name = "Asparagus officinalis"
image_width = 240px
image_caption = Wild Asparagus in Austria
divisio = Magnoliophyta
genus = "Asparagus"
species = "A. officinalis"
binomial = "Asparagus officinalis"
binomial_authority = L.nutritionalvalue
"Asparagus officinalis" is a flowering plant species in the genus "Asparagus" from which the
vegetableknown as asparagus is obtained. It is native to most of Europe, northern Africaand western Asia.Flora Europaea: [http://rbg-web2.rbge.org.uk/cgi-bin/nph-readbtree.pl/feout?FAMILY_XREF=&GENUS_XREF=Asparagus&SPECIES_XREF=officinalis&TAXON_NAME_XREF=&RANK= "Asparagus officinalis"] ] Euro+Med Plantbase Project: [http://ww2.bgbm.org/_EuroPlusMed/PTaxonDetail.asp?NameId=38660&PTRefFk=500000 "Asparagus officinalis"] ] Germplasm Resources Information Network: [http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?300050 "Asparagus officinalis"] ] It is now also widely cultivated as a vegetablecrop.Grubben, G.J.H. & Denton, O.A. (2004) Plant Resources of Tropical Africa 2. Vegetables. PROTA Foundation, Wageningen; Backhuys, Leiden; CTA, Wageningen.]
Asparagus is a
herbaceous perennial plantgrowing to 100-150 cm tall, with stout larissa stems with much-branched feathery foliage. The 'leaves' are in fact needle-like cladodes (modified stems) in the axils of scale leaves; they are 6–32 mm long and 1 mm broad, and clustered 4–15 together. The flowers are bell-shaped, greenish-white to yellowish, 4.5–6.5 mm long, with six tepals partially fused together at the base; they are produced singly or in clusters of 2-3 in the junctions of the branchlets. It is usually dioecious, with male and female flowers on separate plants, but sometimes hermaphrodite flowers are found. The fruitis a small red berry 6–10 mm diameter. Green asparagus is eaten worldwide, commonly with eggs in China and with beef in Britain. It is not considered a delicacy as it is very cheap and easy to obtain.Blamey, M. & Grey-Wilson, C. (1989). "Flora of Britain and Northern Europe". ISBN 0-340-40170-2] This does not hold for white asparagus, see below. These are considered a popular but expensive May-June seasonal delicacy in northwest Europe, locally nicknamed "white gold". Plants native to the western coasts of Europe (from northern Spainnorth to Ireland, Great Britain, and northwest Germany) are treated as "Asparagus officinalis" subsp. "prostratus" (Dumort.) Corb., distinguished by its low-growing, often prostrate stems growing to only 30–70 cm high, and shorter cladodes 2–18 mm long. It is treated as a distinct species "Asparagus prostratus" Dumort. by some authors.Flora of NW Europe: [http://ip30.eti.uva.nl/BIS/flora.php?selected=beschrijving&menuentry=soorten&id=4839 "Asparagus prostratus"] ] Germplasm Resources Information Network: [http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/taxon.pl?5538 "Asparagus prostratus"] ]
Asparagus has been used from very early times as a vegetable and medicine, owing to its delicate flavour and
diureticproperties. There is a recipefor cooking asparagus in the oldest surviving book of recipes, Apicius’s third century AD " De re coquinaria," Book III. It was cultivated by the ancient Egyptians, Greeks and Romans, who ate it fresh when in season and dried the vegetable for use in winter.Verify source|date=July 2007 It lost its popularity in the Middle Ages but returned to favour in the seventeenth century.cite book | last =Vaughan | first =J.G. | authorlink = | coauthors = Geissler, C.A. | title =The New Oxford Book of Food Plants | publisher = Oxford University Press | year= 1997]
Only the young shoots of asparagus are eaten.
Asparagus is low in calories, contains no fat or cholesterol, and is very low in sodium. It is a good source of
folic acid, potassium, dietary fiber, and rutin. The amino acid asparaginegets its name from asparagus, the asparagus plant being rich in this compound.
The shoots are prepared and served in a number of ways around the world. In Asian-style cooking, asparagus is often stir-fried. Cantonese restaurants in the
United Statesoften serve asparagus stir-fried with chicken, shrimp, or beef, also wrapped in bacon. Asparagus may also be quickly grilled over charcoal or hardwood embers. It is also used as an ingredient in some stews and soups. In the French style, it is often boiled or steamed and served with hollandaisesauce, melted butter or olive oil, Parmesan cheeseor mayonnaise. The best asparagus tends to be early growth (meaning first of the season) and is often simply steamed and served along with melted butter. Tall, narrow asparagus cooking pots allow the shoots to be steamed gently, their tips staying out of the water.
Asparagus can also be
pickledand stored for several years. Some brands may label them as "marinated" which means the same thing.
The bottom portion of asparagus often contains sand, and as such thorough cleaning is generally advised in cooking asparagus.
rhizomes and root is used ethnomedically to treat urinary tract infections, as well as kidney and bladder stones.Fact|date=April 2008 Asparagus is also believed to have aphrodisiacproperties (this belief is at least partially due to the phallic shape of the shoots).
Ingestion of asparagus may bring on an attack of
gout[ [http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/gout/DS00090/DSECTION=3 Gout: Causes - MayoClinic.com ] ] in certain individuals due to the high level of purines.
Since asparagus often originates in maritime habitats, it thrives in soils that are too saline for normal weeds to grow in. Thus a little salt was traditionally used to suppress weeds in beds intended for asparagus; this has the disadvantage that the soil cannot be used for anything else. 'Crowns' are planted in winter, and the first shoots appear in spring; the first pickings or 'thinnings' are known as sprue asparagus. Sprue have thin stems. [cite web |url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/food/glossary/s.shtml?sprue_asparagus |title=BBC - Food - Glossary - 'S' |accessdate=2007-06-08 |format= |work=BBC Online ]
White asparagus, known as
spargel, is cultivated by denying the plants light and increasing the amount of ultraviolet light the plants are exposed to while they are being grown. Less bitter than the green variety, it is very popular in the Netherlands, France, Belgiumand Germanywhere 57,000 tonnes (61% of consumer demands) are produced annually. [cite web | url=http://www.germanfoods.org/consumer/documents/WhiteAsparagusPressRelease.doc | publisher=German Agricultural Marketing Board | title=Asparagus: The King of Vegetables | author=Molly Spence | accessdate=2007-02-26|format=DOC]
Purple asparagus differs from its green and white counterparts, having high sugar and low
fibrelevels. Purple asparagus was originally developed in Italyand commercialised under the variety name "Violetto d'Albenga". Since then, breeding work has continued in countries such as the United States and New Zealand.Verify source|date=July 2007
Asparagus is a useful
companion plantfor tomatoes. The tomato plant repels the asparagus beetle, as do several other common companion plants of tomatoes, meanwhile asparagus may repel some harmful root nematodes that affect tomato plants [http://www.ibiblio.org/pfaf/cgi-bin/arr_html?Asparagus+officinalis] .
thumb|center|600px|Asparagus output in 2005 shown as a percentage of the top producer (China – 5,906,000 tonnes). ">legend|red|1As of 2007,
Peruis the world's leading asparagus exporter, followed by Chinaand Mexico. [cite web | url=http://www.fas.usda.gov/htp/Hort_Circular/2005/08-05/Asparagus%20article.pdf | publisher=World Horticultural Trade & U.S. Export Opportunities | title=World Asparagus Situation & Outlook | author=United States Department of Agriculture | accessdate=2007-02-27|format=PDF] The top asparagus importers (2004) were the United States (92,405 tonnes), followed by the European Union(external trade) (18,565 tonnes), and Japan(17,148 tonnes). [According to Global Trade Atlas and U.S. Census Bureaustatistics] The United States' production for 2005 was on 218.5 km² (54,000 acres) and yielded 90,200 tonnes,cite book | author=USDA | title=Vegetables 2005 Summary | month=January | year=2006 | publisher=National Agricultural Statistics Service] making it the world's third largest producer, after China (5,906,000 tonnes) and Peru (206,030 tonnes). [cite web | url=http://faostat.fao.org/site/336/DesktopDefault.aspx?PageID=336 | title = Food and Agriculture Organisation Statistics (FAOSTAT) | accessdate=2007-11-11] US production was concentrated in California, Michigan, and Washington. The crop is significant enough in California's Sacramento-San Joaquin River Deltaregion that the city of Stockton holds a festival every year to celebrate it.
Vernacular names and etymology
"Asparagus officinalis" is widely known simply as "asparagus", and may be confused with unrelated plant species also known as "asparagus", such as "
Ornithogalum pyrenaicum" known as "Prussian asparagus" for its edible shoots.
The English word "asparagus" derives from classical Latin, but the plant was once known in English as "sperage", from the
Medieval Latin"sparagus". This term itself derives from the Greek "aspharagos" or "asparagos", and the Greek term originates from the Persian "asparag", meaning "sprout" or "shoot". Asparagus was also corrupted in some places to "sparrow grass"; indeed, the Oxford English Dictionary quotes John Walker as having written in 1791 that "Sparrow-grass" is so general that "asparagus" has an air of stiffness and pedantry". In Gloucestershire and Worcestershire where arguably the best asparagus is grown it is also known simply as "grass". Another known colloquial variation of the term, most common in parts of Texas, is "aspar grass" or "asper grass". In the Midwest United States and Appalachia, "spar grass" is a common colloquialism. Asparagus is commonly known in fruit retail circles as "Sparrows Guts", etymologically distinct from the old term "sparrow grass", thus showing convergent language evolution.Fact|date=February 2008
It is known in French and Dutch as "asperge", in Italian as "asparago" (old Italian "asparagio"), in Portuguese as "espargo hortense", in Spanish as "espárrago", in German as "
Spargel", in Hungarian as "spárga".
In a South Indian language, Kannada, it is known as Ashadhi, Majjigegadde or Sipariberuballi.
Asparagus and urine
The effect of eating asparagus on the eater's urine has long been observed.
Marcel Proustclaimed that asparagus "...transforms my chamber-pot into a flask of perfume." [From the French " [...] changer mon pot de chambre en un vase de parfum," "Du côté de chez Swann," Gallimard, 1988.] Certain compounds in asparagus are metabolized giving urine a distinctive smell due to various sulfur-containing degradation products, including various thiols, thioesters, and ammonia. [cite journal | journal=Science | volume=189 | pages=810–11 | year=1975 | author=White RH. | title=Occurrence of S-methyl thioesters in urines of humans after they have eaten asparagus | url=http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=1162354 | pmid=1162354 | doi = 10.1126/science.1162354 ] Derivatives of asparagusic acidare also found in urine. The speed of onset of urine smell has been estimated to occur within 15-30 minutes of ingestion. [cite web | url=http://www.webmd.com/content/article/43/1671_51089 | publisher=WebMD | title=Eau D'Asparagus | author=Somer, E. | date= August 14 2000| accessdate=2006-08-31] Observational evidence from the 1950s showed that many people did not know about the phenomenon of asparagus urine. It was originally thought this was because some of the population digested asparagus differently to others, so that some people excreted odorous urine after eating asparagus, and others did not. However, in the 1980s three studies from France, China and Israel published results showing that producing odorous urine from asparagus was a universal human characteristic. The Israeli study found that from their 307 subjects all of those who could smell 'asparagus urine' could detect it in the urine of anyone who had eaten asparagus – whether or not they could detect it in their own.Fact|date=August 2008 Thus, it is now believed that most people produce the odorous compounds after eating asparagus, but only about 22% of the population have the autosomalgenes required to smell them. [cite web | url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/food/story/0,,1576765,00.html | publisher=The Guardian | title=The scientific chef: asparagus pee| date= September 23 2005| accessdate=2007-04-21] [cite web | url=http://www.discovery.com/area/skinnyon/skinnyon970115/skinny1.html | title=Why Asparagus Makes Your Pee Stink | author=Hannah Holmes | publisher=Discover.com ] [cite journal | journal=Br Med J | volume=281 | pages=1676 | year= 1980 | author=Lison M, Blondheim SH, Melmed RN. | title=A polymorphism of the ability to smell urinary metabolites of asparagus | url=http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pubmed&pubmedid=7448566 | pmid=7448566 | doi = ]
* [http://pocketchangenyc.com/newsletter.asp?nid=543 Los Angeles' Most Expensive Asparagus]
* [http://database.prota.org/dbtw-wpd/exec/dbtwpub.dll?AC=QBE_QUERY&BU=http%3A%2F%2Fdatabase.prota.org%2Fsearch.htm&TN=PROTAB~1&QB0=AND&QF0=Species+Code&QI0=Asparagus+officinalis&RF=Webdisplay PROTAbase on "Asparagus officinalis"]
* [http://www.ibiblio.org/pfaf/cgi-bin/arr_html?Asparagus+officinalis "Asparagus officinalis"] - Plants for a Future database entry
* - 2005 USDA report
* [http://ohioline.osu.edu/b826/index.html Asparagus Production Management and Marketing] - commercial growing (OSU bulletin)
* [http://www.asparagusfest.com The Stockton Asparagus Festival] - held annually every April in Stockton,
* [http://www.supersqr.com/vegetable-blog/category/vegetables/asparagus"Growing Asparagus"] Guide to growing Asparagus
* [http://aesop.rutgers.edu/~asparagus/research/asparagus.html Asparagus Breeding Program at Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey]
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Look at other dictionaries:
Asparagus — Asparagus … Wikipédia en Français
asparagus — [ asparagys ] n. m. • 1797; mot lat. « asperge » ♦ Plante ornementale (liliacées) voisine de l asperge, au feuillage très fin et décoratif. Bouquet d œillets et d asparagus. ● asparagus nom masculin (motlatin) Nom générique de l asperge.… … Encyclopédie Universelle
asparagus — ASPARÁGUS, asparaguşi, s.m. Plantă ornamentală din familia liliaceelor, cultivată pentru frunzuliţele ei foarte fine şi decorative (Asparagus silvestris). – Din fr. asparagus. Trimis de cata, 11.02.2004. Sursa: DEX 98 asparágus s. m., pl.… … Dicționar Român
Asparagus — As*par a*gus ([a^]s*p[a^]r [.a]*g[u^]s), n. [L., fr. Gr. aspa ragos, asfa ragos; cf. sparga^n to swell with sap or juice, and Zend [,c]paregha prong, sprout, Pers. asparag, Lith. spurgas sprout, Skr. sphurj to swell. Perh. the Greek borrowed from … The Collaborative International Dictionary of English
asparagus — late O.E. sparage, from L. asparagus (in M.L. often sparagus), from Gk. asparagos, of uncertain origin; probably from PIE root *sp(h)er(e)g to spring up (though perhaps from a non Greek source). In Middle English, asperages sometimes was regarded … Etymology dictionary
asparagus — [ə spar′ə gəs, əsper′əgəs] n. [ModL < L < Gr asparagos < IE base * sp(h)er(e)g , to spring up, sprout > SPRING, SPARK1] 1. any of a genus (Asparagus) of plants of the lily family, with small, scalelike leaves, many flat or needlelike… … English World dictionary
asparagus — asparágus (asparȃgus) m DEFINICIJA bot., v. šparoga ETIMOLOGIJA grč. aspáragos … Hrvatski jezični portal
Asparăgus — (A. L.), Pflanzengattung aus der Familie der Liliaceen (Liliaceae Asphodeleae Asparageae), 6. Klasse 1. Ordnung L. mit einfacher, sechsblätteriger, unterständiger, einfacher Blüthenhülle, die an der Basis in ein mit dem Blüthenstiele gegliedertes … Pierer's Universal-Lexikon
Asparăgus — L. (Spargel), Gattung der Liliazeen, Kräuter oder Halbsträucher mit unterirdischer Grundachse, von der die oberirdischen, mehr oder weniger verzweigten, bisweilen kletternden Stämmchen ausgehen, kleinen, schuppigen oder dornigen Blättern, in… … Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon
Asparagus — Asparăgus, s. Spargel … Kleines Konversations-Lexikon
Asparagus — Asparagus, s. Spargel … Herders Conversations-Lexikon