Hydrolase

Hydrolase

In biochemistry, a hydrolase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of a chemical bond. For example, an enzyme that catalyzed the following reaction is a hydrolase:

:A–B + H2O → A–OH + B–H

Nomenclature

Systematic names of hydrolases are formed as "substrate hydrolase." However, common names are typically in the form "substrate"ase." For example, a nuclease is a hydrolase that cleaves nucleic acids.

Classification

Hydrolases are classified as EC 3 in the EC number classification of enzymes. Hydrolases can be further classified into several subclasses, based upon the bonds they act upon:
*: ester bonds (esterases: nucleases, phosphodiesterases, lipase, phosphatase)
*: sugars (glycosylases/DNA glycosylases, glycoside hydrolase)
*: ether bonds
*: peptide bonds (Proteases/peptidases)
*: carbon-nitrogen bonds, other than peptide bonds
* EC 3.6: acid anhydrides (acid anhydride hydrolases, including helicases and GTPase)
* EC 3.7: carbon-carbon bonds
* EC 3.8: halide bonds
* EC 3.9: phosphorus-nitrogen bonds
* EC 3.10: sulfur-nitrogen bonds
* EC 3.11: carbon-phosphorus bonds
* EC 3.12: sulfur-sulfur bonds
* EC 3.13: carbon-sulfur bonds

References

* [http://www.chem.qmul.ac.uk/iubmb/enzyme/EC3/intro.html EC 3 Introduction] from the Department of Chemistry at Queen Mary, University of London, only covers 3.1-3.4
* [http://www.chem.qmul.ac.uk/iubmb/enzyme/EC3/ More detailed taxonomy]


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См. также в других словарях:

  • hydrolase — [ idrɔlaz ] n. f. • 1899; de hydrol(yse) et ase ♦ Biochim. Enzyme qui catalyse une hydrolyse (ex. pepsine). ● hydrolase nom féminin Enzyme intervenant dans les réactions chimiques de l hydrolyse. hydrolase [idʀɔlaz] n. f. ÉTYM. 1899; …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Hydrolase — Hy dro*lase, n. [Hydrolysis + ase.] 1. (Chem.) an enzyme which causes the splitting of a chemical bond with the addition of the elements of water; a hydrolytic enzyme. Formerly called a {hydrolytic ferment}. Note: There are many known hydrolases …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • hydrolase — [hī′drō lās΄, hī′drōlāz΄] n. any of a class of enzymes that act as catalysts in chemical reactions involving hydrolysis …   English World dictionary

  • Hydrolase — Cristal de lysozyme Les hydrolases constituent une classe d enzymes qui catalysent les réactions d hydrolyse de molécules suivant la réaction générale : R R + H2O ⇌ R OH + R H On y trouve par exemple les estérases, qui hydrolysent les …   Wikipédia en Français

  • hydrolase — Hydrolytic Hy dro*lyt ic, a. [Hydro , 1 + Gr. ? to loose.] 1. (Chem.) Tending to remove or separate water; eliminating water. [archaic] [1913 Webster] 2. (Chem.) of, pertaining to, or accompanied by {hydrolysis}. [PJC] Hydrolytic agents, such as… …   The Collaborative International Dictionary of English

  • Hydrolase — Hydrolasen Enzymklassifikation EC, Kategorie …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • hydrolase — hidrolazė statusas T sritis chemija apibrėžtis Fermentas, katalizuojantis hidrolizės reakciją. atitikmenys: angl. hydrolase rus. гидролаза …   Chemijos terminų aiškinamasis žodynas

  • hydrolase — noun Etymology: International Scientific Vocabulary, from New Latin hydrolysis + International Scientific Vocabulary ase Date: 1910 a hydrolytic enzyme …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • hydrolase — One of a class of enzymes (EC Class 3) catalysing hydrolysis of a variety of bonds, such as esters, glycosides, peptides …   Dictionary of molecular biology

  • hydrolase — /huy dreuh lays , layz /, n. Biochem. an enzyme that catalyzes hydrolysis. Also called hydrolyst /huy dreuh list/. [1920 25; HYDR 1 + OL1+ ASE] * * * ▪ class of enzymes       any one of a class of more than 200 enzymes that catalyze the… …   Universalium


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