Frederick Augustus III of Saxony


Frederick Augustus III of Saxony

Infobox Saxon Royalty
name = Frederick Augustus III
full name = Friedrich August Johann Ludwig Karl Gustav Gregor Philipp
title = King of Saxony


imgw = 180px
reign =15 October 1904–13 November 1918
caption =
predecessor =George
successor =Frederick Christian
"(as Margrave of Meissen)"
succession = King of Saxony
heir =
spouse =Archduchess Luise of Austria, Princess of Tuscany
issue = Friedrich August Georg, Crown Prince of Saxony
Friedrich Christian, Margrave of Meissen
Prince Ernst Heinrich
Princess Maria Alix Carola
Princess Margarete Carola Wilhelmine
Princess Maria Alix Luitpolda
Princess Anna Pia Monika
royal house =House of Wettin
royal anthem =
father =George of Saxony
mother =Maria Anna of Portugal
date of birth =birth date|1865|5|25|mf=y
place of birth = Dresden
date of death =death date and age|1932|2|18|1865|5|25|mf=y
place of death = Sibyllenort
place of burial =Katholische Hofkirche|

Frederick Augustus III ( _de. Friedrich August III.; 25 May 1865 – 18 February 1932) was the last King of Saxony (1904–1918) and a member of the House of Wettin.

Born in Dresden, Frederick Augustus was the son of King George of Saxony (1832-1904) and his wife Maria Anna, Infanta of Portugal (1843-1884).

He was an older brother of Princess Maria Josepha of Saxony. His maternal first cousins included (among others) Carlos I of Portugal, Infante Afonso, Duke of Porto, Prince Wilhelm of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen and Ferdinand I of Romania.

Frederick Augustus served in the Royal Saxon Army before becoming king, and later was promoted to Generalfeldmarschall. He abdicated as king on 13 November 1918, after the defeat of the German Empire in World War I. He died in Sibyllenort (Szczodre) in Lower Silesia and was buried in Dresden.

Military career

Frederick Augustus entered the Royal Saxon Army in 1877 as a second lieutenant, despite being only 12 years old. Given his royal status, he advanced rapidly through the ranks. He served initially with the Royal Saxon "1. (Leib-) Grenadier Regiment Nr. 100". He was promoted to first lieutenant in 1883, captain in 1887, major in 1889 and lieutenant colonel in 1891. By 1891, he was commander of the 1st Battalion of "Schützen (Füsilier)-Regiment Nr. 108". He was promoted to colonel on September 22, 1892 and took command of the "Schützen (Füsilier)-Regiment Nr. 108" on the same day. On September 20, 1894, the 29-year old prince was promoted to "Generalmajor" and given command of the 1st Royal Saxon Infantry Brigade Nr. 45 (Saxon higher units usually bore two numbers: one their Saxon Army number and the other their number in the Prussian Army order of battle). On May 22, 1898, he was promoted to "Generalleutnant" and given command of the 1st Royal Saxon Infantry Division Nr. 23. He commanded this division until August 26, 1902, when he took command of the XII (1st Royal Saxon) Corps. He was promoted to "General der Infanterie" one month later, on September 24. He remained in command of the corps until October 1904, when he became king. His formal military career ended with his accession to the throne, but he was promoted subsequently to "Generaloberst" and then to "Generalfeldmarschall" (on September 9, 1912).

Family

Frederick Augustus married Archduchess Luise, Princess of Tuscany, in Vienna on 21 November 1891. They divorced in 1903 after she ran away while pregnant with her last child.

They had seven children:
* Friedrich August Georg, Crown Prince of Saxony (1893- 1943). After becoming a Jesuit priest, he renounced his rights in 1923. He was assassinated by the SS.
* Friedrich Christian, Margrave of Meissen, Duke of Saxony (1893-1968). Married Princess Elisabeth Helene of Thurn and Taxis (1903-1976) and had issue.
* Ernst Heinrich (1896 - 1971). Married first Princess Sophia of Luxembourg (1902-1941), daughter of Guillaume IV, Grand Duke of Luxembourg, in 1921 and second Virginia Dulon (1910-2002) in 1947 (morganatically). Had issue with Sophia.
* Maria Alix Carola, stillborn 22 August 1898
* Margarete Carola Wilhelmine (1900 - 1962). Married Prince Friedrich of Hohenzollern (1891-1965).
* Maria Alix Luitpolda (1901 - 1990). Married Prince Franz-Joseph of Hohenzollern-Emden (1891-1964).
* Anna Pia Monika (1903 - 1976). Married firstly Archduke Joseph Franz of Austria (1895-1957) and secondly Reginald Kazanjian (1905-1990). (Anna was most likely the daughter of André Giron, the children's tutor, but Frederick Augustus recognized her as his daughter)

Their two eldest sons, Friedrich August and Friedrich Christian were born in the same year, 1893, but were not twins. Friedrich August was born in January, while Friedrich Christian was born in December.

Quotes

*When standing in uniform on a station platform, a lady asked him to move her trunk. He is reported to have replied, "Madam, I am not a porter; I only look like one." [cite news
author=
title=In Saxony
date=1925-08-10
work=Time Magazine
url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,720691,00.html
accessdate=2008-08-09
]

*When the German Republic was proclaimed in 1918, he was asked by telephone whether he would abdicate willingly. Said he: "Oh, well, I suppose I'd better." [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,882120,00.html]

*When cheered by a crowd in a railroad station several years after his abdication, he stuck his head out of the train's window and shouted, "You're a fine lot of republicans, I'll say!" [http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,882120,00.html]

Ancestry

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border=1
boxstyle=padding-top: 0; padding-bottom: 0;
boxstyle_1=background-color: #fcc;
boxstyle_2=background-color: #fb9;
boxstyle_3=background-color: #ffc;
boxstyle_4=background-color: #bfc;
boxstyle_5=background-color: #9fe;
1= 1. Frederick Augustus III of Saxony
2= 2. George of Saxony
3= 3. Maria Anna of Portugal
4= 4. John of Saxony
5= 5. Amalie Auguste of Bavaria
6= 6. Ferdinand II of Portugal
7= 7. Maria II of Portugal
8= 8. Prince Maximilian of Saxony
9= 9. Princess Caroline of Parma
10= 10. Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria
11= 11. Caroline of Baden
12= 12. Prince Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
13= 13. Maria Antonia, Princess of Koháry
14= 14. Pedro I of Brazil
15= 15. Maria Leopoldina of Austria
16= 16. Frederick Christian, Elector of Saxony
17= 17. Maria Antonia Walpurgis of Bavaria
18= 18. Ferdinand, Duke of Parma
19= 19. Archduchess Marie Amalie of Austria
20= 20. Count Palatine Frederick Michael of Zweibrücken
21= 21. Countess Palatine Maria Franziska of Sulzbach
22= 22. Charles Louis, Hereditary Prince of Baden
23= 23. Landgravine Amalie of Hesse-Darmstadt
24= 24. Francis, Duke of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld
25= 25. Princess Augusta Reuss of Ebersdorf
26= 26. Friedrich Josef Koháry de Csábrág, 3rd Prince of Koháry
27= 27. Countess Marie Antionette of Waldstein-Wartenberg
28= 28. John VI of Portugal
29= 29. Charlotte of Spain
30= 30. Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor
31= 31. Maria Teresa of the Two Sicilies

Notes


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