- Japanese American internment
Japanese American internment refers to the forcible relocation and
internmentof approximately 110,000 Japanese nationals and Japanese Americans to housing facilities called "War Relocation Camps", in the wake of Imperial Japan's attack on Pearl Harbor. [ [http://www.nps.gov/manz/ Manzanar National Historic Site (U.S. National Park Service) ] ] Various primary and secondary sources list counts between persons.] The internment of Japanese Americans was applied unequally throughout the United States. Japanese Americans residing on the West Coast of the United Stateswere all interned, whereas in Hawaii, where over 150,000 Japanese Americans composed nearly a third of that territory's population, an additional 1,200 [Ogawa, Dennis M. and Fox, Jr., Evarts C. "Japanese Americans, from Relocation to Redress". 1991, page 135.] to 1,800 Japanese Americans were interned. [ [http://www.hawaiischoolreports.com/history/internment.htm Internment - WWII Hawaii ] ] Of those interned, 62 percent were United Statescitizens. [Semiannual Report of the War Relocation Authority, for the period January 1 to June 30, 1946, not dated. Papers of Dillon S. Myer. [http://www.trumanlibrary.org/whistlestop/study_collections/japanese_internment/documents/index.php?pagenumber=4&documentid=62&documentdate=1946-00-00&collectionid=JI&nav=ok Scanned image at] trumanlibrary.org. Accessed 18 Sept. 2006.] "The War Relocation Authority and The Incarceration of Japanese Americans During World War II: 1948 Chronology," [http://www.trumanlibrary.org/whistlestop/study_collections/japanese_internment/1948.htm Web page] at www.trumanlibrary.org, accessed 11 Sep 2006]
Franklin Rooseveltauthorized the internment with Executive Order 9066, which allowed local military commanders to designate "military areas" as "exclusion zones", from which "any or all persons may be excluded." This power was used to declare that all people of Japanese ancestry were excluded from the entire Pacific coast, including all of California and most of Oregon and Washington, except for those in internment camps. [http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?navby=CASE&court=US&vol=323&page=214 "Korematsu v. United States"] dissent by Justice Owen Josephus Roberts, reproduced at findlaw.com, accessed 12 Sept. 2006] In 1944, the Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the exclusion orders, [http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=US&vol=323&invol=214 "Korematsu v. United States"] majority opinion by Justice Hugo Black, reproduced at findlaw.com, accessed 11 Sept. 2006] while noting that the provisions that singled out people of Japanese ancestry were a separate issue outside the scope of the proceedings. [cite book | last = Hakim | first = Joy | title = A History of Us: War, Peace and all that Jazz | publisher = Oxford University Press | year = 1995 | location = New York | pages = 100-104 | isbn = 0-19-509514-6 ]
In 1988, Congress passed and President
Ronald Reagansigned legislation which apologized for the internment on behalf of the U.S. government. The legislation stated that government actions were based on "race prejudice, war hysteria, and a failure of political leadership". [100th Congress, S. 1009, [http://www.internmentarchives.com/showdoc.php?docid=00055&search_id=19269&pagenum=4 reproduced at] internmentarchives.com; accessed 19 Sept. 2006.] About $1.6 billion in reparations were later disbursed by the U.S. government to surviving internees and their heirs. [http://www.democracynow.org/1999/2/18/wwii_reparations_japanese_american_internees Democracy Now! | Wwii Reparations: Japanese-American Internees] ]
In the first half of the 20th century,
Californiaexperienced a wave of anti-Japanese prejudice distinct from the Japanese Americanexperience in the broader United States. Over 90% of Japanese immigrants to the USA settled in California, where labor and farm competition fed into general anti-Japanese sentiment.Leupp, Gary P. "Interracial Intimacy in Japan: Western Men and Japanese Women, 1543-1900". 2003, page 216-7] In 1905, California's anti- miscegenationlaw was amended to prohibit marriages between Caucasians and "Mongolians" (an umbrella term which, at the time, was used in reference to the Japanese, among other ethnicities of East Asian ancestry). That anti-Japanese sentiment was maintained beyond this period is evidenced by the 1924 "Oriental Exclusion Law", which blocked Japanese immigrants from attaining citizenship.
In the years 1939–1941, the
FBIcompiled the Custodial Detention index("CDI") on citizens, "enemy" aliens and foreign nationals, based principally on census records, in the interest of national security. On June 28, 1940, the Alien Registration Act was passed. Among many other "loyalty" regulations, Section 31 required the registration and fingerprinting of all aliens above the age of 14, and Section 35 required aliens to report any change of address within 5 days. Nearly five million foreign nationals registered at post offices around the country, in the subsequent months. [John J. Culley, "World War II and a Western Town: The Internment of Japanese Railroad Workers of Clovis, New Mexico," Western Historical Quarterly 13 (January 1982): 43-61.] [cite web|url=http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USAmccarthyism.htm|title=US McCarthyism]
After Pearl Harbor
attack on Pearl Harboron December 7, 1941led some to suspect the Japanese were preparing a full-scale attack on the West Coast of the United States. Japan's rapid military conquest of a large portion of Asia and the Pacific between 1936 and 1942 made their military forces seem unstoppable to some Americans.
Reportedly, "within weeks of Pearl Harbor, Lieutenant General John DeWitt, head of the Western Command, requested approval to conduct search and seizure operations to prevent alien Japanese from making radio transmissions to Japanese ships."Andrew E. Taslitz, STORIES OF FOURTH AMENDMENT DISRESPECT: FROM ELIAN TO THE INTERNMENT, 70 Fordham L. Rev. 2257, 2306-07 (2002).] "The Justice Department refused, however, to seek the warrant without probable cause, the FBI concluded that the security threat was only a perceived one [and] in January, the FCC reported that the Army's fears were groundless."
Knowing that "public opinion would not support the direction of the Justice Department and the FBI, however, and DeWitt was undeterred." By January 2, "the Joint Immigration Committee of the California Legislature sent a manifesto to California newspapers summing up 'the historical catalogue of charges against the ethnic Japanese,' who, said the manifesto, were 'totally unassimilable.'" "The manifesto declared that all of Japanese descent were loyal to the
Emperor, and attacked Japanese language schools as teaching Japanese racial superiority." "The committee had the support of the Native Sons and Daughters of the Golden West and the California Department of the American Legion, which in January demanded that all Japanese with dual citizenship be 'placed in concentration camps'." It was feared that this population might commit acts of espionage or sabotage for the Japanese military.Fact|date=February 2007 Internment, however, was never limited to those who had been to Japan, but "included a smaller number of German and Italian enemy aliens suspected of disloyalty." By February, "Earl Warren, at the time Attorney General of California, and U.S. Webb, a former Attorney General, were vigorously seeking to persuade the federal government to remove all ethnic Japanese from the west coast."
Civilian and military officials had concerns about the loyalty of the ethnic Japanese on the West Coast and considered them to be potential security risks, although these concerns often arose more from racial bias than actual risk. Major
Karl Bendetsenand Lieutenant General John L. DeWitteach questioned Japanese American loyalty. DeWitt, who administered the internment program, repeatedly told newspapers that "A Jap's a Jap" and testified to Congress,
quotation|I don't want any of them [persons of Japanese ancestry] here. They are a dangerous element. There is no way to determine their loyalty... It makes no difference whether he is an American citizen, he is still a Japanese. American citizenship does not necessarily determine loyalty... But we must worry about the Japanese all the time until he is wiped off the map. [Fred Mullen, "DeWitt Attitude on Japs Upsets Plans," "Watsonville Register-Pajaronian", April 16, 1943. p.1, reproduced by [http://www.santacruzpl.org/history/ww2/9066/articles/rp/43/4-16.shtml Santa Cruz Public Library] , accessed 11 Sept. 2006] [Testimony of John L. DeWitt, 13 April 1943, House Naval Affairs Subcommittee to Investigate Congested Areas, Part 3, pp. 739-40 (78th Cong ., 1st Sess.), cited in [http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=US&vol=323&invol=214#fff1 "Korematsu v. United States", footnote 2] , reproduced at findlaw.com, accessed 11 Sept. 2006]
Those that were up to 1/16th Japanese could be placed in internment camps. [http://www.colorado.gov/dpa/doit/archives/wwcod/granada3.htm "Short History of Amache Japanese Internment"] , accessed 21 April 2008] There is some evidence supporting the argument that the measures were racially motivated, rather than a military necessity. For example, orphaned infants with "one drop of Japanese blood" (as explained in a letter by one official) were included in the program.
Upon the bombing of Pearl Harbor, Presidential Proclamations 2525 (Japanese), 2526 (German) and 2527 (Italian) were signed.Fact|date=April 2008 Information from the CDI was used to locate and incarcerate foreign nationals from Japan, Germany and Italy (although Germany or Italy didn't declare war on the U.S. until December 11).
Presidential Proclamation 2537 was issued on
January 14 1942, requiring aliens to report any change of address, employment or name to the FBI. Enemy aliens were not allowed to enter restricted areas. Violators of these regulations were subject to "arrest, detention and internment for the duration of the war."
Executive Order 9066 and related actions
Executive Order 9066, signed by Franklin D. Roosevelt on
February 19 1942, allowed authorized military commanders to designate "military areas" at their discretion, "from which any or all persons may be excluded." These "exclusion zones", unlike the "alien enemy" roundups, were applicable to anyone that an authorized military commander might choose, whether citizen or non-citizen. Eventually such zones would include parts of both the East and West Coasts totaling about 1/3 of the country by area. Unlike the subsequent detainment and internment programs that would come to be applied to large numbers of Japanese Americans, detentions and restrictions directly under this Individual Exclusion Program were placed primarily on individuals of German or Italian ancestry, including American citizens. [http://www.archives.gov/genealogy/immigration/enemy-aliens-overview.html "WWII Enemy Alien Control Overview"] from archives.gov, accessed 8 Jan. 2007]
March 2 1942: General John L. DeWittissued Public Proclamation No. 1, informing all those of Japanese ancestry that they would, at some later point, be subject to exclusion orders from "Military Area No. 1" (essentially, the entire Pacific coast to about convert|100|mi|km|1 inland), and requiring anyone who had "enemy" ancestry to file a Change of Residence Notice if they planned to move. A second exclusion zone was designated several months later, which included the areas chosen by most of the Japanese Americans who had managed to leave the first zone.
March 11 1942: Executive Order 9095 created the Office of the Alien Property Custodian, and gave it discretionary, plenary authority over all alien property interests. Many assets were frozen, creating immediate financial difficulty for the affected aliens, preventing most from moving out of the exclusion zones.
March 24 1942: Public Proclamation No. 3 declares an 8:00 p.m. to 6:00 a.m. curfew for "all enemy aliens and all persons of Japanese ancestry" within the military areas. [http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?navby=CASE&court=US&vol=320&page=81 "Hirabayashi v. United States"] , reproduced at findlaw.com; accessed 15 Sept. 2006]
March 24 1942: General DeWitt began to issue Civilian Exclusion Orders for specific areas within "Military Area No. 1."
March 27 1942: General DeWitt's Proclamation No. 4 prohibited all those of Japanese ancestry from leaving "Military Area No. 1" for "any purpose until and to the extent that a future proclamation or order of this headquarters shall so permit or direct."
May 3 1942: General DeWitt issued Civilian Exclusion Order No. 346, ordering all people of Japanese ancestry, whether citizens or non-citizens, to report to assembly centers, where they would live until being moved to permanent "Relocation Centers."
These edicts included persons of part-Japanese ancestry as well. Chinese-Japanese Americans (i.e., those who had Chinese ancestry as well), Korean-Americans Fact|date=April 2008 considered to have Japanese nationality (since Korea was occupied by Japan during WWII), Japanese-Hawaiians residing in the mainland, those with Japanese-Cherokee ancestry [ Those with mixed Japanese and
Cherokeeancestry resulted from a pattern of intermarriage with these two racial groups in California.] and Japanese Latin Americans (or "Japanese Latinos") from the West Coast of the United States during World War II were subject to restrictions under these programs. Anyone who was at least one-eighth Japanese, even if they had mostly Caucasian ancestry, was eligible.Fact|date=April 2008
Non-military advocates for exclusion, removal, and detention
Internment was popular among many white farmers who resented the Japanese American farmers. "White American farmers admitted that their self-interest required removal of the Japanese." These individuals saw internment as a convenient means of uprooting their Japanese American competitors. Explained one farmer on behalf of the Grower-Shipper Vegetable Association in the Saturday Evening Post: quotation
"It's a question of whether the white man lives on the Pacific Coast or the brown man. They came into this valley to work, and they stayed to take over."
Austin E. Anson, managing secretary of the Salinas Vegetable Grower-Shipper Association, told the "
Saturday Evening Post" in 1942:
"We're charged with wanting to get rid of the Japs for selfish reasons. We do. It's a question of whether the white man lives on the Pacific Coast or the brown men… If all the Japs were removed tomorrow, we had never miss them in two weeks, because the white farmers can take over and produce everything the Jap grows. And we do not want them back when the war ends, either." [ [http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=US&vol=323&invol=214 "Korematsu v. United States"] dissent by Justice
Frank Murphy, footnote 12, reproduced at findlaw.com, accessed 11 Sept. 2006]
"Fear, combined with prejudice, was also at work, aided by the January release of the Roberts Commission Report, prepared at President Franklin D. Roosevelt's request." "That report concluded that Japanese in America were responsible for espionage, contributing to the Pearl Harbor tragedy." Columnist Henry McLemore reflected growing public sentiment fueled by this report:
I am for the immediate removal of every Japanese on the West Coast to a point deep in the interior. I don't mean a nice part of the interior either. Herd "em up, pack "em off and give "em the inside room in the badlands. Personally, I hate the Japanese. And that goes for all of them. Further, "California newspapers endorsed mass evacuation." The Los Angeles Times caught the spirit of the times:
"A viper is nonetheless a viper whenever the egg is hatched - so a Japanese American, born of Japanese parents - grows up to be a Japanese, not an American."State politicians joined the bandwagon embraced by Leland Ford of Los Angeles, who demanded that "all Japanese, whether citizens or not, be placed in [inland] concentration camps." In fact internment was likely responsible for a massive influx in immigration from Mexico.Fact|date=September 2008 Significant labor was necessary to take over the Japanese Americans' farms at a time when many American laborers were also being inducted into the Armed Forces. Thousands of
Nikkei, temporarily released from the internment camps to harvest Western beet crops, were credited with saving this industry.
Military necessity as justification for internment
Japan's wartime spy program
The case of
Velvalee Dickinson, a nonethnic Japanese woman who was involved in a Japanese spy ring, contributed to heightening American apprehensions. [cite web|url=http://fbi.edgesuite.net/libref/historic/famcases/dickinson/dickinson.htm|title=FBI History — Famous Cases — Doll Woman|publisher= FBI|accessdate=2007-12-11] The most widely reported examples of espionage and treason were those of the Tachibana spy ring and the Niihau Incident. The Tachibana spy ring was a group of Japanese nationals who were arrested shortly "before" the Pearl Harbor attack and were deported.cite book | author=Weglyn, Michi | title=Years Of Infamy: The Untold Story Of America's Concentration Camps | publisher=University of Washington Press | year=1976, 1996 | id=ISBN 0-295-97484-2] The Niihau Incident occurred just after the Pearl Harbor attack, when two Japanese Americans on Niihaufreed a captured Japanese pilot and assisted him in his attack on Native Hawaiiansthere. [cite web|url=http://www.the-catbird-seat.net/PearlHarbor.htm|title=www.the-catbird-seat.net/PearlHarbor.htm ] Despite this incident taking place in Hawaii, the Territorial Governor rejected calls for wholesale internment of Japanese Americans there.
In Magic: The Untold Story of US Intelligence and the Evacuation of Japanese Residents From the West Coast During World War II (2001, Athena Press), David Lowman (1921-1999), a Former Special Assistant to the Director of the
National Security Agency, argues that Roosevelt was persuaded to authorize the evacuation when told the US had only partly and with great difficulty broken the Japanese Naval codes. Successful prosecution of Japanese-Americans would force the government to release information revealing their knowledge of Japanese ciphers. If the Japanese Imperial Navy changed its codes, Roosevelt was told, it might be months or even years before they could be read again. Magic was the code-name for American code-breaking efforts. Japanese codes were based on the same Enigma machine used by the Germans, but because of language differences, and because a code sheet had never been captured, breaking Japanese codes proved even more difficult than breaking German ones.
Lowman argues that the
Battle of Midwaywas won by the US only because the US read the Japanese ciphers. Otherwise the two American carriers would not have been in the right position to sink four Japanese carriers. He also credits Magic with shooting down Admiral Yamamoto's plane.
Rebuttals of charges of espionage, disloyalty and anti-American activity
Critics of the internment argue that the military justification was unfounded, citing the absence of any subsequent convictions of
Japanese Americans for espionage or sabotage.
In fact, architects of the internment, including DeWitt and Army Major
Karl Bendetsen, cited the complete lack of sabotage as "a disturbing and confirming indication that such action will be taken" (Memorandum to Secretary of War, 13 FEB 1942).
Critics of the internment also note that it seems unlikely that Japanese Americans in Japan had any choice other than to be conscripted into the Japanese army, given (1) that it was near-impossible for them to return to the U.S. from Japan, and (2) that the
United Stateshad already classified all people of Japanese ancestry as "enemy aliens."
An additional reason to question the necessity of internment was an official report by Lieutenant Commander Kenneth Ringle, a naval intelligence officer tasked with evaluating the loyalty of the Japanese American population. LCDR Ringle estimated in a 1941 report to his superiors that "more than 90% of the
Nisei(second generation) and 75% of the original immigrants were completely loyal to the United States."Fact|date=August 2008 A 1941 report prepared on President Roosevelt's orders by Curtis B. Munson, special representative of the State Department, concluded that most Japanese nationals and "90 to 98%" of Japanese American citizens were loyal. He wrote: "There is no Japanese 'problem' on the Coast… There is far more danger from Communists and people of the Bridges type on the Coast than there is from Japanese." [ [http://www.geocities.com/Athens/8420/generations.html The Munson Report] ] FBIdirector J. Edgar Hooveralso opposed the internment of Japanese Americans. Refuting General DeWitt's reports of disloyalty on the part of Japanese Americans, Hoover sent a memo to Attorney General Francis Biddlein which he wrote about Japanese American disloyalty, "Every complaint in this regard has been investigated, but in no case has any information been obtained which would substantiate the allegation." Hoover was not privy to MAGIC intercepts, although he was sometimes sent sanitized synopses.
General DeWitt and Colonel Bendetsen kept this information out of "Final Report: Japanese Evacuation from the West Coast - 1942," which was written in April 1943 — a time when DeWitt was fighting against an order that Nisei soldiers (members of the
442nd Regimental Combat Teamand the Military Intelligence Service) were to be considered "loyal" and permitted into the Exclusion Zones while on leave. DeWitt and Bendetsen initially issued 10 copies of the report, then hastily recalled them to rewrite passages which showed racist bases for the exclusion. Among other justifications, the report stated flatly that, because of their race, it was impossible to determine the loyalty of Japanese Americans. The original version was so offensive — even in the atmosphere of the wartime 1940s — that Bendetsen ordered all copies to be destroyed. Not a single piece of paper was to be left giving any evidence that an earlier version had existed.
United States District Court opinions
In 1980, a copy of the original "Final Report" was found in the National Archives, along with notes showing the numerous differences between the two versions. This earlier, racist and inflammatory version, as well as the FBI and ONI reports, led to the "
coram nobis" retrials which overturned the convictions of Fred Korematsu, Gordon Hirabayashiand Minoru Yasuion all charges related to their refusal to submit to exclusion and internment.
The courts found that the government had intentionally withheld these reports and other critical evidence, at trials all the way up to the Supreme Court, which would have proved that there was no military necessity for the exclusion and internment of Japanese Americans. In the words of Department of Justice officials writing during the war, the justifications were based on "willful historical inaccuracies and intentional falsehoods."
While this event is most commonly called the "internment" of Japanese Americans, in fact there were several different types of camps involved. The best known facilities were the "Assembly Centers" run by the Western Civilian Control Administration (WCCA), and the "Relocation Centers" run by the
War Relocation Authority(WRA), which are generally (but unofficially) referred to as "internment camps." The Department of Justice (DOJ) operated camps officially called "Internment Camps", which were used to detain those suspected of actual crimes or "enemy sympathies." German American internmentand Italian American internmentcamps also existed, sometimes sharing facilities with the Japanese Americans. The WCCA and WRA facilities were the largest and the most public. The WCCA Assembly Centers were temporary facilities that were first set up in horse racing tracks, fairgrounds and other large public meeting places to assemble and organize internees before they were transported to WRA Relocation Centers by truck, bus or train. The WRA Relocation Centers were camps that housed persons removed from the exclusion zone after March 1942, or until they were able to relocate elsewhere in America outside the exclusion zone.
DOJ Internment Camps
During World War II, over 7,000 Japanese Americans and Japanese from
Latin Americawere held in internment camps run by the Immigration and Naturalization Service, part of the Department of Justice. There were twenty-seven U.S. Department of Justice Camps, eight of which (in Texas, Idaho, North Dakota, New Mexico, and Montana) held Japanese Americans. The camps were guarded by Border Patrolagents rather than military police and were intended for non-citizens including Buddhistministers, Japanese language instructors, newspaper workers, and other community leaders.
In addition 2,210 persons of Japanese ancestry taken from 12 Latin American countries by the U.S. State and Justice Departments were held at the Department of Justice Camps. Approximately 1,800 were Japanese Peruvians. Some state that the United States intended to use them in hostage exchanges with Japan. [ [http://www.nps.gov/manz/ccdoj.htm "Department of Justice and U.S. Army Facilities"] ,
U.S. National Park Service, accessed 31 Aug 2006] There was a program to repatriate Americans (civilian and POW) and Japanese nationals, but this was ended after reports by international observers described the treatment given to internees.Fact|date=August 2008
After the war, 1,400 were not allowed to return to their Latin American homes and more than 900 Japanese Peruvians were involuntarily deported to Japan. Three hundred fought deportation in the courts and were allowed to settle in the United States.
Initially, the Japanese brought into the United States from South America were to be deported because they had entered the country without passports or visas. Later Court of Appeals decisions overturned this absurd finding, pointing out that they had been brought into the country both against their will and following a process which was essentially a form of kidnapping at the behest of the United States.
WCCA Assembly Centers
Executive Order 9066 authorized the evacuation of all persons of Japanese ancestry from the West Coast; it was signed when there was no place for the Japanese Americans to go. When voluntary evacuation proved impractical, the military took over full responsibility for the evacuation; on
April 9 1942, the Wartime Civilian Control Agency (WCCA) was established by the military to coordinate the evacuation to inland relocation centers. However, the relocation centers were far from ready for large influxes of people. For some, there was still contention over the location, but for most, their placement in isolated undeveloped areas of the country exacerbated problems of building infrastructure and housing. Since the Japanese Americans living in the restricted zone were considered too dangerous to freely conduct their daily business, the military decided it was necessary to find temporary "assembly centers" to house the evacuees until the relocation centers were completed. ["Confinement and Ethnicity: An Overview of World War II Japanese American Relocation Sites", Jeffery F. Burton, Mary M. Farrell, Florence B. Lord, and Richard W. Lord, [http://www.nps.gov/history/history/online_books/anthropology74/ce16.htm Chapter 16] , [http://www.nps.gov/ NPS] , accessed 31 Aug 2006.]
WRA Relocation Camps
War Relocation Authority(WRA) was the U.S. civilian agency responsible for the relocation and detention. The WRA was created by President Roosevelt on March 18 1942with Executive Order 9102and officially ceased to exist June 30 1946. Milton S. Eisenhower, then an official of the Department of Agriculture, was chosen to head the WRA. Within nine months, the WRA had opened ten facilities in seven states, and transferred over 100,000 people from the WCCA facilities.
The WRA camp at Tule Lake, though initially like the other camps, eventually became a detention center for people believed to pose a security risk. Tule Lake also served as a "segregation center" for individuals and families who were deemed "disloyal" and for those who were to be deported to Japan.
List of camps
There were three types of camps. "Civilian Assembly Centers" were temporary camps, frequently located at horse tracks, where the Nikkei were sent as they were removed from their communities. Eventually, most were sent to "Relocation Centers," also known as "internment camps." "Detention camps" housed Nikkei considered to be disruptive or of special interest to the government.cite web | title=Japanese American Internment Camps | url=http://www.bookmice.net/darkchilde/japan/camp.html | accessdate=2007-10-02]
Civilian Assembly Centers
Arcadia, California( Santa Anita Racetrack, stables)
Fresno, California( Big Fresno Fairgrounds, racetrack, stables)
Arboga, California(migrant workers' camp)
Mayer, Arizona( Civilian Conservation Corpscamp)
Merced, California(county fairgrounds)
Owens Valley, California
Parker Dam, Arizona
Pinedale, California(Pinedale Assembly Center, warehouses)
Pomona, California(Los Angeles County Fairgrounds, racetrack, stables)
Portland, Oregon(Pacific International Livestock Exposition, including 3,800 housed in the main pavilion building)
Puyallup, Washington(fairgrounds racetrack stables, Informally known as " Camp Harmony")
Walerga, California(migrant workers' camp)
Salinas, California(fairgrounds, racetrack, stables)
San Bruno, California( Tanforanracetrack, stables)
Stockton, California(San Joaquin County Fairgrounds, racetrack, stables)
Tulare, California(fairgrounds, racetrack, stables)
Turlock, California(Stanislaus County Fairgrounds)
List of internment camps
Gila River War Relocation Center, Arizona
Granada War Relocation Center, Colorado (AKA "Amache")
Heart Mountain War Relocation Center, Wyoming
Jerome War Relocation Center, Arkansas
Manzanar War Relocation Center, California
Minidoka War Relocation Center, Idaho
Poston War Relocation Center, Arizona
Rohwer War Relocation Center, Arkansas
Topaz War Relocation Center, Utah
Tule Lake War Relocation CenterCalifornia
Justice Department detention camps
These camps often held German and Italian detainees in addition to Japanese Americans:
Crystal City, Texas
Fort Lincoln, North Dakota
Fort Stanton, New Mexico
Santa Fe, New Mexico
Citizen Isolation Centers
Federal Bureau of Prisons
US Army facilities
These camps often held German and Italian detainees in addition to Japanese Americans:
Angel Island, California/Fort McDowell
Camp Blanding, Florida
Camp Livingston, Louisiana
Camp Lordsburg, New Mexico
Camp McCoy, Wisconsin
Fort Meade, Maryland
Fort Sam Houston
Fort Sill, Oklahoma
Sand Island, Hawaii
Exclusion, removal, and detention
Somewhere between 110,000 and 120,000 people of Japanese ancestry were subject to this mass exclusion program, of whom approximately two-thirds were U.S. citizens. The remaining one-third were non-citizens subject to internment under the
Alien Enemies Act; many of these "resident aliens" had long been inhabitants of the United States, but had been deprived the opportunity to attain citizenship by laws that blocked Asian-born nationals from ever achieving citizenship.
Florin, California. He, along with nine other servicemen, was granted a furlough from their service to return to the U.S. to assist with their families' relocation and internment. [U.S. National Archives, [http://arcweb.archives.gov/arc/arch results detail.jsp?&pg=9&si=0&nh=26&st=b ARC ID 537854] , retrieved 9 Aug 2006] April 10 1942]
Internees of Japanese descent were first sent to one of 17 temporary "Civilian Assembly Centers," where most awaited transfer to more permanent relocation centers being constructed by the newly-formed
War Relocation Authority(WRA). Some of those who did report to the civilian assembly centers were not sent to relocation centers, but were released under the condition that they remain outside the prohibited zone until the military orders were modified or lifted. Almost 120,000 Japanese Americans and resident Japanese aliens would eventually be removed from their homes in California, the western halves of Oregonand Washingtonand southern Arizonaas part of the single largest forced relocation in U.S. history.
Most of these camps/residences, gardens, and stock areas were placed on Native American reservations, for which the Native Americans were formally compensated. The Native American councils disputed the amounts negotiated in absentia by US government authorities and later sued finding relief and additional compensation for some items of dispute. [citation
contribution=Docket No. 236-A, 236-B, Gila River Indian Community v. The United States of America
date=April 28, 1971
title=Indian Claims Commission Decisions
Under the National Student Council Relocation Program (supported primarily by the
American Friends Service Committee), students of college age were permitted to leave the camps in order to attend institutions which were willing to accept students of Japanese ancestry. Although the program initially granted leave permits to only a very small number of students, this eventually grew to 2,263 students by December 31 1943. Fact|date=February 2007
Curfew and exclusion
The exclusion from Military Area No. 1 initially occurred through a voluntary relocation policy. Under the voluntary relocation policy, the Japanese Americans were free to go anywhere outside of the exclusion zone; however the arrangements and costs of relocation were borne by the individuals. The night-time curfew, initiated on
27 March 1942, was the first mass-action restricting the Japanese Americans.
Conditions in the camps
According to a 1943
War Relocation Authorityreport, internees were housed in "tar paper-covered barracks of simple frame construction without plumbing or cooking facilities of any kind." The spartan facilities met international laws, but still left much to be desired. Many camps were built quickly by civilian contractors during the summer of 1942 based on designs for military barracks, making the buildings poorly equipped for cramped family living.
To describe the conditions in more detail, the
Heart Mountain War Relocation Centerin northwestern Wyomingwas a barbed-wire-surrounded enclave with unpartitioned toilets, cots for beds, and a budget of 45 cents daily per capita for food rations. [citation
title=Work of the War Relocation Authority, An Anniversary Statement
publisher=The Harry S. Truman Library & Museum] Because most internees were evacuated from their West Coast homes on short notice and not told of their assigned destinations, many failed to pack appropriate clothing for Wyoming winters which often reached temperatures below zero Fahrenheit. Many families were forced to simply take the "clothes on their backs."Fact|date=February 2007
Armed guards were posted at the camps, which were all in remote, desolate areas far from population centers. Internees were typically allowed to stay with their families, and were treated well unless they violated the rules. There are documented instances of guards shooting internees who reportedly attempted to walk outside the fences. One such shooting, that of James Wakasa at Topaz, led to a re-evaluation of the security measures in the camps. Some camp administrations eventually allowed relatively free movement outside the marked boundaries of the camps. Nearly a quarter of the internees left the camps to live and work elsewhere in the United States, outside the exclusion zone. Eventually, some were authorized to return to their hometowns in the exclusion zone under supervision of a sponsoring American family or agency whose loyalty had been assured. [citation
publisher=Organizer of American Historians]
The phrase "
shikata ga nai" (loosely translated as "it cannot be helped") was commonly used to summarize the interned families' resignation to their helplessness throughout these conditions. This was even noticed by the children, as mentioned in " Farewell to Manzanar." Although that may be the view to outsiders, the Japanese people tended to comply with the U.S. government to prove themselves loyal citizens. This perceived loyalty to the United States can be attributed to the collective mentality of Japanese culture, where citizens are more concerned with the overall good of the group as opposed to focusing on individual wants and needs. [www.mci4me.at/.../download/fink-holden_2002_ collective_culture_shock.pdf?DOCID=100099008&blobIndex=file]
Loyalty questions and segregation
Some Japanese Americans did question the American government, after finding themselves in internment camps. Several pro-Japan groups formed inside the camps, particularly at the Tule Lake location. [http://www.tulelake.org/2004-pilgrimage/ Tule Lake Committee - tulelake.org ] ] When the government passed a law that made it possible for an internee to renounce her or his U.S. citizenship, 5,589 internees opted to do so; 5,461 of these were at Tule Lake. Of those who renounced their citizenship, 1,327 were repatriated to Japan. Many of these individuals would later face stigmatization in the Japanese American community, after the war, for having made that choice, although even at the time they were not certain what their futures held were they to remain American, and remain interned.
American Civil Liberties Unionsuccessfully challenged most of these renunciations as invalid because of the conditions under which the government obtained them. These conditions were described as "coercion, duress, and mass compulsion" by Marvin Opler, a WRA official who had observed some of the renunciation hearings and supported the restoration of citizenship to the expatriated Japanese Americans.Fact|date=February 2007 It is interesting to note that many of the deportees were " Issei" (first generation Japanese immigrants) who often had difficulty with English and often did not understand the questions they were asked.Fact|date=February 2007 Even among those "Issei" who had a clear understanding, Question 28 posed an awkward dilemma: Japanese immigrants were denied US citizenship at the time, so when asked to renounce their Japanese citizenship, answering "Yes" would have made them stateless persons. Faced with possible deportation to Japan, the "Issei" largely refused to renounce their only citizenship.Fact|date=February 2007
When the government circulated a questionnaire seeking army volunteers from among the internees, 6% of military-aged male respondents volunteered to serve in the U.S. Armed Forces.Fact|date=February 2007 Most of those who refused, however, tempered that refusal with statements of willingness to fight if they were restored their rights as American citizens. It is also important to note that there were 20,000 Japanese American men in the U.S. Army during World War II and many Japanese American women. [cite web|url=http://www.javadc.org/AJA%20women_in_wwII.htm|title=Japanese American women in World World II]
442nd Regimental Combat Team, which fought in Europe, was formed from those Japanese Americans who did agree to serve. This unit was the most highly decorated US military unit of its size and duration. [cite web|url=http://www4.army.mil/ocpa/read.php?story_id_key=1813|title=www4.army.mil/ocpa/read.php?story_id_key=1813 ] Most notably, the 442nd was known for saving the 141st (or the "lost battalion") from the Germans. The 1951 film "Go For Broke!" was a fairly accurate portrayal of the 442nd, and starred several of the RCT's veterans.
Other detention camps
As early as 1939, when war broke out in Europe and while armed conflict began to rage in East Asia, the FBI and branches of the Department of Justice and the armed forces began to collect information and surveillance on influential members of the Japanese community in the United States. This data was included in the
Custodial Detention index("CDI"). Agents in the Department of Justice's Special Defense Unit classified the subjects into three groups: A, B and C, with A being "most dangerous," and C being "possibly dangerous."
After the Pearl Harbor attacks, Roosevelt authorized his attorney general to put into motion a plan for the arrest of individuals on the potential enemy alien lists. Armed with a blanket arrest warrant, the FBI seized these men on the eve of
December 8 1941. These men were held in municipal jails and prisons until they were moved to Department of Justice detention camps, separate from those of the Wartime Relocation Authority (WRA). These camps operated under far more stringent conditions and were subject to heightened criminal-style guard, despite the absence of criminal proceedings. Crystal City, Texas, was one such camp where Japanese Americans, German-Americans, Italian-Americans, and a large number of US-seized, Axis-descended nationals from several Latin-American countries were interned.
Canadian citizens with Japanese ancestry were also interned by the Canadian government during World War II (see
Japanese Canadian internment). Japanese people from various parts of Latin Americawere brought to the United States for internment, or interned in their countries of residenceFact|date=November 2007.
Although there was a strong push from mainland Congressmen (
Hawaiiwas only a US territory at the time, and did not have a voting representative or senator in Congress) to remove and intern all Japanese Americansand Japanese immigrants in Hawaii, it never happened. 1,200 to 1,800 Japanese nationals and Japanese Americans from Hawaii were interned, either in two camps on Oahu or in one of the mainland internment camps.
The vast majority of Japanese Americans and their immigrant parents in Hawaii were not interned because the government had already declared martial law in Hawaii and this allowed it to significantly reduce the supposed risk of espionage and sabotage by residents of Japanese ancestry. Also, Japanese Americans comprised over 35% of the territory's population, with approximately 150,000 inhabitants; detaining so many people would have been enormously challenging in terms of logistics. Also, the whole of Hawaiian society was dependent on their productivity.
There were two internment camps in Hawaii, referred to as "Hawaiian Island Detention Camps". The Hawaiian camps primarily utilized tents and other temporary structures and few permanent structures.Fact|date=February 2007 One camp was located at Sand Island, which is located in the middle of
HonoluluHarbor. This camp was prepared in advance of the war's outbreak. All prisoners held here were "detained under military custody... because of the imposition of martial law throughout the Islands". The other Hawaiian camp was called Honouliuli, near Ewa, on the southwestern shore of Oahu. This camp is not as well-known as the Sand Island camp, and it was closed before the Sand Island camp in 1944.
In December 1944 (
Ex parte Endo), the Supreme Court ruled the detainment of loyal citizens unconstitutional, though a decision handed down the same day ( Korematsu v. United States) held that the exclusion process as a whole was constitutional.
January 2 1945, the exclusion order was rescinded entirely. The internees then began to leave the camps to rebuild their lives at home, although the relocation camps remained open for residents who were not ready to make the move back. The freed internees were given $25 and a train ticket to their former homes. While the majority returned to their former lives, some of the Japanese Americans emigrated to Japan. [cite web|url=http://www.pbs.org/opb/historydetectives/investigations/202_tulelakefeature.html|title=PBS Investigations of the Tule Lake Camp. Accessed August 24 2007.] The fact that this occurred long before the Japanese surrender, while the war was arguably at its most vicious, weighs against the claim that the relocation was a security measure. However, it is also true that the Japanese were clearly losing the war by that time, and were not on the offensive. The last internment camp was not closed until 1946, ["Japanese Americans Internment Camps During World War II," [http://www.lib.utah.edu/spc/photo/9066/9066.htm Library web page at Utah.edu. Accessed 1 Oct 2006.] ] Japanese taken by the U.S. from Peru that were still being held in the camp in Santa Fe took legal action in April 1946 in an attempt to avoid deportation to Japan. [citation
title=America's Japanese Hostages: The World War II Plan for a Japanese Free Latin America
publisher=Greenwood Publishing Group
One of the WRA camps, Manzanar, was designated a
National Historic Sitein 1992 to "provide for the protection and interpretation of historic, cultural, and natural resources associated with the relocation of Japanese Americans during World War II" (Public Law 102-248). In 2001, the site of the Minidoka War Relocation Center in Idaho was designated the Minidoka Internment National Monument.
Hardship and material loss
Many internees lost irreplaceable personal property due to the restrictions on what could be taken into the camps. These losses were compounded by theft and destruction of items placed in governmental storage. A number of persons died or suffered for lack of medical care, and several were killed by sentries; James Wakasa, for instance, was killed at
Topaz War Relocation Center, near the perimeter wire. Nikkeiwere prohibited from leaving the Military Zones during the last few weeks before internment, and only able to leave the camps by permission of the camp administrators.
Psychological injury was observed by Dillon S. Myer, director of the WRA camps. In June 1945, Myer described how the Japanese Americans had grown increasingly depressed, and overcome with feelings of helplessness and personal insecurity."The WRA says Thirty," New Republic 112, pp. 867–68.]
Some Japanese American farmers were able to find families willing to tend their farms for the duration of their internment. In other cases, however, Japanese American farmers had to sell their property in a matter of days, usually at great financial loss. In these cases, the land speculators who bought the land made huge profits. California's Alien Land Laws of the 1910s, which prohibited most non-citizens from owning property in that state, contributed to Japanese American property losses. Because they were barred from owning land, many older Japanese American farmers were
tenant farmers and therefore lost their rights to those farm lands.
To compensate former internees for their property losses, the
US Congress, on July 2 1948, passed the "American Japanese Claims Act", allowing Japanese Americans to apply for compensation for property losses which occurred as "a reasonable and natural consequence of the evacuation or exclusion." By the time the Act was passed, however, the IRS had already destroyed most of the 1939-42 tax records of the internees, and, due to the time pressure and the strict limits on how much they could take to the assembly centers and then the internment camps, few of the internees themselves had been able to preserve detailed tax and financial records during the evacuation process. Thus, it was extremely difficult for claimants to establish that their claims were valid. Under the Act, Japanese American families filed 26,568 claims totaling $148 million in requests; approximately $37 million was approved and disbursed. [Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment, "Personal Justice Denied", [http://www.nps.gov/history/history/online_books/personal_justice_denied/chap4.htm] ]
Reparations and redress
During World War II,
Coloradogovernor Ralph Lawrence Carrwas the only elected official to publicly apologize for the internment of American citizens. The act cost him reelection, but gained him the gratitude of the Japanese American community, such that a statue of him was erected in Sakura Square in Denver's Japantown. [ [http://coloradohistory.org/RIPsigns/show_markertext.asp?id=811 The Colorado History Organization] ]
Beginning in the 1960s, a younger generation of Japanese Americans who were inspired by the
Civil Rights movementbegan what is known as the "Redress Movement", an effort to obtain an official apology and reparations from the federal government for interning their parents and grandparents during the war, focusing not on documented property losses but on the broader injustice of the internment. The movement's first success was in 1976, when President Gerald Fordproclaimed that the evacuation was "wrong."
The campaign for redress was launched by Japanese Americans in 1978. The
Japanese American Citizens League(JACL) asked for three measures to be taken as redress: $25,000 to be awarded to each person who was detained, an apology from Congress acknowledging publicly that the U.S. government had been wrong, and the release of funds to set up an educational foundation for the children of Japanese American families.
In 1980, Congress established the
Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians(CWRIC) to study the matter. Some opponents of the redress movement argued that the commission was ideologically biased; 40% of the commission staff was of Japanese ancestry.Fact|date=February 2007 On February 24 1983, the commission issued a report entitled "Personal Justice Denied", condemning the internment as "unjust and motivated by racism rather than real military necessity". [ [http://www.nps.gov/history/history/online_books/personal_justice_denied/intro.htm Personal Justice Denied, www.nps.gov] ] Members of the redress movement and their allies considered the report a necessary recognition of the great injustice of the internment program.Fact|date=February 2007
In 1988, U.S. President (and former California governor)
Ronald Reagansigned the Civil Liberties Act of 1988, which had been pushed through Congress by Representative Norman Minetaand Senator Alan K. Simpson— the two had met while Mineta was interned at a camp in Wyoming— which provided redress of $20,000 for each surviving detainee, totaling $1.2 billion dollars. The question of to whom reparations should be given, how much, and even whether monetary reparations were appropriate were subjects of sometimes contentious debate.Fact|date=February 2007
September 27 1992, the Civil Liberties Act Amendments of 1992, appropriating an additional $400 million in order to ensure that all remaining internees received their $20,000 redress payments, was signed into law by President George H. W. Bush, who also issued another formal apology from the U.S. government.
Japanese and Japanese Americans who were relocated during WWII were compensated for direct property losses in 1948. Later on in 1988 following lobbying efforts by Japanese Americans, $20,000 per internee was paid out to individuals who had been interned or relocated, including those who chose to return to Japan. These payments were awarded to 82,210 Japanese Americans or their heirs at a cost of $1.6 billion; the program's final disbursement occurred in 1999.
Under the 2001 budget of the United States, it was also decreed that the ten sites on which the detainee camps were set up are to be preserved as historical landmarks: “places like Manzanar, Tule Lake, Heart Mountain, Topaz, Amache, Jerome, and Rohwer will forever stand as reminders that this nation failed in its most sacred duty to protect its citizens against prejudice, greed, and political expediency”. [Tateishi and Yoshino 2000] Each of these concentration camps was surrounded by barbed wire and contained at least ten thousand detainees.
Civil rights violations
Article I, Section 9 of the
U.S. Constitutionstates "The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when in cases of rebellion or invasion the public safety may require it." but gives this authority to Congress, rather than the President.
Abraham Lincolnsuspended habeas corpus during the Civil War. On February 19 1942, President Franklin D. Roosevelt followed in his footsteps by signing Executive Order 9066, permitting exclusion of persons from wartime military zones.
Following the reluctance or inability of the vast majority of ethnic Japanese to establish new residences beyond the coastal regions of California, Oregon, and Washington, the U.S. government entered upon a mission of housing, feeding, and safeguarding in family groups as many as 122,000 ethnic Japanese residing in what became the Red War Zone. In point of fact, a significant number of Japanese living outside of the coastal areas requested and were granted the opportunity of joining others of their ethnic group in the relocation centers.
Former Supreme Court Justice
Tom C. Clark, who represented the US Department of Justice in the "relocation," writes in the Epilogue to the 1992 book "Executive Order 9066: The Internment of 110,000 Japanese Americans" (written by Maisie & Richard Conrat [ [http://www.amazon.com/dp/0934052190 Executive Order 9066 at Amazon.com] ] ):
The truth is—as this deplorable experience proves—that constitutions and laws are not sufficient of themselves...Despite the unequivocal language of the Constitution of the United States that the
writ of habeas corpusshall not be suspended, and despite the Fifth Amendment's command that no person shall be deprived of life, liberty or property without due process of law, both of these constitutional safeguards were denied by military action under Executive Order 9066. [ [http://asianamericanbooks.com/books/1990.htm Asian American Books.com, quote from back cover.] ]
To this day, some believe that the legality of the internment has been firmly established as exactly the type of scenario spelled out, quite clearly, in the
Alien and Sedition Actsof 1798. Among other things, the Alien Enemies Act (which was one of four laws included in the Alien and Sedition Acts) allowed for the United States government, during time of war, to apprehend and detain indefinitely foreign nationals, first-generation citizens, or any others deemed a threat by the government. As no expiration date was set, and the law has never been overruled, it was still in effect during World War II, and still is to this day. Therefore, some continue to claim that the civil rights violations were, in fact, not violations at all, having been deemed acceptable as a national security measure during time of war by Congress, signed into law by President John Adams, and upheld by the Supreme Court. However, the majority of the detainees were American-born, thus exempt under law from the Alien and Sedition Acts except if found to directly be a threat due to their actions or associations. This exemption was the basis for drafting Nisei to fight in Europe, as the Laws of Land Warfareprohibit signatory nations (including the United States) from compelling persons to act against their homelands or the allies of their homelands in time of war.
Several significant legal decisions arose out of Japanese American internment, relating to the powers of the government to detain citizens in wartime. Among the cases which reached the Supreme Court were "
Yasui v. United States" (1943), " Hirabayashi v. United States" (1943), " ex parte Endo" (1944), and " Korematsu v. United States" (1944). In "Yasui" and "Hirabayashi" the court upheld the constitutionality of curfews based on Japanese ancestry; in "Korematsu" the court upheld the constitutionality of the exclusion order. In "Endo", the court accepted a petition for a writ of habeas corpusand ruled that the WRA had no authority to subject a citizen whose loyalty was acknowledged to its procedures.
Korematsu's and Hirabayashi's convictions were vacated in a series of "
coram nobis" cases in the early 1980s.cite book | author=Irons, Peter. | title=Justice At War: The Story of the Japanese American Internment Cases | publisher=University of Washington Press | year=1976, 1996 | id=ISBN 0-520-08312-1] In the "coram nobis" cases, federal district and appellate courts ruled that newly uncovered evidence revealed the existence of a huge unfairness which, had it been known at the time, would likely have changed the Supreme Court's decisions in the Yasui, Hirabayashi, and Korematsu cases. These new court decisions rested on a series of documents recovered from the National Archives showing that the government had altered, suppressed and withheld important and relevant information from the Supreme Court, most notably, the Final Report by General DeWitt justifying the internment program. The Army had destroyed documents in an effort to hide the fact that alterations had been made to the report. The "coram nobis" cases vacated the convictions of Korematsu and Hirabayashi (Yasui passed away before his case was heard, rendering it moot), and are regarded as one of the impetuses for the Civil Liberties Act of 1988.
It is important to note that the rulings of the US Supreme Court in the 1944 Korematsu and Hirabayashi cases, specifically, its expansive interpretation of government powers in wartime, were not overturned. They are still the law of the land because a lower court cannot overturn a ruling by the US Supreme Court. However, the "coram nobis" cases totally undermined the "factual" underpinnings of the 1944 cases, leaving the original decisions without the proverbial legal leg to stand on. But in light of the fact that these 1944 decisions are still on the books, a number of legal scholars have expressed the opinion that the original Korematsu and Hirabayashi decisions have taken on an added relevance in the context of the
War on terror.
There has been much discussion over what to call the internment camps.cite web | title=The Manzanar Controversy | url=http://www.pbs.org/weekendexplorer/california/mammoth/manzanar.htm | date=date not available | accessdate=2007-07-18] The WRA officially called them "War Relocation Centers."
Manzanar, for instance, was officially known as the Manzanar War Relocation Center. Because of this, the National Park Service has chosen to use "relocation center" in referring to the camps.cite book | author=Manzanar Committee | title=Reflections: Three Self-Guided Tours Of Manzanar | year = 1998 | publisher= Manzanar Committee | pages = iii-iv] Some historians and scholars, as well as former internees, object to this wording, noting that the internees were literally imprisoned, such that "relocation" becomes a euphemism.
Another widely used name for the American camps is "internment camp". This phrase is also potentially misleading, as the
United States Department of Justiceoperated separate camps that were officially called "internment camps" in which some Japanese Americans were imprisoned during World War II.cite book | author=Jeffery F. Burton, Mary M. Farrell, Florence B. Lord, Richard W. Lord | title=Confinement and Ethnicity: An Overview of World War II Japanese American Relocation Sites | publisher= Western Archaeological and Conservation Center, National Park Service, US Department of the Interior | year=1999 | id=Publications in Anthropology 74 |pages = 379-406] cite book | author=Weglyn, Michi. | title=Years Of Infamy: The Untold Story Of America's Concentration Camps | publisher=University of Washington Press | year=1976, 1996 | id=ISBN 0-29597-484-2 | pages = 176-177]
"Concentration camp" is the most controversial descriptor of the camps. This term is criticized for suggesting that the Japanese American experience was analogous to the
Holocaustand the Nazi concentration camps.cite web | title=Auschwitz: Inside the Nazi State: Glossary | url=http://www.pbs.org/auschwitz/learning/glossary
date=2004-2005 | accessdate=2007-07-18] For this reason,
National Park Serviceofficials have attempted to avoid the term. Nonetheless, Franklin D. Rooseveltand Secretary of the Interior Harold L. Ickeseach referred to the American camps as "concentration camps", at the time.cite web | title=Smithsonian Institution: A More Perfect Union: Japanese Americans & the U.S. Constitution: Internment: Permanent Camps | url=http://americanhistory.si.edu/perfectunion/non-flash/internment_permanent.html | date=1990-2001 | accessdate=2007-07-18] Harry S. Trumanand Dwight D. Eisenhowerhave also utilized the phrase "concentration camps".cite web | title=Smithsonian Institution: A More Perfect Union: Japanese Americans & the U.S. Constitution: Justice: Court Cases | url=http://americanhistory.si.edu/perfectunion/non-flash/justice_court.html | date=1990-2001 | accessdate=2007-07-18]
Recognizing the controversy over the terminology, in 1971, when the [http://www.manzanarcommittee.org Manzanar Committee] applied to the
California Department of Parks and Recreationto have Manzanar designated as a California State Historical Landmark, it was proposed that both "relocation center" and "concentration camp" be used in the wording of the plaque for the landmark.cite book | author=Manzanar Committee | title=Reflections: Three Self-Guided Tours Of Manzanar | pages = iv] Some Owens Valley residents vehemently opposed the use of "concentration camp", and it took a year of discussion and negotiation before both terms were accepted and included on the plaque.
Violet Kazue de Cristoforo(1917–2007), poet (Tule Lake and Jerome)
Takayo Fischer, actress (Jerome and Rohwer)
Bill Hosokawa(1915–2007), journalist (Heart Mountain)
Jeanne Wakatsuki Houston, author ( Manzanar)
Lawson Fusao Inada, poet (multiple camps)
Robert Ito, actor (Japanese-Canadian Internee)
Hiroshi Kashiwagi, actor, poet, playwright (Tule Lake)
Yuri Kochiyama, activist (Jerome)
Ralph Lazo( Manzanar)
Bob Matsui(1941–2005), U.S. Congressman (Tule Lake)
Doris Matsui, U.S. Congresswoman (born in Poston)
Pat Morita(1932–2005), actor, comedian ( Gila River)
Norman Mineta, former Mayor of San Jose, California, U.S. Congressman, Sec. of Commerce, Sec. of Transportation (Heart Mountain)
Tōyō Miyatake(1896–1979), photographer ( Manzanar)
Sadao Munemori(1922–1945), Congressional Medal of Honor recipient ( Manzanar)
George Nakashima(1905–1990), woodworker, furniture designer, architect (Minidoka)
Miné Okubo(1912–2001), artist, author "Citizen 13660" ( Tanforanand Topaz)
Yuki Shimoda(1921–1981), actor (Tule Lake)
Larry Shinoda(1930–1997), automotive designer
Monica Sone(1919- ) autobiographer ("Nisei Daughter", 1953) ( Camp Harmonyand Minidoka)
Jack Soo(1917–1979), actor, comedian (Topaz)
Pat Suzuki, singer, actress, entertainer
Iwao Takamoto(1925–2007), animator, TV producer ( Manzanar)
George Takei, actor (Rohwer and Tule Lake)
A. Wallace Tashima, Ninth Circuit judge (Poston)
Hisaye Yamamoto, author (Poston)
Wakako Yamauchi, author, playwright (Poston)
*"Topaz", a 1945 documentary of the internment filmed by
Dave Tatsunoin the Topaz War Relocation Centerin Utah.
Farewell to Manzanar", a memoir by Jeanne Wakatsuki Houstonof her time spent in Manzanar. Jeanne, who was seven at the time of the relocation, had never lived around Asians other than her own family.
*"To The Stars", autobiography of actor
George Takei, including description of his time spent in Rohwer and Tule Lakeinternment camps, and the difficulties faced by his family as a result of the forced relocation.
Back Home" by Bill Mauldin(1947, Sloane), pages 165 - 170. Mauldin, the artist most famous for his "Willie and Joe" cartoons in the Army's "Stars and Stripes" newspaper, learned of the internment camps when meeting members of the 100th Battalion and the 442nd Regimental Combat Team, both composed of Nisei volunteers, who were fighting in Europe. Following the war, Mauldin was an outspoken critic of the treatment given to the Japanese Americans, both during and following the war. Several of his cartoons of the period, featured in this book, sharply address this issue.
*"Desert Exile: The Uprooting of a Japanese-American Family" by
Yoshiko Uchida(1982, University of Washington Press). Uchida's autobiography from the 1930s through the end of the internment. Her father was arrested by the FBI in the sweep of community leaders. The rest of her family were sent to Tanforan Racetrackand housed in horse stables, where her father eventually rejoined them, then later interned at Topaz War Relocation Center.
Come See The Paradise", a 1990 film directed by Alan Parker, starring Tamlyn Tomitaand Dennis Quaid.
Snow Falling on Cedars", a David Gutersonnovel (made into a 1999 film) about a 1950s murder trial case with a Japanese American defendant. It shows the deep xenophobia toward people with Japanese ancestry, and depicts the internment camps.
Day of Independence" (2003), an Emmy-nominated half-hour PBS television specialfrom Cedar Grove Productions, about a young " Nisei" baseball player and his separation from his parents while in camp.
*"" (2004), a half-hour educational film from
Visual Communications (VC)about the Mexican Americancitizen who voluntarily accompanied his Japanese Americanfriends to Manzanar.
Only the Brave" (2005), independent film about the 100th Infantry Battalion/ 442nd Regimental Combat Team, directed by Lane Nishikawa; includes portions depicting camp
*"American Pastime" (2007), a drama set in the
Topaz War Relocation Center, in which the Topaz internees form a baseball team, eventually challenging the local minor league team to an important game.
*"The Colonel and the Pacifist," by Klancy Clark de Nevers (2004,
University of Utah Press). This book details the background of Karl Bendetsen, architect of the internment, raising questions about his honesty (including his concealment of his Jewish heritage) and motivation (having been raised in an area with a history of strong sentiment against Japanese Americans).
*"When the Emperor was Divine" (2002), by Julie Otsuka. A lean and evocative first novel of the internment of a Japanese American family from
Berkeley, Californiaand the resulting experiences.
In Defense of Internment: The Case for 'Racial Profiling' in World War II and the War on Terror" (ISBN 0-89526-051-4) is a 2004 bookwritten by American conservative columnist, blogger, and pundit Michelle Malkindefending internment policies.
*Kenji is a song by Mike Shinoda for the album the Rising Tied by Fort Minor describing the life of a Japanese-American named Kenji.
Japanese Canadian internment
Italian American internment
German American internment
List of documentary films about the Japanese American internment
References and notes
Archival sources of documents, photos, and other materials
* [http://www.statesmanjournal.com/japanese_internment/intro.html Beyond Barbed Wire: Japanese Internment through Salem Eyes] — Statesman Journal presents videos, stories, photographs and documents.
* [http://www.densho.org/ Densho: The Japanese American Legacy Project] — Video oral histories, historical photographs and documents.
* [http://jarda.cdlib.org/ Japanese American Relocation Digital Archives] — Hosted by the University of California and contains personal & official photographs, letters, diaries, transcribed oral histories, etc.
* [http://bss.sfsu.edu/internment/documents.html Large number of documents] — Official documents, including official court opinions on the Yasui, Hirabayashi, and Korematsu Supreme Court cases
* [http://www.internmentarchives.com/ InternmentArchives.com] — Online archive of primary source documentation regarding relocation; argues that internment was warranted (this site is sponsored by Athena Press, publisher one of whose products is a book supporting the internment).
* [http://www.ibiblio.org/pha/ Pearl Harbor History Associates, Inc.] — Their slogan is "Remembering Pearl Harbor. Keeping the record straight."
* [http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/aamhtml/aamhome.html Photographs of Japanese American Internment at Manzanar by Ansel Adams From the American Memory Collection of the Library of Congress]
* [http://memory.loc.gov/ammem/collections/anseladams/aamborn.html Born Free & Equal] — High quality Library of Congress scans of the original 1944 edition of the book, with printed text and photographs by Ansel Adams.
* [http://memory.loc.gov/learn/lessons/99/fear/gallery.html Nothing to Fear but Fear Itself] — Photo gallery at U.S. Library of Congress.
* [http://content.lib.washington.edu/socialweb/index.html University of Washington Libraries Digital Collections – Social Issues Photographs] — 500 historical images from Western United States and the Pacific Northwest region covering political and social topics such as women's issues, labor and government, and ethnic groups with special emphasis on the Japanese internment camps in the Northwest during World War II.
* [http://www.smithsonianeducation.org/educators/lesson_plans/japanese_internment/index.html Letters from the Japanese American Internment] — Correspondence between a librarian, Clara Breed, and young internees.
* [http://www.gaic.info German American Internee Coalition] — Information on German American and Latin American citizens and legal residents who were interned by the United States during World War II.
*Handbook of Texas|id=WW/quwby|name=WORLD WAR II INTERNMENT CAMPS
* [http://www.campaignforjusticejla.org/ "Campaign For Justice: Redress Now For Japanese American Internees!". A website with information about the lesser known internment of Japanese Latin Americans]
* [http://www.asian-nation.org/internment.shtml Asian-Nation: Japanese American Internment]
* [http://americanhistory.si.edu/exhibitions/exhibition.cfm?key=38&exkey=78 A More Perfect Union: Japanese Americans and the U.S. Constitution]
* [http://www.nps.gov/history/history/online_books/anthropology74/index.htm National Park Service; Confinment and Ethnicity: An Overview of World War II Japanese American Relocation Sites.]
* [http://www.minidoka.org/ Friends of Minidoka]
* [http://bushlibrary.tamu.edu/papers/1992/92092704.html 1992 signing]
* [http://www.immigration.gov/graphics/aboutus/history/attachd.htm Alien registration]
* [http://tucnak.fsv.cuni.cz/~calda/Documents/1940s/Alien%20Registration%20Act%20of%201940.html The Smith Act]
* [http://www.ourdocuments.gov/doc.php?flash=false&doc=74&page=transcript EO 9066]
* [http://www.ericdigests.org/2001-3/japanese.htm Teaching about Japanese American Internment]
* [http://www.janmonline.org/nrc/q-a.php Japanese American National Museum Q & A]
* [http://www.boisepubliclibrary.org/Ref/guideinternmentcamps.shtml Japanese American Internment Camps in Idaho and the West: 1942-1945]
* [http://www.sfmuseum.org/war/evactxt.html The Internment of San Francisco Japanese]
* [http://www.santacruzpl.org/history/ww2/9066/contents.shtml Executive Order 9066 and the Residents of Santa Cruz County]
* [http://www.njamf.com/ National Japanese American Memorial Foundation]
* [http://www.njamf.com/welcome.htm National Japanese American Memorial to Patriotism in Washington, DC]
* [http://reclaimdemocracy.org/articles_2004/fred_korematsu_racial_profiling.html 60 years after his landmark Supreme Court battle, Fred Korematsu is fighting racial profiling of Arabs]
* [http://www.fromasilkcocoon.com From a Silk Cocoon: A Documentary Film]
* [http://www.colostate.edu/Orgs/TuleLake/Tule%20Lake%20Menu.html TULE LAKE RELOCATION CENTER by I. Fujimoto and D. Sunada]
* [http://www.californiamuseum.org Japanese American Internment Camp Exhibit at The California Museum]
* [http://www.nps.gov/history/nr/twhp/wwwlps/lessons/89manzanar/89manzanar.htm "“The War Relocation Centers of World War II: When Fear Was Stronger than Justice”", a National Park Service Teaching with Historic Places (TwHP) lesson plan]
* [http://www.paradigme.com/sources/SOURCES-PDF/Pages%20de%20Sources04-1-3.pdf The Ideological Uses of Japanese-Americans in U.S. Concentration Camps] by Francis Feeley
University of California at Berkeley, 1998
United States government documents
* Civilian Restrictive Order No. 1, 8 Fed. Reg. 982, provided for detention of those of Japanese ancestry in assembly or relocation centers.
* House Report No. 2124 (77th Cong., 2d Sess.) 247-52
* Hearings before the Subcommittee on the National War Agencies Appropriation Bill for 1945, Part II, 608-726
* Final Report, Japanese Evacuation from the West Coast, 1942 (pg 309-327), by Lt. Gen. J. L. DeWitt. This report is dated June 5, 1943, but was not made public until January, 1944.
* Further evidence of the Commanding General's attitude toward individuals of Japanese ancestry is revealed in his voluntary testimony on April 13, 1943, in San Francisco before the House Naval Affairs Subcommittee to Investigate Congested Areas, Part 3, pp. 739-40 (78th Cong., 1st Sess.)
* Hearings before the Committee on Immigration and Naturalization, House of Representatives, 78th Cong., 2d Sess., on H. R. 2701 and other bills to expatriate certain nationals of the United States, pp. 37-42, 49-58.
* 56 Stat. 173.
* 7 Fed. Reg. 2601
* House Report No. 1809, 84th Congress, 2d session, 9 (1956).
* Opler, Marvin in Tom C. Clark, Attorney General of the United States and William A. Carmichael, District Director, Immigration and Naturalization Service, Department of Justice, District 16 vs. Albert Yuichi Inouye, Miye Mae Murakami, Tsutako Sumi, and Mutsu Shimizu. No. 11839, United States Circuit Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit. August 1947.
* [http://www.nps.gov/history/history/online_books/personal_justice_denied/ Personal Justice Denied: Report of the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians,] Washington D.C., December, 1982
* Drinnon, Richard. "Keeper of Concentration Camps: Dillon S. Meyer and American Racism." Berkeley and others: University of California Press, 1989.
* Hirabayashi, Lane Ryo. "The Politics of Fieldwork: Research in an American Concentration Camp." Tucson: The University of Arizona Press, 1999.
last = Lange
first = Dorothy
authorlink = Dorothy Lange
coauthors = Linda Gordon and Gary Y. Okihiro (editors)
year = 2006
title = "Impounded: Dorothea Lange and the Censored Images of Japanese American Internment"
publisher = W. W. Norton and Company
location = New York
* Mackey, Mackey, ed. "Remembering Heart Mountain: Essays on Japanese American Internment in Wyoming." Wyoming: Western History Publications, 1998.
* Miyakawa, Edward T. "Tule Lake." Trafford Publishing, 2006. ISBN 1-55369-844-4
* Robinson, Greg. "By Order of the President: FDR and the Internment of Japanese Americans." Cambridge and others: Harvard University Press, 2001.
*cite book | author=Weglyn, Michi. | title=Years Of Infamy: The Untold Story Of America's Concentration Camps | publisher=University of Washington Press | year=1976, 1996 | id=ISBN 0-295-97484-2
*cite book | author=Civil Liberties Public Education Fund. | title=Personal Justice Denied: Report of the Commission on Wartime Relocation and Internment of Civilians | publisher=Civil Liberties Public Education Fund and University of Washington Press | year=1997 | id=ISBN 0-295-97558-X
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