Even-toed ungulate


Even-toed ungulate

Taxobox
name = Even-toed ungulates
fossil_range = Early Eocene - Recent



image_caption = Right-rear foot of a Masai Giraffe ("Giraffa camelopardalis tippelskirchi") at the San Diego Zoo
regnum = Animalia
phylum = Chordata
classis = Mammalia
infraclassis = Eutheria
superordo = Laurasiatheria
ordo = Artiodactyla*
ordo_authority = Owen, 1848
subdivision_ranks = Families
subdivision =
Antilocapridae
Bovidae
Camelidae
Cervidae
Giraffidae
Hippopotamidae
Moschidae
Suidae
Tayassuidae
Tragulidae
Leptochoeridae
Dichobunidae
Cebochoeridae
Entelodontidae
Anoplotheriidae
Anthracotheriidae
Cainotheriidae
Agriochoeridae
Merycoidodontidae
Leptomerycidae
Protoceratidae
Oromerycidae
Xiphodontidae
Amphimerycidae
Helohyidae
Gelocidae
Dromomerycidae
Raoellidae
Choeropotamidae
Sanitheriidae
Climacoceratidae
Palaeomerycidae

The even-toed ungulates form the mammal order Artiodactyla. They are ungulates whose weight is borne (if they have more than two toes) about equally by the third and fourth toes, rather than mostly or entirely by the third as in perissodactyls. Another key distinguishing feature is the shape of the astragalus (a bone in the hock joint), which has a double-pulley structure in artiodactyls, giving the foot greater flexibility.cite book |author= Savage, RJG, & Long, MR|year=1986 |title= Mammal Evolution: an illustrated guide|publisher= Facts on File|location=New York|pages= 208|isbn= 0-8160-1194-X]

There are about 220 artiodactyl species, including many that are of great nutritional, economic and cultural importance to humans.

Evolution

As with many animal groups, even-toed ungulates first appeared during the Early Eocene (about 54 million years ago). In form they were rather like today's chevrotains: small, short-legged creatures that ate leaves and the soft parts of plants. By the Late Eocene (46 million years ago), the three modern suborders had already developed: Suina (the pig group); Tylopoda (the camel group); and Ruminantia (the goat and cattle group). Nevertheless, artiodactyls were far from dominant at that time: the odd-toed ungulates (ancestors of today's horses and rhinos) were much more successful and far more numerous. Even-toed ungulates survived in niche roles, usually occupying marginal habitats, and it is presumably at that time that they developed their complex digestive systems, which allowed them to survive on lower-grade food.

The appearance of grasses during the Eocene and their subsequent spread during the Miocene (about 20 million years ago) saw a major change: grasses are very difficult to eat and the even-toed ungulates with their highly-developed stomachs were better able to adapt to this coarse, low-nutrition diet, and soon replaced the odd-toed ungulates as the dominant terrestrial herbivores. Now-extinct Artiodactyla which developed during the Miocene include the species Ampelomeryx, Tauromeryx, Triceromeryx, and others.

Suina

Suina (pigs and peccaries) are artiodactyls that retain four toes of fairly equal size, have simpler molars, short legs, and often have enlarged canine teeth that form tusks. In general, they are omnivores and have a simple stomach, except for the two hippopotamus species and the babirusa which are herbivores.cite book |editor=Macdonald, D.|author= Janis, Christine & Jarman, Peter|year=1984 |title= The Encyclopedia of Mammals|publisher= Facts on File|location=New York|pages= 498-499|isbn= 0-87196-871-1] Hippopotamidae have been considered a member of Suina, however, recent morphological and genetic research suggests that hippos are more closely related to whales.Cite journal | url = http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/14/5/537 | title = More DNA support for a Cetacea/Hippopotamidae clade: the blood-clotting protein gene gamma-fibrinogen | author = Gatesy, J. | journal = Molecular Biology and Evolution | volume = 14 | pages = 537–543 | pmid = 9159931]

Camelids and Ruminantia

Camelids and Ruminantia tend to be longer-legged, to walk on only the central two toes (though the outer two may survive as rarely-used dew-claws) and to have more complex cheek teeth well-suited to grinding up tough grasses. They have evolved a highly developed digestive process in which partly-digested food is regurgitated and re-chewed ("chewing the cud" or "cudding"). This complex digestion takes place in a multi-chambered stomach, the rumen itself. It allows them to use fermentation by microorganisms to digest cellulose, a plant material which animals cannot digest directly.

Cetaceans

One group of artiodactyls (which molecular biology suggests were most closely related to Hippopotamidae) returned to the sea to become whales. Thus Artiodactyla without Cetacea is a paraphyletic group. For this reason, the term Cetartiodactyla was coined to refer to the group containing both artiodactyls and whales.cite journal |last=Boisserie |first=Jean-Renaud |coauthors= Fabrice Lihoreau and Michel Brunet |year= 2005 |month= February |title= The position of Hippopotamidae within Cetartiodactyla |journal= Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences |volume= 102 |issue= 5 |pages= 1537–1541|url= http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/full/102/5/1537|accessdate= 2007-06-09 |doi= 10.1073/pnas.0409518102 |pmid= 15677331]

Classification

* Cetartiodactyla (unranked clade, higher than Artiodactyla)
** Family Hippopotamidae: hippos
** Order Cetaceans: whales, dolphins and porpoises
** ORDER ARTIODACTYLA
*** Suborder Suina
**** Family Suidae: pigs
**** Family Tayassuidae: peccaries
*** Suborder Tylopoda
**** Family Camelidae: camels and llamas
*** Suborder Ruminantia
**** Infraorder Pecora
***** Family Antilocapridae: pronghorn
***** Family Bovidae: cattle, goats, sheep, and antelope
***** Family Cervidae: deer
***** Family Giraffidae: Giraffe and Okapi
***** Family Moschidae: musk deer
**** Infraorder Tragulina
***** Family Tragulidae: chevrotains

See also

* Odd-toed ungulate

References


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • even-toed ungulate — noun placental mammal having hooves with an even number of functional toes on each foot • Syn: ↑artiodactyl, ↑artiodactyl mammal • Ant: ↑odd toed ungulate • Hypernyms: ↑ungulate, ↑hoofed mammal …   Useful english dictionary

  • odd-toed ungulate — noun placental mammals having hooves with an odd number of toes on each foot • Syn: ↑perissodactyl, ↑perissodactyl mammal • Ant: ↑even toed ungulate • Hypernyms: ↑ungulate, ↑hoofed mammal …   Useful english dictionary

  • Odd-toed ungulate — Odd toed ungulates Temporal range: 56–0 Ma …   Wikipedia

  • Ungulate — Taxobox name = Ungulate| fossil range = Late Cretaceous Recent image width = 240px image caption = Llamas, which have two toes, are artiodactyls even toed ungulates regnum = Animalia phylum = Chordata classis = Mammalia infraclassis = Eutheria… …   Wikipedia

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  • ungulate — /ung gyeuh lit, layt /, adj. 1. having hoofs. 2. belonging or pertaining to the Ungulata, a former order of all hoofed mammals, now divided into the odd toed perissodactyls and even toed artiodactyls. 3. hooflike. n. 4. a hoofed mammal. [1795… …   Universalium

  • ungulate — un•gu•late [[t]ˈʌŋ gyə lɪt, ˌleɪt[/t]] adj. 1) zool. having hoofs 2) zool. bio belonging or pertaining to the former order Ungulata, comprising all hoofed mammals, now divided into the odd toed perissodactyls and the even toed artiodactyls 3)… …   From formal English to slang

  • artiodactyl — I noun placental mammal having hooves with an even number of functional toes on each foot • Syn: ↑even toed ungulate, ↑artiodactyl mammal • Ant: ↑odd toed ungulate (for: ↑even toed ungulate) …   Useful english dictionary

  • artiodactyl mammal — noun placental mammal having hooves with an even number of functional toes on each foot • Syn: ↑even toed ungulate, ↑artiodactyl • Ant: ↑odd toed ungulate (for: ↑even toed ungulate) • Hypernyms: ↑ …   Useful english dictionary

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