Shoshone


Shoshone

The Shoshone (Audio-IPA|shoshone1.ogg| [ʃoʊˈʃoʊni] or Audio-IPA|shoshone2.ogg| [ʃəˈʃoʊni] ) are a Native American tribe with three large divisions: the Northern, the Western and the Eastern.

The Northern Shoshone are concentrated in eastern Idaho, western Wyoming, and north-eastern Utah. The Eastern lived in Wyoming, northern Colorado and Montana. Conflict with the Blackfoot, Crow, Lakota, Cheyennes, and Arapahos pushed them south and westward after about 1750. The Western ranged from central Idaho, northwestern Utah, central Nevada, and in California about Death Valley and Panamint Valley. This group is sometimes called the Panamint. The Idaho groups of Western Shoshone were called "Tukuaduka" (sheep eaters), while the Nevada/Utah ones were called the "Gosiute" or "Toi Ticutta" (cattail eaters).

Possibly the most famous member of the Shoshone tribe was Sacajawea who accompanied the Corps of Discovery with Meriwether Lewis and William Clark in their exploration of the Western United States.The estimated population of Northern and Western Shoshone was 4,500 in 1845. 3,650 Northern Shoshone and 1,201 Western Shoshone were counted in 1937 by the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs.

History

The Northern Shoshone fought conflicts with settlers in Idaho in the 1860s which included the Bear River Massacre and again in 1878 in the Bannock War. They fought alongside the United States Army in the 1876 Battle of the Rosebud against their traditional enemies, the Lakota and Cheyenne.

In 1911 a small group of Bannock under a leader named "Shoshone Mike" killed four ranchers in Washoe County, Nevada [ [http://www.nevada-history.org/indians.html America's Last Indian Battle] ] . A posse was formed, and on February 26, 1911, they caught up with the band, and eight of them were killed, along with one member of the posse, Ed Hogle [ [http://www.odmp.org/officer.php?oid=18238 Ed Hogle memorial] ] . Three children and a woman who survived the battle were captured. The remains of some of the members of the band were repatriated from the Smithsonian Institution to the Fort Hall Idaho Shoshone-Bannock Tribe in 1994 [ [http://www.nmnh.si.edu/anthro/repatriation/reports/regional/great_basin/nevada_w.htm NMNH - Repatriation Office - Reports - Great Basin - Nevada ] ] .

In 1982, the Western Shoshone, who also invited "unrepresented tribes," made a declaration of sovereignty and began issuing its own passports as the Western Shoshone National Council.

In 2008, the Shoshone Nation acquired the site of the Bear River Massacre [ [http://www.indiancountry.com/content.cfm?id=1096416777 Tribe remembers nation's largest massacre : ICT [2008/03/10 ] ] .

Reservations

*Wind River Reservation, population 2,650 Eastern Shoshone, 2,268,008 acres (9,178 km²) of reservation in Wyoming are shared with the Northern Arapaho
*Fort Hall Indian Reservation, 544,000 acres (2,201 km²) in Idaho, Lemhi and Northern Shoshone with the Bannock Indians, a Paiute band with which they have merged
*Lemhi Indian Reservation (1875–1907) in Idaho, Lemhi Shoshoni, removed to Fort Hall Reservation
*Duck Valley Indian Reservation, southern Idaho/northern Nevada, Western Shoshone
*Ely Shoshone Indian Reservation in Ely, Nevada, 111 acres (0.45 km²), 500 members
*Fallon Paiute-Shoshone Reservation near Fallon, Nevada, 8,200 acres (33 km²), 991 members, Western Shoshone and Paiute
*Goshute Indian Reservation, 111,000 acres (449 km²) in Nevada and Utah, Western Shoshone
*Skull Valley Indian Reservation, 18,000 acres (73 km²) in Utah, Western Shoshone
*Fort McDermitt Indian Reservation, Nevada and Oregon, Fort McDermitt Paiute and Shoshone Tribe
*Reno-Sparks Indian Colony, Nevada, 1988 acres (8 km²), total 481 member of Shoshone, Paiute, and Washoe bands
*Duckwater Indian Reservation, located in Duckwater, Nevada, approximately convert|75|mi|km from Ely.
*Nevada Shoshone Indian Reservation, near Carson City, Nevada, 211 members

References

ee also

* Shoshone language
* Western Shoshone traditional narratives
* Sacajawea
* Old Toby

External links

* [http://www.trailtribes.org/lemhi/making-treaties.htm Northern Shoshoni treaties]
* [http://www.greatbasinheritage.org/elyshoshone.htm Ely Shoshone Reservation]
* [http://www.greatbasinheritage.org/goshute.htm Goshute Indian Reservation]
* [http://www.gbcnv.edu/gbia/ Great Basin Indian Archives]
* [http://www.rsic.org/ Reno-Sparks Indian Colony]
* [http://www.temoaktribe.com/ Te-Moak Tribe of the Western Shoshone Indians of Nevada]
* [http://timbisha.org/ Timbisha Tribe of the Western Shoshone Nation]
* [http://www.nativeweb.org/pages/legal/shoshone/ruby_valley.html U.S. Treaty with the Western Shoshone 1863, Ruby Valley]
* [http://www.wsdp.org/ Western Shoshone Defense Project]


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • SHOSHONE — Tribu indienne d’Amérique du Nord qui occupait un territoire compris entre le sud est de la Californie, le centre et l’est du Nevada, le nord ouest de l’Utah, le sud de l’Idaho et l’ouest du Wyoming; la tribu des Comanche est un rejeton… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Shoshone —   [ʃəʊ ʃəʊnɪ, englisch], Schoschonen,    1) sprachverwandte Indianergruppen im Großen Becken (Ute, Paiute, eigentliche Shoshone u. a.), im Südwesten (Hopi) und den Prärien (Comanche) Nordamerikas sowie in Kalifornien (Cahuilla, Gabrieleno,… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Shoshone — Shoshone, CA U.S. Census Designated Place in California Population (2000): 52 Housing Units (2000): 34 Land area (2000): 28.736016 sq. miles (74.425936 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000238 sq. miles (0.000617 sq. km) Total area (2000): 28.736254… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

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  • Shoshone, CA — U.S. Census Designated Place in California Population (2000): 52 Housing Units (2000): 34 Land area (2000): 28.736016 sq. miles (74.425936 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000238 sq. miles (0.000617 sq. km) Total area (2000): 28.736254 sq. miles… …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Shoshone, ID — U.S. city in Idaho Population (2000): 1398 Housing Units (2000): 615 Land area (2000): 0.976272 sq. miles (2.528532 sq. km) Water area (2000): 0.000000 sq. miles (0.000000 sq. km) Total area (2000): 0.976272 sq. miles (2.528532 sq. km) FIPS code …   StarDict's U.S. Gazetteer Places

  • Shoshone — Shoshone1 [shō shō′nē] n. [< ? Shoshonean tsosoni, curly head, in allusion to their hairdo ] 1. Shoshones or Shoshone a member of a group of North American Indians scattered over Idaho, Nevada, Utah, Wyoming, and California 2. the Shoshonean… …   English World dictionary

  • Shoshone — Uto Aztecan people of the Great Basin, of unknown origin, first applied 19c. to eastern Shoshonis of Wyoming …   Etymology dictionary

  • Shoshone — Tipis der Shoshone Die Shoshone (Eigenbezeichnung Nimi; deutsch auch Schoschonen) sind ein indianischer Stamm. Sie sprechen Shoshone, das zur uto aztekischen Sprachfamilie gehört. Die Herkunft der Stammesbezeichnung Shoshone ist bis heute… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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