James B. Sumner


James B. Sumner

Infobox_Scientist
name = James B. Sumner



image_width = | image_size = 180px
caption = James B. Sumner
birth_date = birth date|1887|11|19
birth_place = Canton, Massachusetts, USA
death_date = death date and age|1955|8|12|1887|11|19
death_place = Buffalo, New York, USA
nationality = United States
field = Chemistry
alma_mater = Harvard University
doctoral_advisor = Otto Folin
doctoral_students =
work_institution = Cornell University
known_for = First to isolate an enzyme in crystallized form
First to show that an enzyme is a protein
prizes = Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1946)

James Batcheller Sumner (November 19, 1887 – August 12, 1955) was an American chemist. He shared the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1946 with John Howard Northrop and Wendell Meredith Stanley.

Biography

Sumner graduated from Harvard University with a bachelor's degree in 1910 where he was acquainted with prominent chemists Roger Adams, Farrington Daniels, Frank C. Whitmore, James Bryant Conant and Charles Loring Jackson. In 1912, he went to study biochemistry in Harvard Medical School and obtained his Ph.D. degree in 1914 with Otto Folin. He then worked as Assistant Professor of Biochemistry at the Weill Medical College of Cornell University.

Research

It was at Cornell where Sumner began his research into isolating enzymes in pure form; a feat which had never been achieved before. The enzyme he worked with was urease.Sumner's work was unsuccessful for many years and many of his colleagues were doubtful, believing that what he was trying to achieve was impossible, but in 1926 he demonstrated that urease could be isolated and crystallized. He was also able to show by chemical tests that his pure urease was a protein. This was the first experimental proof that an enzyme was a protein, a controversial question at the time.

His successful research brought him to full professorship at Cornell in 1929. In 1937 he succeeded in isolating and crystallizing a second enzyme, catalase. By this time, John Howard Northrop of the Rockefeller Institute had obtained other crystalline enzymes by similar methods, starting with pepsin in 1929. It had become clear that Sumner had devised a general crystallization method for enzymes, and also that all enzymes are proteins.

Honours and awards

In 1937, he was given a Guggenheim Fellowship and he spent five months in Sweden working with Professor Theodor Svedberg. Also that year, he was awarded the Scheele Medal in Stockholm.

Both Sumner and Northrop shared the Nobel Prize in 1946 for crystallization of enzymes. Sumner was elected to the National Academy of Science in 1948. Sumner died aged 67 of cancer on August 12 1955.

Notes

While hunting at age 17, Sumner was accidentally shot by a companion and as a result his left arm had to be amputated just below the elbow. He had been left-handed before the accident, after which he had to learn to do things with his right hand.

References

*cite journal | title=Prof. James B. Sumner | author=ALEXANDER L. DOUNCE | journal=Redox Report | volume=176 | issue=4488 | pages=859 | year=1955 | doi=10.1038/176859a0
*cite journal | title=Sumner, James B. (1887-1955) | journal=Biographical Memoirs / National Academy of Sciences | volume=31

External links

* Sumner's [http://www.nobel.se/chemistry/laureates/1946/sumner-bio.html Nobel Foundation biography]
* Sumner's Nobel Lecture [http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/chemistry/laureates/1946/sumner-lecture.html The Chemical Nature of Enzymes]
* Sumner's [http://uk.geocities.com/hertouyt/cgi-bin/sumner-speech.html Speech at the Nobel banquet]


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  • James Batcheller Sumner — (* 19. November 1887 in Canton, Massachusetts, USA; † 12. August 1955 in Buffalo, New York) war ein amerikanischer Chemiker und Nobelpreisträger. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Leben 2 Wirken …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • James B. Sumner — James Batcheller Sumner Pour les articles homonymes, voir Sumner. James Batcheller Sumner (19 novembre 1887 12 août 1955) est un chimiste américain, colauréat avec John Howard Northrop et Wendell Meredith Stanley du prix Nobel …   Wikipédia en Français

  • James B. Sumner — James Batcheller Sumner (19 de noviembre de 1887 – 12 de agosto de 1955) fue un químico estadounidense. Compartió el Premio Nobel en Química en 1946 con John Howard Northrop y Wendell Meredith Stanley. Educación Sumner se graduó de licenciado en… …   Wikipedia Español

  • James Batcheller Sumner — (Canton, EUA 1887 Buffalo 1955) fue un químico, bioquímico y profesor universitario estadounidense galardonado con el Premio Nobel de Química del año 1946. Biografía Estudió química en la Universidad de Harvard, donde se licenció en 1910. En 1912 …   Wikipedia Español

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  • Chemienobelpreis 1946: James Batcheller Sumner — John Howard Northrop — Wendell Meredith Stanley —   Der Nobelpreis für Chemie 1946 ging an drei Amerikaner; Sumner erhielt ihn für die Entdeckung der Kristallisierbarkeit von Enzymen, Northrop und Stanley für ihre Darstellung von Enzymen und Virusproteinen in reiner Form.    Biografien   James… …   Universal-Lexikon

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  • James Bryant Conant — (March 26, 1893 ndash; February 11, 1978) was a chemist, educational administrator, and government official. He was born in Dorchester, Massachusetts in 1893 and graduated from the Roxbury Latin School in West Roxbury in 1910. He went on to study …   Wikipedia


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