Regional power


Regional power

In international relations, a regional power is a state that has power within a geographic region. [http://66.102.9.104/search?q=cache:1oWDzyQHN9kJ:www.essex.ac.uk/ECPR/events/jointsessions/helsinki/long_ws_outlines/ws9.doc+%22regional+power%22&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=16&gl=uk www.essex.ac.uk] ] [http://www.giga-hamburg.de/content/forumregional/pdf/giga_conference_RegionalPowers_0612/giga_RegPowers0612_paper_beck.pdf www.giga-hamburg.de] ]

Definition

There are slightly differing definitions of what makes a regional power:

According to the European Consortium for Political Research a regional power can be defined as "a state belonging to a geographically defined region, dominating this region in economic and military terms, able to exercise hegemonic influence in the region and considerable influence on the world scale, willing to make use of power resources and recognized or even accepted as the regional leader by its neighbours".

According to the German Institute of Global and Area Studies a regional power must;
*be part of a definable region with an identity of its own
*claim to be one (self-image of a regional power)
*exert decisive influence on the geographic extension of the region as well as on its ideological construction
*dispose over comparatively high military, economic, demographic, political and ideological capabilities
*be well integrated into the region
*define the regional security agenda to a high degree
*be appreciated as a regional power by other powers in the region and beyond, especially by other regional powers
*be well connected with regional and global fora.

Some states may be regarded as both a great power and a regional power. Likewise some states may be regarded as a middle power and a regional power.

Current regional powers

Below are states that have been described as regional powers by international relations and political science academics, analysts, or other experts. These states to some extent meet the criteria to have regional power status, as described above. Different experts have differing views on exactly which states are regional powers. States are arranged by their region.

East Asia

"'considered a potential superpower by some political analysts and a significant regional power by others. [ [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,503050425-1051243,00.html Living With The Giants - TIME] ] [ [http://www.au.af.mil/au/aul/bibs/cgrp.htm China: Global/Regional Power] ] [ [http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/1999/china.50/asian.superpower/neighbors/ CNN In-Depth Specials - Visions of China - Asian Superpower: Regional 'godfather' or local bully?] ] Academics from various sources think China is a regional power in East Asia and Southeast Asia. [ [http://www.abc.net.au/correspondents/content/2006/s1642878.htm www.abc.net] ] [ [http://www.aseanfocus.com/asiananalysis/article.cfm?articleID=780 www.aseanfocus.com] ]

It has the world's largest population at 1.3 billion people. [ [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ch.html#People China - The CIA World Factbook] ] It is currently the 4th largest economy in the world (second in purchasing power) and growing at a rate of over 10% a year. [MSNBC Newsweek [http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/7693580/site/newsweek/ Does the Future Belong to China?] ] It has the largest reserves of foreign exchange and gold in the world. [ [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2188rank.html www.cia.gov] ] China is a permanent member of the UN Security Council.

In terms of manpower, China has the biggest military in the world, with 2,250,000 active troops. [cite news|title=China's Armed Forces, CSIS (Page 24) |date=2006-07-25|url=http://www.csis.org/media/csis/pubs/060626_asia_balance_powers.pdf] Chinese defence expenditure is the highest in East Asia, and the fourth highest in the world. China has nuclear weapons, intercontinental ballistic missiles, and ballistic missile submarinesFact|date=July 2008.

"'

Japan is considered a regional power by academics at the City University of Hong Kong, [ [http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract;jsessionid=2EE3EF674E08CB40D5050A82CE8B22BD.tomcat1?fromPage=online&aid=392746# journals.cambridge.org] ] and is described as a "core great regional power" in a report by the Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments policy research institute. [http://www.csbaonline.org/4Publications/PubLibrary/R.20000200.Transforming_Ameri/R.20000200.Transforming_Ameri.php www.csbaonline.org] ]

Japan has the second highest nominal GDP in the world, and the largest in East Asia. [http://siteresources.worldbank.org/DATASTATISTICS/Resources/GDP.pdf World Bank] ] It also has the second largest population and second largest defence budget in the regionFact|date=July 2008.

Europe

"'

France has been described as a regional power by the Global Policy Forum, [ [http://www.globalpolicy.org/security/oil/2003/0206regi.htm globalpolicy.org] ] and Samuel P. Huntington, [http://www.aims.ca/library/huntington.pdf www.aims.ca] ] and is described as a "core great regional power" in a report by the Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments policy research institute.

France has the third-largest economy in Europe. France is a permanent member of the UN Security Council. It is a NATO member, and has the second largest defence expenditure in Europe. [ [http://www.defense.gouv.fr/ministre/prises_de_parole/discours/projet_de_budget_2008_m_herve_morin_26_09_07 Ministre - Projet de budget 2008 - M. Hervé Morin - 26.09.07 ] ] France has nuclear weapons, inter-continental ballistic missiles, ballistic missile submarines, and is the only nation besides the United States to operate a nuclear-powered aircraft carrierFact|date=July 2008.

"'

Germany has been described as a regional power by Samuel P. Huntington, and other academics. [ [https://tspace.library.utoronto.ca/bitstream/1807/2181/6/lecture010.pdf tspace.library.utoronto.ca] ] It is described as a "core great regional power" in a report by the Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments policy research institute.Germany is the world's largest exporter. [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2078rank.html The CIA World Factbook] ] Germany has the largest economy in Europe, and is also the most populous nation in the E.U, giving it the most seats in the European Parliament, and influence within the E.U. Germany is a member of NATO, and has the third largest defence expenditure in Europe.

"'

Political scientist and author Joseph Becker and Franz Knipping in "Power in Europe? Great Britain, France, Italy and Germany in a Postwar World, 1945-1950," along with Ben W. Heineman, Jr., and Fritz Heimann in "The Long War Against Corruption," have called Italy, alongside France, the UK, and Germany the remaining regional powers and describes Italy as a "major player" on par with the other regional powers within Europe. [ [http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0013-8266(198801)103%3A406%3C154%3APIEGBF%3E2.0.CO%3B2-7 jstor.org] ] [ [http://www.foreignaffairs.org/20060501faessay85305/ben-w-heineman-jr-fritz-heimann/the-long-war-against-corruption.html foreignaffairs.org] | Ben W. Heineman, Jr., and Fritz Heimannhave speaks of Italy as a major country or "player" along with Germany, France, Japan, and the United Kingdom in,"The Long War Against Corruption".] Also the Carabinieri and author B.A. Roberson have claimed Italy's status as a regional power. [ [http://translate.google.com/translate?hl=en&sl=it&u=http://www.carabinieri.it/Internet/Editoria/Rassegna%2BArma/&sa=X&oi=translate&resnum=1&ct=result&prev=/search%3Fq%3Dhttp://www.carabinieri.it/Internet/Editoria/Rassegna%252BArma/%26hl%3Den carabinieri.it] ] [ [http://books.google.com/books?id=X4xw8-Oj9usC&pg=PA157&lpg=PA157&dq=regional+power+italy+in+europe&source=web&ots=gTHBeTgih6&sig=KwrRgq_eL95u747CzfFzNxFid80#PPP1,M1 books.google.com] ]

Italy is a member of the G8, NATO and is also a current elected member of the United Nations Security Council. [ [http://www.un.org/Docs/sc/ un.org] ] Italy also has the fourth largest economy within Europe with "...roughly the same total and per capita output as France and the UK" [ [https://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/it.html CIA - The World Factbook ] ] . Italy is undergoing military upgrades and reform including the making of a new aircraft carrier, the Cavour (550) and the purchase of more Eurofighter Typhoons. [ [http://www.naval-technology.com/projects/num/ naval-technology.com] ] Italy was one of the founding members of the EU and as of 2006.

"'

Publications of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace [ [http://www.carnegie.ru/en/pubs/media/69778.htm www.carnegie.ru] ] and the CSBA policy research institute state that Russia is a regional power.

Russia has the largest population in Europe and by far the largest land area in the world. It has the sixth largest economy in Europe (third in purchasing power), and has one of the fastest growing economies in Europe at 8.1% in 2007. [ [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2003rank.html CIA - The World Factbook - Rank Order - GDP - real growth rate ] ] [ [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2001rank.html CIA - The World Factbook - Rank Order - GDP (purchasing power parity) ] ] It has a permanent seat on the U.N. Security Council. Russia has the largest stockpile of nuclear weapons and inter-continental ballistic missiles in the world. [http://www.fas.org/nuke/guide/summary.htm www.fas.org] ] It also has ballistic missile submarines, and is the only country in Europe with a strategic bomber force.

Russia is the second largest producer and exporter of oil in the world, after Saudi Arabia. [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2173rank.html The CIA World Factbook Oil Production] ] [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2176rank.html The CIA World Factbook Oil exports] ] It has the largest proven oil reserves of any European country. Russia is also the world's largest producer and exporter of natural gas, with the largest proven reserves in the world. [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2180rank.html The CIA World Factbook - Natural Gas Production] ] [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2179rank.html The CIA World Factbook] ] [ [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2183rank.html The CIA World Factbook] ] [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2178rank.html The CIA World Factbook Oil Reserves] ]

"'

Turkey is a transcontinental country with small holdings in Southeast Europe. Although it is not normally considered part of the Middle East, it borders Iran, Iraq, and Syria, and has been called a regional power in the Middle East by academics. [ [http://www.stratfor.com/products/premium/read_article.php?id=293204 Stratfor: "The Geopolitics of Turkey", by George Friedman. July 31, 2007.] ] [ [http://www.turkishweekly.net/comments.php?id=2055 www.turkishweekly.net] ] [ [http://www.cfr.org/publication/6024/effects_of_the_iraq_war_on_the_us_turkish_relationship.html www.cfr.org] ] [ [http://www.turkishpolicy.com/default.asp?show=win_2003 www.turkishpolicy.com] ] According to Professor Asher Susser of Tel Aviv University; "What is new about the Middle East is the rise of non-Arab players, namely Turkey, Israel and particularly Iran, as regional powers in parallel with the decline of the relative importance of what were once key Arab players in the region, namely Egypt, Syria, Iraq and Saudi Arabia." And "Turkish participation in the Middle East is unavoidable and its territorial proximity to the Middle East alone is significant"

Turkey is a member of NATO.

"'

The U.K. is described as a regional power by scholars at the University of Cambridge [ [http://www.cont-ed.cam.ac.uk/intsummer/programmes/special.html www.cont-ed.cam.ac.uk] ] It has been called a European power by a professor at Johns Hopkins University's School of Advanced International Studies. [ [http://66.102.9.104/search?q=cache:fkFw6RZihIUJ:www.sais-jhu.edu/pubaffairs/SAISarticles04/Cohen_WP_081304.pdf+%22britain+is+a+european+power%22&hl=en&ct=clnk&cd=3&gl=uk www.sais-jhu.edu] ] The U.K. is described as a "core great regional power" in a report by the Center for Strategic and Budgetary Assessments policy research institute.

The U.K. has the fifth largest economy in the World and the second largest in Europe. The U.K. is also a permanent member of the U.N. Security Council. It has the largest defence budget within Europe and second largest in the world following the United States, and is a NATO member. [ [http://www.mod.uk/DefenceInternet/AboutDefence/Organisation/KeyFactsAboutDefence/DefenceSpending.htm Ministry of Defence | About Defence | Organisation | Key Facts about Defence | Defence Spending ] ] The U.K. possesses nuclear weapons, inter-continental ballistic missiles, ballistic missile submarines, and is the only European country with more than one aircraft carrier. Additionally, it became the only country in the world other than the United States to have more than one aircraft carrier following the collapse of the Soviet Union. The UK is also the largest producer of oil and gas in the European Union. London, the capital of the UK is one of the world's largest financial centres alongside New York City and Tokyo. [cite web | last = Z/Yen Limited | title = The Competitive Position of London as a Global Financial Centre | publisher = CityOfLondon.gov.uk | month = November | year = 2005 | url = http://www.cityoflondon.gov.uk/NR/rdonlyres/131B4294-698B-4FAF-9758-080CCE86A36C/0/BC_RS_compposition_FR.pdf | format = PDF | accessdate = 2006-09-17]

Latin America

"'

Brazil is considered a regional power by academia [ [http://www.fntg.org/fntg/docs/BrazilMultilateralism.pdf www.fntg.org] ] . [ [http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.1468-2346.2006.00513.x www.blackwell-synergy.com] ] [ [http://lap.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/33/3/12 lap.sagepub.com] ] Condoleezza Rice has said, "I think it is a fact that Brazil is a regional power and, in fact, Brazil is a growing global presence". [ [http://www.brazzilmag.com/index2.php?option=com_content&do_pdf=1&id=2198 www.brazzilmag.com] ]

Brazil is the fifth-largest country by geographical area, the fifth most populous country and has the eleventh largest economy in the world. In addition to having the 12th largest defence budget and 18th largest armed forces in the world, [http://www.globalfirepower.com/country_detail.asp?country_id=29 Global Fire Power: Brazil Military Strength] ] [ [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/br.html#Military The CIA World Factbook: Brazil] ] it is the only country in Latin America with an aircraft carrier [ [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/world/brazil/sao-paulo.htm Sao Paulo ] ] .

On the global stage Brazil is a member of the G8+5, a political and economic group composed of emerging economic powers and the G8. It is also one of the G4 nations currently seeking a permanent seat at the United Nations Security Council.

Brazil is one of the BRIMC countries - a Goldman Sachs thesis projecting that the economic potential of Brazil, Russia, India, Mexico and China is such that they may become among the four most dominant economies by the year 2050. [ [http://www2.goldmansachs.com/ideas/brics/index.html Goldman Sachs: The BRICs Dream: Web Tour] ]

Brazil is currently considered an "Agricultural Superpower". [ [http://www.nytimes.com/2007/10/02/science/02tropic.html?ex=1348977600&en=3dd23c6cb66f054c&ei=5088&partner=rssnyt&emc=rss New York Times: Brazil, the “agricultural superpower”] ] "'

Mexico is considered a regional power by academics and the Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs. [ [http://www.mofa.go.jp/policy/other/bluebook/2006/05.pdf Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan] ] [ [http://www.oxanstore.com/displayfree.php?NewsItemID=130098 Oxford Analytica] ] Mexico has the second largest economy in the region [ [https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/mx.html#Econ CIA World Factbook, "Mexico"] ] with $1.134 USD trillion. It has the second largest defence budget ($6.07 billion USD) and armed forces [ [http://www.globalfirepower.com/country_detail.asp?country_id=28 Global Fire Power, Mexico Military Strength] ] in Latin America.

Mexico is the largest exporter in the whole region, in 2006 it exported 248.8 billion USD, almost equivalent to the exports of all members of Mercosur combined, which total 258.4 billion USD. It is the largest producer of oil in Latin America and the 5th largest in the world. [ [http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0922041.html Top World Oil Producers] ] It is also the third supplier of oil to the United States. [ [http://www.eia.doe.gov/pub/oil_gas/petroleum/data_publications/company_level_imports/current/import.html Crude Oil and Total Petroleum Imports of the US Top 15 Countries] ]

Mexico is one of the BRIMC countries - a Goldman Sachs thesis projecting that the economic potential of Brazil, Russia, India, Mexico and China is such that they may become among the four most dominant economies by the year 2050. [ [http://www2.goldmansachs.com/ideas/brics/index.html Goldman Sachs: The BRIMCs Dream: Web Tour] ]

In the global stage, Mexico is a member of the G8+5, a political and economic group composed of emerging economic powers and the G8.

Mexico is a member of OECD and is also a party to the North American Free Trade Agreement.

Middle East

"'

Egypt has been called a regional power in the Middle East by former U.S. Secretary of Defense William S. Cohen. [ [http://www.defenselink.mil/transcripts/transcript.aspx?transcriptid=1863 www.defenselink.mil] ] Efraim Inbar of Bar-Ilan University calls Egypt a Middle Eastern regional power and the "most important Arab state". [ [http://www.google.com/search?hl=en&q=cache%3Ap8SGvqnVbOsJ%3Awww.biu.ac.il%2FBesa%2Fefraim_inbar%2Foped050606.doc+&btnG=Search www.biu.ac.il] ] The Power and Interest News Report has called Egypt "one of the most important players in the Middle East". [http://www.pinr.com/report.php?ac=view_printable&report_id=317&language_id=1 www.pinr.com] ] Vladimir Putin has called the country a key regional power. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/6109192.stm news.bbc.co.uk] ] Egypt has also been called an African regional power by academics.

However Professor Asher Susser of Tel Aviv University talks of the "decline of the relative importance" of Egypt and says, "During Gamal Abdul Nasser’s presidency, Egypt was a leading force in setting the regional agenda. Nowadays, Egypt has very little influence beyond its borders." [ [http://www.chathamhouse.org.uk/pdf/research/mep/150207susser.pdf www.chathamhouse.org.uk] ] Saad Eddin Ibrahim also says Egypt's status as a regional power under Hosni Mubarak has weakened steadily. [ [http://www.benadorassociates.com/article/9028 www.benadorassociates.com] ]

Egypt's population is the largest in the Middle East, North Africa, and the Arab world, and the third largest in Africa. It has the largest economy in North Africa, which is the second largest in the Arab world, and second largest in Africa and fourth largest in the Middle East. Egypt has the largest military in the Arab world and Africa by manpower, and the second largest in the Middle East. [ [http://www.tau.ac.il/jcss/balance/glance.pdf www.tau.ac.il] ] Egypt's military budget is the third largest in Africa, fourth largest among Arab states, and fifth largest in the Middle East.

"'

Iran is considered by academics and experts to be a regional power in the Middle East. [http://www.chathamhouse.org.uk/pdf/research/mep/150207susser.pdf www.chathamhouse.org.uk] ] [ [https://www.cia.gov/news-information/speeches-testimony/2000/dci_speech_020200smithson.html www.cia.gov] ] John Simpson (World affairs editor, BBC News) named Iran as the region's superpower: "Iran is now a regional superpower, and ever since the Islamic revolution in 1978-9, we in the West have consistently misunderstood it." [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/programmes/5363098.stm bbc.co.uk] ]
Barry Rubin professor at the Interdisciplinary Center (IDC) in Herzliya, Israel published result of his research in 'The Middle East Review of International Affairs (MERIA)': "Iran is the sole regional great power today in the Middle East, because no Arab state can claim that title. It has expanded influence in Iraq, Lebanon, and among the Palestinians as well as in parts of Afghanistan and Pakistan. In many ways it is the patron of Syria. The growing Shi'a-Sunni rift is adding to Iran's influence, which is also helped by the high price of oil; even without nuclear weapons." [ [http://meria.idc.ac.il/journal/2006/issue3/jv10no3a10.html meria.idc.ac.il] ] British House of Commons's Foreign Affairs Committee have noted Iran as an "emerging great power". [ [http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200607/cmselect/cmfaff/363/36310.htm parliament.uk] ]

Iran is Persia (name change happened in 1935), one of the most ancient and influential cultures in the world. The Persian influence can be observed throughout the region and the world with many countries speaking Persian language such as Afghanistan, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Pakistan or for its renowned poets such as Rumi.

Iran has the second largest GDP in the region. It has the fourth largest defence budget in the region, however, Iran's military was called the Middle East's most powerful by General John Abizaid chief of United States Central Command. Though he did not include Israel in his report because it was not included in his area of operations. [ [http://www.spacewar.com/reports/Iran_Favors_Asymmetric_Strategy_In_Joust_With_US_999.html www.spacewar.com] ] Iran has developed Medium-range ballistic missiles.

Iran is the world's fourth largest producer, and fifth largest exporter of oil. It has the second largest proven reserves of oil in the world. Iran is also the sixth largest producer of natural gas, and also with the second largest proven reserves.

"'

Israel is considered a regional power in the Middle East since the 1967 Six-Day War, in which Israel defeated numerically superior armies. Israel is called a regional power in a report written in conjunction with the U.S. Army War College. [ [http://www.stormingmedia.us/86/8610/A861024.html www.stormingmedia.us] ] It has also been called a Middle Eastern regional power by other academics. [ [http://www.lrb.co.uk/v28/n06/mear01_.html www.lrb.co.uk] ] In the opinion of Avner Cohen and a former acting director of the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency; "Israel is a regional power, in fact the strongest military power in the region." [ [http://www.acronym.org.uk/dd/dd76/76actg.htm www.acronym.org.uk] ] Israel's only short coming is that it has no influence in the region.

Israel has the fourth largest GDP in the region. It has the third largest defence budget in the region. Israel is the only country in the region thought to have nuclear weapons, which could be delivered by the Jericho medium-range ballistic missile.

"'

Saudi Arabia has been called a regional power by former Japanese foreign minister Yoriko Kawaguchi. [ [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0XPQ/is_2002_Sept_23/ai_92080737 findarticles.com] ] BBC News has called Saudi Arabia a "regional power-house". [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/low/world/middle_east/6595909.stm news.bbc.co.uk] ] YaleGlobal Online has an article describing Saudi as "a leading regional power". [ [http://yaleglobal.yale.edu/display.article?id=4349 yaleglobal.yale.edu] ] CNN, [ [http://edition.cnn.com/2005/WORLD/meast/08/01/fahd.obit/index.html edition.cnn.com] ] and PBS [ [http://www.pbs.org/newshour/updates/iraq_08-27-02.html www.pbs.org] ] have also described the country as a regional power. It is difficult to identify Saudi Arabia's military capabilities since it has never conducted a major military operation.

Saudi Arabia has a special significance in the Muslim world, as it contains Islam's two most holy sites, Mecca and Medina. Although Saudi Arabia contains locations that are of religious significance it lacks religious persuasion with the Muslim world; most notably the break down of the cease-fire agreement between Hamas and Fatah that was held in Mecca. It has the third largest GDP in the region after Turkey and Iran, and the largest defence budget in the region. The Kingdom is also the world's largest producer and exporter of crude oil, and has the world's largest proven reserves of crude oil.

Northern America

"'

The United States is considered a superpower.cite web|url=http://post.queensu.ca/~nossalk/papers/hyperpower.htm|title=Analyzing American Power in the Post-Cold War Era|accessdate=2007-02-28] The Encyclopedia Britannica states that "the Soviet collapse left the United States with undisputed status as the world's most powerful country", and calls the U.S. "the world's sole superpower". [ [http://www.britannica.com/ebi/article-230262 www.britannica.com] ]

It has the largest GDP in the world (notwithstanding the European Union). The U.S. also has the third largest population in the world, and is a permanent member of the UN security council. The U.S. defense budget is the largest in the world, and is almost equal to the combined military spending of all other nations. [ [http://www.armscontrolcenter.org/archives/002244.php www.armscontrolcenter.org] ] The U.S. has the second largest stockpile of nuclear weapons and inter-continental ballistic missiles in the world after Russia. It also has more aircraft carriers and ballistic missile submarines than any other country, and is the only country apart from Russia that operates strategic bomber aircraft. The U.S. is the most influential member in NATO.

U.S. oil production is the third highest in the world. It is the world's second largest producer of natural gas.

Oceania

"'

Australia is considered a regional power by academics at the Australian National University. [ [http://www.routledge.com/shopping_cart/products/product_detail.asp?curTab=Author%20Biography&id=&parent_id=3459&sku=&isbn=9780415404211&pc=/shopping_cart/categories/categories_products.asp!parent_id=3459$so=1 www.routledge.com] ] Former Australian foreign minister Alexander Downer has claimed "Australia is an especially significant regional power in our neighbourhood". [ [http://www.foreignminister.gov.au/speeches/2006/060710_bigorsmall.html www.foreignminister.gov.au] ]

Australia is the world’s sixth largest country by area. It has by far the largest GDP in Oceania, and the fourth largest in the wider Asia-Pacific region. Australia's defence spending is also the largest in Oceania, and fourth largest in Asia-Pacific. Australia is a member of the ANZUS military alliance with the USA and New Zealand.

South Asia

"'

India has been identified as an potential superpower [cite journal| url=http://www.twq.com/04winter/docs/04winter_perkovich.pdf| title=Is India a Major Power?|last=Perkovich|first=George|journal=The Washington Quarterly|issue=27.1 Winter 2003-04|access=2007-12-13|format=PDF] . [http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761590309/Great_Powers.html Encarta - Great Powers] ] [cite paper| author =Dilip Mohite| title =Swords and Ploughshares- India: The Fourth Great Power?| version =Vol. 7, No. 3| publisher =Arms Control, Disarmament, and International Security (ACDIS)| date =Spring 1993| url =http://www.acdis.uiuc.edu/Research/S&Ps/1993-Sp/S&P_VII-3/great_power.html| format =HTML| accessdate = 2007-12-13] It is also often referred as South Asia's natural hegemon because of its overwhelming dominance of the region in all aspects – political, economic, military, cultural, and demographic. India contributes 77% of South Asia's population, 75% of its GDP, 77% of its territory, 80% of its defence budget, and 82% of its armed forces. India is the world's most populous democracy. It has the largest economy in the region, and has impressive GDP growth which sits today at 9.2% [ [http://bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601087&sid=ayAK98NMbmCA&refer=home India's Economic Growth Unexpectedly Quickens to 9.2%] ] According to political analyst C. Raja Mohan:"India's omnidirectional engagement with the great powers has paid off handsomely. Never before has India had such expansive relations with all the major powers at the same time—a result not only of India's increasing weight in the global economy and its growing power potential, but also of New Delhi's savvy and persistent diplomacy." [ [http://www.realclearpolitics.com/articles/2006/07/india_and_the_balance_of_power.html www.realclearpolitics.com] ]

With the largest defence budget in the region, India possesses nuclear weapons, intermediate-range ballistic missiles, and is the only South Asian country with an aircraft carrier. It has successfully developed a Ballistic Missile Defense system, becoming only the fourth country to do so. In 2007, India became the fourth nation in the world to complete atmospheric reentry for Manned Space Mission, an indication of its recent scientific progress. [ [http://www.hindustantimes.com/news/181_1907193,00040005.htm Hindustan Times] "Giant step in space as capsule returns"]

Southeast Asia

"'

Indonesia has been described as a regional power in Southeast Asia by academia. [ [http://www.hoover.org/publications/digest/3476806.html www.hoover.org] ] [ [http://www.iht.com/articles/1994/11/12/edjones.php www.iht.com] ] [ [http://www.rand.org/pubs/papers/P5630/ www.rand.org] ] [ [http://www.fundforpeace.org/web/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=176&Itemid=288 www.fundforpeace.org] ] According to the Power and Interest News Report; "Given Jakarta's powerful military establishment and continuing investment in military hardware and development, Indonesia will emerge as an even more powerful player in Southeast Asia. If the state is able to hold together in the face of the mounting social, economic and natural challenges, it will potentially emerge as an even more powerful regional player."

Indonesia has by far the largest population in Southeast Asia, and the fourth largest in the world. It has the largest GDP in the region, but only has the fourth largest defence spending.

Africa

"'

South Africa has been described by academics as an emerging or existing regional power. [ [http://www.iss.co.za/Pubs/ASR/9No3/SAMiddlePower.html www.iss.co.za] ] [ [http://www.giga-hamburg.de/english/index.php?file=research.html&folder=rp2 www.giga-hamburg.de] ] According to academics at Sheffield University; "since 1994, the economic and political power of democratic South Africa has enjoyed unfettered access to the entire (Southern Africa) region. Take-overs of local firms and direct investment by South African companies dominate neighbouring economies dependent on Pretoria for transport links and energy supplies. No less important are those occasions when Pretoria chooses not to flex its muscles, notably the current crisis in Zimbabwe." [ [http://www.shef.ac.uk/history/research/projects/hegemony.html www.shef.ac.uk] ]

South Africa has the largest GDP in Africa, and the largest defence budget of any African country.

"'

Nigeria has been called an "emerging regional power", "a regional power in West Africa," [ [http://www.h-net.org/reviews/showrev.cgi?path=159451064252988 www.h-net.org] ] and "the undisputed regional power in the West African region" [http://www.codesria.org/Links/conferences/anniversary-dakar/fadahunsi.pdf] by academics. Former U.S. Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs Thomas R. Pickering has called Nigeria "a regional power house", that plays "an important role in West Africa". [ [http://www.globalsecurity.org/military/library/news/1999/05/990515-nigeria.htm www.globalsecurity.org] ]

Nigeria has the largest population in Africa, and the 8th largest in the world. Nigeria's GDP is by far the largest in West Africa, and the second largest in Africa. Nigeria has the largest defence budget in West Africa, and the 7th largest in Africa. Nigeria is Africa's largest and the world's 12th largest producer of Crude oil. It also has the 10th largest Oil reserves in the world.

See also

* Historical powers

References

* 162.http://www.chowk.com/articles/4416
* 163.http://www.rediff.com/money/2006/mar/29minter.htm
* 164.http://in.news.yahoo.com/070620/210/6h6h9.html


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Regional Power Exchange —   An entity established to coordinate short term operations to maintain system stability and achieve least cost dispatch. The dispatch provides back up supplies, short term excess sales, reactive power support, and spinning reserve. The pool may… …   Energy terms

  • Power — may refer to*any ability to effect change;political or social * Power (philosophy) ** Political power, power held by a person or group in a country s political system ** Reserve power, a power exercised by a head of state in certain exceptional… …   Wikipedia

  • Power in international relations — The chamber of the United Nations Security Council Power in international relations is defined in several different ways. Political scientists, historians, and practitioners of international relations (diplomats) have used the following concepts… …   Wikipedia

  • Power projection — USS John C. Stennis, and HMS Illustrious, two aircraft carriers on a joint patrol, and an important role of a blue water navy. Power projection (or force projection) is a term used in military and political science to refer to th …   Wikipedia

  • Power (philosophy) — Powerful redirects here. For other uses, see Power (disambiguation). Power is a measurement of an entity s ability to control its environment, including the behavior of other entities. The term authority is often used for power perceived as… …   Wikipedia

  • Power of the Pen — is an interscholastic writing league founded by Lorraine B. Merrill in 1986. It is a non profit creative writing program for students in grades seven and eight in the U.S. state of Ohio.ParticipationPower of the Pen is exclusive to the state of… …   Wikipedia

  • Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative — (RGGI, or ReGGIe) is a regional initiative by states in the Northeastern United States region to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The RGGI is designing a cap and trade program for greenhouse gas emissions from power plants.Ten states currently… …   Wikipedia

  • Regional integration — is a process in which states enter into a regional organisation in order to increase regional cooperation and diffuse regional tensions. Past efforts at regional integration have often focused on removing barriers to free trade in the region,… …   Wikipedia

  • Regional Seat of Government — Regional Seats of Government or RSGs were the best known aspect of Britain s Civil Defence preparations against Nuclear War. In fact, however, naming conventions changed over the years as strategies in Whitehall changed.In the aftermath of the… …   Wikipedia

  • Regional lockout — is the programming practice, code, chip, or physical barrier used to prevent the playing of media designed for a device from the country where it is marketed on the version of the same device marketed in another country.ExamplesVideo games*In the …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.