Dhule


Dhule
Dhule (धुळे)
—  city  —
River picture
View on a cloudy monsoon day
Position of Dhule in India
Dhule (धुळे)
Location of Dhule in Maharashtra state
Coordinates 20°53′59″N 74°46′11″E / 20.89972°N 74.76972°E / 20.89972; 74.76972Coordinates: 20°53′59″N 74°46′11″E / 20.89972°N 74.76972°E / 20.89972; 74.76972
Country India
Region Khandesh (North Maharashtra)
State Maharashtra
Division Nashik
District(s) Dhule
Subdistrict(s) Dhule
Population 341,473[1] (2001)
Sex ratio 52/48 /
Official languages Marathi
Time zone IST (UTC+05:30)
Area

Elevation


240 metres (790 ft)

Climate

Temperature
• Summer
• Winter

Aw (Köppen)

     44 °C (111 °F)
     20 °C (68 °F)

Dhule (Marathi: धुळे) is a city and a Municipal Corporation in Dhule district in northwestern part of Maharashtra state, India. It is one of the very few well-planned cities of India before Indian Independence.

Contents

Geography

Dhule is located at 20°54′N 74°47′E / 20.9°N 74.78°E / 20.9; 74.78.[2] It has an average elevation of 240 metres (787 feet).Dhule lies in the Khandesh region, which forms the northwest corner of Deccan Plateau. Dhule district is bounded by Gujarat State on west, by Madhya Pradesh on north and on east and south by Jalgoan and Nasik respectively. It is also situated in valley of the Tapi river along the banks of Panzara River (पांझरा). Devi Ekveera (Goddess Ekveera) temple is a well known temple, situated at the banks of Panzara river.

Demographics

As of 2001 India census,[1] Dhule had a population of 341,473. Males constitute 52% of the population and females 48%. Dhule has an average literacy rate of 75%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 80% and, female literacy is 69%. 13% of the population is under 6 years of age.

History

Dhule became part of the Mughal Empire in 1601, during the reign of Akbar. In the 18th century Dhule came under Maratha rule. In 1818, Dhule was annexed by the British, and was included in the Bombay Presidency. Dhule city is a well planned city, and it is believed that it was planned by Capt. James Briggs. After Indian independence in 1947, Bombay Presidency became Bombay State, which in 1960 was divided along linguistic lines into the new states of Maharashtra and Gujarat.

The ancient name of this region was Rasika. It is bounded on the east by Berar (ancient Vidarbha) , on the north by the Nemad district (ancient Anupa) and on the south by the Aurangabad (ancient Mulaka) and Bhir (ancient Asmaka) districts. Later the country came to be called as Seunadesa after king, Seunchandra of the early Yadava dynasty, who ruled over it. Subsequently its name was changed to Khandesh to suit the title Khan given to the Faruqi kings by Ahmad I of Gujarat.

During Aryans penetration to the Deccan, ‘Agastya’ was the first Aryan who crossed Vindhya and resided on the bank of Godavari. This territory was included in the empire of Ashoka. Pusyamitra, the founder of Sanga dynasty overthrow Maurya dynasty. Later on Satavahan ruled over the region. Around 250 AD, the Satavahans were supplanted by the Abhiras in Western Maharashtra (Regan Isvarsena). The names of Feudatories of Abhiras ruled in Khandesh are found on copperplates discovered at Kalachala (Gujarat) and Cave X5II at Ajanta. After downfall of Satavahans the Vakatakas rose to power in Vidarbha. The Vakatakas were over thrown by Rastrakuta family. This region was ruled by Chalukyas of Badami and subsequently the Yadavas.

In AD 1296, Ala-ud-din Khilji invaded Ramachandra Yadava who had paid heavy ransom. His son Sankaragana discontinued this practice of sending the stipulated tribute to Delhi and was later on attacked and slain by Malik Kafur in AD 1318.

In 1345, Devagiri was passed into the hands of Hasan Gangu, the founder of Bahamani dynasty. Khandesh forms the Southern boundaries of the Taghlug empire.

In 1370, Firoz Taghluq assigned the district of Thalner and Karavanda to Malik Raja Faruqui, the founder of ‘Faruqui’ dynasty. His family claimed descent from the Khaliph Umer Faruq. He established himself at Thalner. The Governor of Gujarat honored Malik Raja with the little ‘Sipahsalar of Khandesh’. From the title 'Khan' the region came to be known as ‘Khandesh’ - the country of Khan. During the period, a rich ahir “Asa” of Asirgad had many storehouse in Gondvana and Khandesh which were opened in order to sell the corn. However, his wife was of a charitable disposition persuaded Asa to allow the grains to be distributed to the poor and suffering without payment to which Asa agreed. It was also with a view to employ many of the sufferers as labourers that Asa leveled the old wall of Asir and constructed a new fort of masonry. Asa also distributed food to aged and decrepit who were unable to performed manual labour. The Ahir chief in spite of his wealth and strength of this fort, acknowledged the supremacy of Malik Raja bequeathed Laling to his elder son Malik Nasir and Thalner to Malik Iftikar.

Malik Nasir had decided upon seizing Asirgad and making of it his own capital. He, therefore wrote to Asa complaining that he was in great straits as the chief of Baglana, Antur and Kherla were rising against him. Of those two had collected large forces. Laling, to close to enemy territories was not a safe retreat. He requested Asa to afford his family a safe retreat. Asa ordered suitable apartments set up for Malik Nasir’s ladies. Shortly after, several covered litters with women were brought to into Asirgad and were visited by Asa’s wife and daughters. Next day another of 200 litters arrived reportedly occupied by Malik Nasir’s family. Asa along with his son went to receive them but to his astonishment instead of women, he found the litters full of armed soldiers who leapt up and murdered Asa and his innocent sons in cold blood. Not a single male child in the family was left alive. The treacherous and cunning Malik Nasir repaired from his camp at laling to the fort of Asir. Shortly after this a disciple of Shaikh Zain Uddin, the tutelary saint of the family came to congratulate Malik Nasir on his success. On his advice, Malik Nasir built two cities on the bank of Tapi, on the east Bank called Zainabad after the Saikh and the other on the west Bank called Burhanpur after Saikh Burhanuddin of Daulatabad. The Burhanpur became the capital of Farugui dynasty.

In 6the January 1601 Khandesh came under Akbar regime. Khandesh was fancifully named by Akbar a Dandes after his son Daniyal. In 1634 Khandesh was made into a “Suba”. On 3 June 1818 the Peshva surrendered himself before British and Khandesh came under British rules.

Dhule City

The recent survey at Prakashe and Dhule along the Tapi and Panjhara respectively, have brought to light several Paleolithic tools which shed considerable light on the activities of early men in this region. Excavations at Prakashe have yielded in the upper levels a kind of glass ware popularly known as the Northern Black Polished ware, attributed to 4th-3rd centuries BC. roughly representing the period of Ashok, the Mauryan ruler. Inscription in the caves at Pitalkhova incised during this period, go to show that the region had contract with Paithan, the capital of the Satavahana dynasty.

Shirpur plants of Maharaja Rudradasa and the other records indicate that certain ruler called, Syamidasa Bhulunda and Rudradasa were ruling in Khandesh in about AD 316-367, but the data is very meagre and hardly convincing. Towards the close of the 5th century AD, the Chalukya’s under Pulakeshi I extended their kingdom as far south as Vatapi (Badami) and Khandesh was probably held by their vessels, the Sendrakas. Immediately after the Sendrakas, of whome the last Sendrakas of whom the last ruler Veradeva is known from the copper plate charter dated ‘shaka’ 624 (AD 702) found at Mehunbare in Jalgaon, this region seen to have come in the possession of the Rashtrakutas. After downfall of Rashtrakutas several minor feudatory families were found to be ruling in Dhule and who owed their allegiance to a new power viz the Yadavas. The Yadavas of Devagiri came into prominence during the last quarter of the 13th century AD. They had previously been ruling over Seunadesh (Khandesh ) as feudatories of the Chalukya of Kalyani. The Yadavas yielded to the onslaught of Al-Ud-din Khilji, who invide the kingdom in 1294. In AD 1318 the Hindu kingdom of Devagiri come to an end. The Khiljis retained their hold over that territory up to 1370. In that year “Subhas” of Thalner and Karavandi were granted to Malik Raja Faruqui by Sultan Firoz Tughluq. During his days tow fort or ‘gadhi’ were built in Devpur and old Dhule areas respectively of which a one in Devpur was washed along in 1872 flood of the Panjhava which caused considerable damage. It was controlled by Faruqui’s till 1600 from its nearness to the important fort of laling, Dhule is probably a very old settlement. During the region of Akbar, Khandesh, of which Dhule formed a part, came to be dominated by the Moghals, and early in 1629. when Delhi emperors were bringing khandesh into order the village of “Dholia” is mentioned as the place where Khvaja Abul Hasan, Shah Jahan’s general passed the rainy season..

In 1723, Nizams-ul- Mulk Asaf Jah 1 who was the Moghal governor of Malva revolted against that power and became independent. He died in 1798. His son Salabat Jung was Nizam in 1752 when he was defeated by the Marathas at Bhalki. As per the term of the treaty of Balki, practically the entire Khandesh came under the control of the Marathas and remained so until 1818. In the famine that befell the country in 1803 Dhule was completed deserted. In the following years Balaji Balvant, a dependent of Vittal Narsing Vinchurkar repeopled the village and in return received from the Vinchurkar a deed granting his certain land and privilege. At the same time he repaired the ‘Gadhi’ in Devpur and built the division known as Ganesh Peth in old Dhule. Being afterwards entrusted with the entire management of the district of Songir and Laling, Balaji Balvant fixed his head quarter at Dhule and continued to exercise his authority till 1818, in which year the country passed to the British. In 1819 Captain Briggs, the first political agent, made Dhule the district headquarters probably for its central position and because it was on the high road between Poona and Hindustan. The town was then very small, short in by the water channels and the river, and without workmen to make even simple screw. When Captain Briggs took over, the town had only three division, viz old Dhule, Devpur and Moglai. New Dhule and Peth previously known as Brigg’s peth were his creations. The framework of the city is made up of a number of parallel lanes, the Mumbai Agra road itself forming the third lane from the west, and cross streets at right angles to them. Merchants and others were invited from Burhanpur, Master carpenters and smiths were brought from Mumbai, Surat and residence and three offices were built. Dhule was once again put on the way of prosperity.

In the year 1906 for administrative purposes,the Khandesh was divided into two districts known as West Khandesh and East Khandesh. West Khandesh retaining Dhule, Nandurbar, Navapur, Peta, Pimpalner, Shahada, Shirpur, Shindkheda and Taloda Talukas of the old Khandesh district.

In the year 1887 the Headquarter of Pimpalner taluka was transferred to Sakri and in 1908 the name was also changed to Sakri Taluka. In 1950 the Akkalkuwa was created as a new Taluka. In the year 15 August 1900 Dhule-Chalisgaon Railway was started.

In 1960 Dhule becomes a part of Maharashtra state from old Bombay state. With effect from 1 July 1998 Dhule District was divided in two districts - Dhule and Nandurbar, for easing administrative difficulties and to provide greater focus on development of "Adivasi" region. After the split Dhule retains four Talukas Viz. Dhule, Sakri, Shirpur and Shindkheda with headquarter at Dhule. In Dhule, there is a Rajwade Sanshodan Mandal, which tells the history of dhule. Many historical things are included here. There is a a large statue of Maharaja Shivaji, surrounded by an amazing garden. Near, 'Rajwade Sanshodhan Mandal', there is a statue of 'Saint Jagnade Maharaj', with one of his follower. This is popularly known as 'GURU-SHISHYA SMARAK'.

Transport

Being situated at the intersection of two National Highways, Dhule is a popular stop for truckers. In the background is pre-historic Laling fort near the city.

The city has its own airport at Gondur village, which is suitable for smaller planes due to its relatively short runway length of 1400 meters. Nearby international airports are at Aurangabad (148 km), Pune (324 km), and Mumbai (331 km).

Dhule city has a distinction of having railway terminus, which is connected to nearest railway junction at Chalisgaon. A passenger train runs between the two stations thrice a day. The train also carries reserved coaches for Mumbai, which are connected to another train from Chalisgaon onwards.

From road transport point of view, Dhule serves as one of the most important junctions over NH3 (popularly known as Mumbai-Agra highway) and NH6. It is also end point for NH211. Through the Asian Highway project, portions of NH3 and NH6 passing through Dhule have been converted into numbered Asian Highways AH47 & AH46 respectively.

Education

Dhule city is renowned for its educational heritage. It hosts a big number of educational institutes. Following table names a few of them:

Type Names
Schools K. S. K. New City High School
J.R. City School
Shree Ekvira Devi Madyamic High School
R. K. Chitale Madhyamik Vidhyalay
Unnati Madhyamik Vidhyalay
Jai Hind High School
Rajeev Gandhi Madhyamik Vidyalay
Kamalabai Shankarlal Kanya Shala
L.M. Sardar Urdu High School & Jr.College
Haji Badlu Sardar High School
St. Xavier's Canossa Convent High School
Canossa Convent High School
New City High School
S.T.T.K Mahajan High School
R.R.Padvi Nutan High School & Jr. College
Chavara English Medium School(Nayan's school)
North Point High School
Swami Teuram High School
Sindhuratna Sanstha's English School
Sant Shri Asharamji Gurukul
Colleges Z.B.Patil College, Dhule
(Formerly, Jai Hind College Of Arts, Science & Commerce)
Jai Hind Junior College arts commerce and science of dhule.
SSVPS's College
L.M.Sardar Urdu Jr.College Deopur Dhule
Vidya Vardhini College
Palesha College of Commerce
Institute of Management Education (Palesha Campus)
Engineering Colleges SSVPS College of Engineering and Polytechnic
SES College of Engineering
Gangamai College of Engineering
Government Polytechnic
Medical Colleges Shri Bhausaheb Hire Government Medical College
JMF's ACPM Medical College
JMF's ACPM Dental College
Others College of Agriculture, Dhule
SSVPS's Lalit Kala Mahavidhyalay [Fine Art College]
Annasaheb Ramesh Ajmera College of Pharmacy

Business and economy

In heyday it was one of the big centers for textile industry, with both spinning and weaving operations. Textile industry is still alive here though at much smaller scale than past.

Many small scale industries are shaping up in M.I.D.C. area.

Agra road is main street in the city where many important businesses/shops are located. Pach-Kandil is main wholesale market for fruits and vegetables. Pat-bazaar is another old vegetable market near an old canal (in Marathi canal is called Pat).

Suzlon Energy, which is one of the largest wind power companies in the world, is presently developing a wind park site near Dhule. It is spread across a vast, undulating expanse. At 1,000 MW Suzlon’s Dhule wind park is poised to take its place among the world’s largest wind parks when complete.Now Safari garden work is under prosses when it will be compete at that time it will be a remarkable tourism spot of the city.

Image gallery

References

External links


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