- John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute
Infobox Prime Minister
The Right Honourable
name=The Earl of Bute
honorific-suffix = KG, PC
order=Prime Minister of Great Britain
term_start =26 May 1762
term_end =8 April 1763
monarch =George III
predecessor =The Duke of Newcastle-upon-Tyne
birth_date =birth date|1713|5|25|df=y
Parliament Square, Edinburgh
death_date =death date|1792|3|10|df=y (age 78)
Grosvenor Square, London
religion=Episcopalian [cite web|url=http://www.parliament.uk/commons/lib/research/notes/snpc-01493.pdf|title=Parliament and religious disabilities|last=Pond|first=Chris|date=12 June 2002|work=Standard Note: SN/PC/1493|publisher=
Parliament of the United Kingdom|accessdate=2008-09-14]
John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute, KG, PC (25 May 1713 – 10 March 1792), styled Lord Mount Stuart before 1723, was a Scottish nobleman who served as Prime Minister of Great Britain (1762–1763) under George III, and was arguably the last important
favouritein British politics. He was the first Prime Minister from Scotland following the Acts of Union in 1707.
A close relative of the
Campbellclan (his mother was a daughter of the 1st Duke of Argyll), Bute succeeded to the Earldom of Bute (named after the Isle of Bute) upon the death of his father, James Stuart, 2nd Earl of Bute, in 1723. He was brought up thereafter by his maternal uncles, the 2nd Duke of Argyll and the 3rd Earl of Ilay. Bute studied at Eton College(1720-1728) and the University of Leiden, Netherlands(1728-1732), where he graduated with a degree in civil and public law. On 24 August 1736, he married Mary Wortley Montagu (daughter of Edward and Lady Mary Wortley Montagu), bringing the large Wortley estates to his family. In 1737, due to the influence of his uncles, he was elected a Scottish representative peer, but he was not very active in the Lords and was not reelected in 1741. For the next several years he retired to his estates in Scotland to manage his affairs and indulge his interest in botany.
Jacobite Rebellionof 1745, Bute moved to London, and two years later met Prince Frederick, the Prince of Wales there, soon becoming a close associate of the Prince. Upon the Prince's death in 1751, the education of his son, Prince George, the new Prince of Wales, became a priority and in 1755 Bute was appointed as his tutor. Bute arranged for the Prince and his brother Prince Edward to follow a course of lectures on natural philosophyby the itinerant lecturer Stephen Demainbray. This led to an increased interest in natural philosophy on the part of the young prince and was one in a series of events that led to the establishment of the George III Collection of natural philosophical instruments. Furthermore, following the death of the Prince Frederick, Bute became close to his widow, Augusta of Saxe-Gotha, the Dowager Princess of Wales. It was rumoured that the couple were having an affair, and indeed soon after John Horne (an associate of the Prince of Wales) published a scandalous pamphlet alluding to a liaison between Bute and the Princess. Rumours of this affair were almost certainly untrue, as Bute was by all indications happily married, and he held sincere religious beliefs against adultery.
Because of the influence he had over his pupil, Bute expected to rise quickly to political power following George's accession to the throne in 1760, but his plans were premature. Re-elected as a Scottish representative peer in 1760, he was indeed appointed the "de facto" Prime Minister, and was successful in ending the Whig dominance and the
Seven Years' War, but King George began to see through him, and turned against him after being criticised for an official speech which the press recognised as Bute's own work. The journalist John Wilkespublished a newspaper called " The North Briton", in which both Bute and the Dowager Princess of Wales were savagely satirised. Bute resigned as prime minister shortly afterwards, though he remained in the House of Lords a Scottish representative peer until 1780. He remained friendly with the Dowager Princess of Wales, but her attempts to reconcile him with George III proved futile.
For the remainder of his life, Bute remained at his estate in
Hampshire, from where he continued his pursuit of botanyand became a major literary and artistic patron. Among his beneficiaries were Samuel Johnson, Tobias Smollett, Robert Adam, and William Robertson. He also gave considerably to the Scottish universities. His botanical work culminated in the publication of "Botanical Tables Containing the Families of British Plants" in 1785.
He died at his home in South Audley Street,
Grosvenor Square, London, and was buried at Rothesayon the Isle of Bute.
flowering plantgenus "Stuartia" is named after him.
The Earl held the Manor of
Lutonand had Luton Hoodesigned and built by the neoclassical architect Robert Adam. Work commenced in 1767. The original plan had been for a grand and magnificent new house. However, this plan was never fully executed and much of the work was a remodelling of the older house. Building work was interrupted by a fire in 1771, but by 1774 the house, though incomplete, was inhabited. Dr. Samuel Johnsonvisiting the house in 1781 is quoted as saying, "This is one of the places I do not regret coming to see....in the house magnificence is not sacrificed to convenience, nor convenience to magnificence".
# Lady Mary Stuart (c. 1741-5 April 1824), who married James Lowther, later the 1st
Earl of Lonsdale, on 7 September 1761.
John Stuart, 1st Marquess of Bute(30 June 1744 – 16 November 1814)
#Lady Anne Stuart (born c. 1745), who married Lord Warkworth, later the 2nd
Duke of Northumberland, on 2 July 1764.
#The Hon. James Archibald Stuart (19 September 1747 – 1 March 1818)
#Lady Jane Stuart (c. 1748 – 28 February 1828), who married George Macartney, later the 1st Earl Macartney, on 1 February 1768.
#The Hon. Sir Charles Stuart (January 1753 – 25 May 1801)
#The Most Rev. and Hon. William Stuart, Archbishop of Armagh (Church of Ireland) (March 1755 – 6 March 1822)
#Lady Caroline Stuart (before 1763–20 January 1813), who married The Hon. John Dawson, later the 1st
Earl of Portarlington, on 1 January 1778.
Lady Louisa Stuart(12 August 1757 – 4 August 1851)Miller, Karl, "Stuart, Lady Louisa (1757–1851), writer" in " Oxford Dictionary of National Biography", Oxford University Press, September 2004 & [http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/42015 online edition] , January 2006 (subscription required) accessed 2 March 2008]
tyles from birth to death
*Lord Mount Stuart (1713-1723)
*The Rt. Hon. The Earl of Bute (1723-1738)
*The Rt. Hon. The Earl of Bute, KT (1738-1760)
*The Rt. Hon. The Earl of Bute, KT, PC (1760-1762)
*The Rt. Hon. The Earl of Bute, KG, PC (1762-1792)
According to historian John Naish, the 18th-century expression "Jack Boot" meaning a stupid person originated as disparagement of Stuart's performance as Prime Minister.cite book|author=Naish, John|title=The Interwoven Lives of George Vancouver, Archibald Menzies, Joseph Whidbey and Peter Puget: The Vancouver Voyage of 1791-1795 |publisher=The Edward Mellen Press, Ltd.|year=1996|id=ISBN 0-7734-8857-X]
* [http://pm.gov.uk/output/Page169.asp More about John Stuart, Earl of Bute] on the Downing Street website.
* [http://www.historyhome.co.uk/c-eight/ministry/butemin.htm The Age of George III: The ministry of John Stuart, third Earl of Bute]
* [http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/1911_Encyclop%C3%A6dia_Britannica/Bute%2C_John_Stuart%2C_3rd_Earl_of 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica/Bute, John Stuart, 3rd Earl of]
NAME= Stuart, John, 3rd Earl of Bute
ALTERNATIVE NAMES=Lord Mount Stuart
SHORT DESCRIPTION=Prime Minister of Great Britain (1762 - 1763)
DATE OF BIRTH=25 May 1713
PLACE OF BIRTH=
Parliament Square, Edinburgh
DATE OF DEATH=10 March 1792
PLACE OF DEATH=
Grosvenor Square, London
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Bute, John Stuart, 3rd earl of — orig. John Stuart born May 25, 1713, Edinburgh, Scot. died March 10, 1792, London, Eng. Scottish born British statesman. He was the tutor and constant companion of the future George III; when the latter ascended to the throne, he named Bute… … Universalium
Bute, John Stuart, 3rd Earl of, Viscount Kingarth, Lord Mount Stuart, Cumrae, And Inchmarnock — ▪ prime minister of United Kingdom born May 25, 1713, Edinburgh, Scot. died March 10, 1792, London, Eng. Scottish royal favourite who dominated King George III of Great Britain during the first five years of his reign. As prime minister… … Universalium
John Stuart (3e comte de Bute) — Pour les articles homonymes, voir John Stuart. John Stuart … Wikipédia en Français
John Stuart, 1st Marquess of Bute — John Stuart, 1st Marquess of Bute, PC, FRS (30 June 1744 ndash; 16 November 1814) was a British nobleman.He was the son of the 3rd Earl of Bute and the former Mary Wortley Montagu, a granddaughter of the 1st Duke of Kingston upon Hull and great… … Wikipedia
John Crichton-Stuart, 3rd Marquess of Bute — John Patrick Crichton Stuart, 3rd Marquess of Bute KT (12 September, 1847 ndash; 9 October, 1900, landed aristocrat, industrial magnate, antiquarian, scholar, philanthropist and architectural patron.The 3rd Marquess was born at the family seat of … Wikipedia
James Stuart, 2nd Earl of Bute — (before 1696 ndash;January 28 1723) was the son of James Stuart, 1st Earl of Bute and Agnes Mackenzie. In February 1711, he married Lady Anne Campbell (daughter of Archibald Campbell, 1st Duke of Argyll and Elizabeth Tollemache and had three… … Wikipedia
John Stuart (conde de Bute) — John Stuart, en 1770 … Wikipedia Español
John Stuart — may refer to:*John Stuart, 4th Earl of Atholl (d. 1579) *John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute (1713–1792), Prime Minister of Great Britain from 1762–1763 *John Stuart (loyalist) (1718–1779), British Superintendent of Indian Affairs in the southern… … Wikipedia
John Stuart, Lord Mount Stuart — (September 25 1767 ndash; 22 January 1794), was a Scottish Tory politician.Mount Stuart was the son of the John Stuart, 1st Marquess of Bute, and the grandson of Prime Minister John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute. His mother was the Hon. Charlotte Jane … Wikipedia
John Crichton-Stuart, 2nd Marquess of Bute — KT FRS (10 August 1793 ndash; 18 March 1848) was the son of John, Lord Mount Stuart (eldest son of the 1st Marquess of Bute) and the former Lady Elizabeth McDouall Crichton (daughter of the 6th Earl of Dumfries). He was the creator of modern… … Wikipedia