High School offers a six-year program in Hawaiian language. Several supplementary courses, including those in Hawaiian culture, history, song composition, chant, and dance, are also offered.

Kamehameha offers a distance learning program for people to learn aspects of the Hawaiian culture over the Internet. The program also provides a series of online videos, entitled "Kulāiwi", for learning the Hawaiian language. The videos are available for free streaming in RealMedia format.

Kamehameha also operates a publishing branch, Kamehameha Publishing, that prints and sells Hawaiian books.

ong Contest

Kamehameha Schools Kapālama holds an annual singing competition known as the Kamehameha Schools Song Contest. Each graduating class of the Kapālama High School participates as a graduation requirement, singing Hawaiian songs. Every year, each class sings a coed song, while students in grades 10-12 sing a mens' and women's' song. Five judges from around the state judge the songs based on musical performance and use of the Hawaiian language. Following the singing portion of the Contest, the "hōokinaike", an exhibition of "mele" (song) and hula, takes place. At the end of the Contest, awards are given to the classes based on the judges' scores.

The most recent Contest was held on 14 March 2008 and was centered around the revitalization of Hawaiian language, as 2008 is the thirtieth anniversary of the 1978 Hawaii State Constitutional Convention, at which Hawaiian was made an official language of the state of Hawaii.

Notable alumni

*Daniel K. Akaka - Class of 1942, United States Senator from Hawaii (1990- )
*Paula Akana - Class of 1980, television news anchor for KITV-4
*Robert Cazimero - Class of 1967, musician
*Roland Cazimero - Class of 1968, musician
*David Cooper - Retired Brigadier General, President of Pacific American Foundation
*Brian Ching - Class of 1996, professional Major League Soccer player
*Lee Kuualoha McGurn - Class of 1961, school sports stand out, Vietnam veteran
*Michael J. Chun - Class of 1961, President of Kamehameha Schools Kapalama Campus
*J. Kalani English - Class of 1984, Hawaiokinai State Senator
*Makoa Freitas - Professional American football player for Indianapolis Colts
*Don Ho - Class of 1949, musician and entertainer
*Radasha Ho'ohuli - Miss Hawaii USA 2006
*Justin Ralar - Class of 1996, Actor, Hawaii Self Storage commercial
*Kelly Hu - Actress
*David Hughes - National Football League running back (1981-86)
*Duke Kahanamoku - Class of 1910, Olympic swimmer
*Alexander Kahapea - Class of 1936, Retired Lieutenant Colonel (U.S. Army), most decorated Hawaiian soldier in World War II
*Lily Kahumoku - Class of 1999, former All American Volleyball player
*George Sanford Kanahele - Class of 1948, Hawaiian historian
*Robert K. U. Kihune - Class of 1955, Retired Vice Admiral, Trustee for Kamehameha Schools
*Brook Mahealani Lee - Miss Hawaii USA 1997, Miss USA 1997 and Miss Universe 1997
*Dee Jay Mailer - Class of 1970, CEO of Kamehameha Schools
*Hamilton McCubbin - Class of 1959, former CEO of Kamehameha Schools
*Ron Mizutani - Sports anchor
*Bronson Sardinha - Professional MLB outfielder
*Kenneth Silva - Class of 1978, Chief of Honolulu Fire Department
*Haunani-Kay Trask - Class of 1967, Hawaiian activist
*Mililani Trask - Class of 1969, Hawaiian activist
*Peter Velasco - 12-time USVBA All-American, Captain of 1964 U.S. Olympic volleyball team
*John Veneri - Sports Anchor

ee also

*Kamehameha Schools Hawaii Campus
*Kamehameha Schools Song ContestTim Wailehua


External links

* [http://www.ksbe.edu Kamehameha Schools official web site]
* [http://starbulletin.com/specials/bishop1997.html Honolulu Star-Bulletin Bishop Estate archive]
* [http://kapalama.ksbe.edu/high/band/main.html Kamehameha "Warrior" Marching Band and Color Guard]
* " [http://brokentrustbook.com Broken Trust] "

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