- Electoral fusion
Electoral fusion is an arrangement where two or more political parties support a common
candidate, pooling the votes for all those parties. By offering to endorse a major party's candidate, minor parties can influence the candidate's platform.
Electoral fusion survives to this day within the Labour Party which fields Labour Co-operative Party candidates in general elections in various areas.
Electoral fusion was once widespread in the
United States. In the late 19th century, however, as minor political parties such as the People's Party became increasingly successful in using fusion, state legislatures enacted bans against it. One Republican Minnesota state legislator was clear about what his party was trying to do: "We don't propose to allow the Democrats to make allies of the Populists, Prohibitionists, or any other party, and get up combination tickets against us. We can whip them single-handed, but don't intend to fight all creation." (Spoiling for a Fight, 227-228). The creation of the Minnesota Democratic-Farmer-Labor Partymade this particular tactical position obsolete. By 1907 the practice had been banned in 18 states; today, fusion as conventionally practiced remains legal in only seven states, namely:
In several other states, notably
New Hampshire, fusion is legal when primary elections are won by write-in candidates.
The cause of electoral fusion suffered a major setback in 1997, when the U.S. Supreme Court decided by 6-3 in "
Timmons v. Twin Cities Area New Party" that fusion is not a constitutionally protected civil right.
Fusion has sometimes been used by other third parties. For example, the Libertarian Party used fusion to elect four members of the
New Hampshirestate legislature during the early 1990s.
In 1864 the Democratic Party split into two wings, over the peace question. The War Democrats fused with the Republicans to elect a Democratic Vice President,
Andrew Johnson, and re-elect a Republican President, Abraham Lincoln.
Occasionally, popular candidates for local office have succeeded in being nominated by both Republican and Democratic Parties. In 1946, prior to the current ban on fusion being enacted in that state, Republican
Governor of California Earl Warren(a future Chief Justice of the United States) managed to win the nominations of the Republican, Democratic, and Progressive Parties.
In the 1991 Louisiana gubernatorial election, controversial
white supremacist David Duke, running as a Republican, unexpectedly made his way to second place in the state's infamous jungle primary. Many prominent Republicans endorsed his Democratic opponent Edwin Edwards. While not a de jureexample of electoral fusion, it was an unusual example of both major parties joining against a candidate.
Fusion has the highest profile in New York, where it was a major weapon against
Tammany Hall. Small parties significant in large part for their fused ballot lines include the Working Families Party, Right to Life Party, Liberal Party, Independence Party, and Conservative Party. Most judicial elections are won by candidates endorsed by more than two parties.
In the 2002 New York gubernatorial election,
Andrew Cuomogot the New York State Liberal Party nomination, and was running against Carl McCallfor the Democratic nomination. McCall had secured the Working Families Partynomination. Cuomo dropped out, and endorsed McCall. This led to the Liberal party not getting the 50,000 votes for governor that it needed for an automatic place on the ballot, and led to the Liberal party becoming defunct.
* [http://www.thenation.com/doc/20050912/katz The Power of Fusion Politics]
* [http://www.northcarolinahistory.org/encyclopedia/58/entry History of Fusion Politics in 1890s North Carolina]
* [http://newdayvoting.blogspot.com A website seeking to inform and promote electoral fusion] (Dead link)
* cite journal
year = 1932
month = March
title = Political Combinations in Elections
journal = Harvard Law Review,
volume = 45
issue = 5
pages = pp. 906–912
id = ISSN 0017-811X
url = http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0017-811X(193203)45%3A5%3C906%3APCIE%3E2.0.CO%3B2-1
accessdate = 2006-10-25
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Fusion Party — is a term that may have a variety of meanings in the political history of the United States. The Fusion Party was the original name of the Republican Party in the state of Ohio. In 1854, anti slavery parties were forming in many northern states… … Wikipedia
Electoral reform in New York — refers to efforts to change the voting and election laws in New York State.Alternate voting systemsIn 1936, voters in New York City adopted the single transferable vote method of proportional representation. In the election immediately preceding… … Wikipedia
Fusion — can refer to combining two or more distinct things *Cell fusion *Freezing, a chemistry term for a liquid undergoing a phase change into a solid *Gene fusion, a genetic event and molecular biology technique *Nuclear fusion, the process by which… … Wikipedia
Electoral alliance — Logo for the electoral alliance Democratic Unity Coalition (Portugal) An electoral alliance may take the form of a bipartisan electoral agreement, electoral agreement, electoral coalition or electoral bloc. It is an association of political… … Wikipedia
Electoral history of Rudy Giuliani — Electoral history of Rudy Giuliani, 107th Mayor of New York City and was a candidate for the 2008 Republican presidential nomination.Republican New York City mayoral primary, 1989 [ [http://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=80085 Our… … Wikipedia
Fusión Liberal-Conservadora — La Fusión Liberal Conservadora fue una alianza política y electoral chilena entre los liberales y conservadores. Funcionó entre 1858 a 1873. A su creación concurrieron dos grupos de lados opuesto del espectro político: liberales (partido laico y… … Wikipedia Español
Fusión Liberal-Conservadora — La Fusión Liberal Conservadora fue una alianza política y electoral chilena entre los liberales y conservadores. Funciono entre 1858 a 1873. A su creación concurrieron dos grupos de lados opuesto del espectro político: liberales (partido laico y… … Enciclopedia Universal
Alternativa Electoral por el Trabajo y la Justicia Social — Arbeit soziale Gerechtigkeit – Die Wahlalternative Alternativa Electoral por el Trabajo y la Justicia Social Líder Oskar Lafontaine Fundación 2005  … Wikipedia Español
Système électoral — Politique Idées politiques Science politique Philosophie politique Sociologie politique Campagne politique Mode de désignation du chef d État et du Parlement par pays l Union européenne l ONU Démocratie Démocratie directe Démocr … Wikipédia en Français
Historia electoral del Partido Colorado — Se ha sugerido que este artículo o sección sea fusionado con Historia electoral del Partido Nacional (discusión). Una vez que hayas realizado la fusión de artículos, pide la fusión de historiales aquí. A partir del siglo XX el Partido Colorado… … Wikipedia Español