Lucca


Lucca
Lucca
—  Comune  —
Comune di Lucca
Panorama of Lucca from the Torre Guinigi

Coat of arms
Lucca is located in Italy
Lucca
Location of Lucca in Italy
Coordinates: 43°51′N 10°30′E / 43.85°N 10.5°E / 43.85; 10.5
Country Italy
Region Tuscany
Province Lucca (LU)
Frazioni see list
Government
 – Mayor Mauro Favilla (The People of Freedom)
Area
 – Total 185.5 km2 (71.6 sq mi)
Elevation 19 m (62 ft)
Population (30 April 2009)
 – Total 84,323
 – Density 454.6/km2 (1,177.3/sq mi)
Demonym Lucchese (plural, Lucchesi)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 – Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 55100
Dialing code 0583
Patron saint St. Paulinus
Saint day July 12
Website Official website

Lucca About this sound listen is a city and comune in Tuscany, central Italy, situated on the river Serchio in a fertile plain near the Tyrrhenian Sea. It is the capital city of the Province of Lucca. Among other reasons, it is famous for its intact Renaissance-era city walls.

Contents

History

Ancient and medieval city

Lucca was founded by the Etruscans (there are traces of a pre-existing Ligurian settlement) and became a Roman colony in 180 BC. The rectangular grid of its historical centre preserves the Roman street plan, and the Piazza San Michele occupies the site of the ancient forum. Traces of the amphitheatre can still be seen in the Piazza dell'Anfiteatro. Lucca was the site of a conference in 56 BC which reaffirmed the supremacy of the Roman First Triumvirate.[citation needed]

Piazza Anfiteatro and the Basilica di San Frediano.

Frediano, an Irish monk, was bishop of Lucca in the early 6th century.[1] At one point, Lucca was plundered by Odoacer, the first Germanic King of Italy. Lucca was an important city and fortress even in the 6th century, when Narses besieged it for several months in 553. Under the Lombards, it was the seat of a duke who minted his own coins. The Holy Face of Lucca (or Volto Santo), a major relic supposedly carved by Nicodemus, arrived in 742. It became prosperous through the silk trade that began in the 11th century, and came to rival the silks of Byzantium. During the 10-11th centuries Lucca was the capital of the feudal margraviate of Tuscany, more or less independent but owing nominal allegiance to the Holy Roman Emperor.

First republic

After the death of Matilda of Tuscany, the city began to constitute itself an independent commune, with a charter in 1160. For almost 500 years, Lucca remained an independent republic. There were many minor provinces in the region between southern Liguria and northern Tuscany dominated by the Malaspina; Tuscany in this time was a part of feudal Europe. Dante’s Divine Comedy includes many references to the great feudal families who had huge jurisdictions with administrative and judicial rights. Dante spent some of his exile in Lucca.

In 1273 and again in 1277 Lucca was ruled by a Guelph capitano del popolo (captain of the people) named Luchetto Gattilusio. In 1314, internal discord allowed Uguccione della Faggiuola of Pisa to make himself lord of Lucca. The Lucchesi expelled him two years later, and handed over the city to another condottiere Castruccio Castracani, under whose rule it became a leading state in central Italy. Lucca rivalled Florence until Castracani's death in 1328. On 22 and 23 September 1325, in the battle of Altopascio, Castracani defeated Florence's Guelphs. For this he was nominated by Louis IV the Bavarian to become duke of Lucca. Castracani's tomb is in the church of San Francesco. His biography is Machiavelli's third famous book on political rule. In 1408, Lucca hosted the convocation intended to end the schism in the papacy. Occupied by the troops of Louis of Bavaria, the city was sold to a rich Genoese, Gherardino Spinola, then seized by John, king of Bohemia. Pawned to the Rossi of Parma, by them it was ceded to Martino della Scala of Verona, sold to the Florentines, surrendered to the Pisans, and then nominally liberated by the emperor Charles IV and governed by his vicar. Lucca managed, at first as a democracy, and after 1628 as an oligarchy, to maintain its independence alongside of Venice and Genoa, and painted the word Libertas on its banner until the French Revolution in 1789.[2]

Napoleonic conquest

Palazzo Pfanner, garden view.

Lucca had been the second largest Italian city state (after Venice) with a republican constitution ("comune") to remain independent over the centuries.

In 1805, Lucca was conquered by Napoleon, who installed his sister Elisa Bonaparte Baciocchi as "Queen of Etruria".

After 1815 it became a Bourbon-Parma duchy, then part of Tuscany in 1847 and finally part of the Italian State.

Frazioni

The municipal territory of Lucca includes eighty-one “Frazioni”:

  • Antraccoli
  • Aquilea
  • Arancio
  • Arliano
  • Arsina
  • Balbano
  • Capannori
  • Cappella
  • Carignano
  • Castagnori
  • Castiglioncello
  • Cerasomma
  • Chiatri
  • Ciciana
  • Deccio di Brancoli
  • Fagnano
  • Farneta
  • Gattaiola
  • Gignano di Brancoli
  • Maggiano
  • Massa Pisana
  • Mastiano
  • Meati
  • Monte San Quirico
  • Montuolo
  • Mutigliano
  • Mugnano
  • Nave
  • Nozzano
  • Nozzano San Pietro
  • Nozzano Vecchia
  • Ombreglio di Brancoli
  • Palmata
  • Piaggione
  • Piazza di Brancoli
  • Piazzano
  • Picciorana
  • Pieve di Brancoli
  • Pieve Santo Stefano
  • Ponte a Moriano
  • Ponte del Giglio
  • Ponte San Pietro
  • Pontetetto
  • Saltocchio
  • San Cassiano a Vico
  • San Cassano di Moriano
  • San Concordio di Moriano
  • San Donato
  • San Filippo
  • San Gimignano
  • San Giusto di Brancoli
  • San Lorenzo a Vaccoli
  • San Lorenzo di Moriano
  • San Macario in monte
  • San Macario in piano
  • San Michele di Moriano
  • San Michele in Escheto
  • San Pancazio
  • San Pietro a Vico
  • San Quirico in Moriano
  • San Vito
  • Sant'Alessio
  • Sant'Angelo in Campo
  • Sant'Ilario di Brancoli
  • Santa Maria a Colle
  • Santa Maria del Giudice
  • Santissima Annunziata
  • Santo Stefano di Moriano
  • Sesto di Moriano
  • Sorbano del Giudice
  • Sorbano del Vescovo
  • Stabbiano
  • Tempagnano di Lunata
  • Torre alla Maddalena
  • Torre Alta
  • Tramonte
  • Tramonte di Brancoli
  • Vallebuia
  • Vecoli
  • Vicopelago
  • Vinchiana

Main sights

Duomo di San Martino (the Cathedral).
Autumn in Lucca.
A close up of the front façade of the San Michele in Foro.

The walls around the old town remained intact as the city expanded and modernized, unusual for cities in the region. As the walls lost their military importance, they became a pedestrian promenade which encircled the old town, although they were used for a number of years in the 20th century for racing cars. They are still fully intact today; each of the four principal sides is lined with a different tree species.

The Academy of Sciences (1584) is the most famous of several academies and libraries.

The Casa di Puccini will re-open to the public on 14 September 2011.[3] At the nearby town of Torre del Lago, there is a Puccini opera festival every year in July/August. Puccini had a house there as well.

The Passeggiata delle Mura.
Church of San Michele of Antraccoli.

There are many richly built medieval basilica-form churches in Lucca with rich arcaded façades and campaniles, a few as old as the 8th century.

  • Piazza dell'Anfiteatro
  • Piazzale Verdi
  • Piazza Napoleone
  • Piazza San Michele
  • Duomo di San Martino (St Martin's Cathedral)
  • The Ducal Palace, built on the location of Castruccio Castracani's fortress. The original project was begun by Bartolomeo Ammannati in 1577–1582, and continued by Filippo Juvarra in the 18th century.
  • The ancient Roman amphitheatre
  • Church of San Michele in Foro
  • Romanesque church of San Giusto.
  • Basilica di San Frediano
  • Torre delle ore ("The Clock Tower")
  • Casa and Torre Guinigi - The Guinigi Tower with oak trees on top
  • Museo Nazionale Guinigi
  • Museo e Pinacoteca Nazionale
  • Orto Botanico Comunale di Lucca, a botanical garden dating from 1820
  • Palazzo Pfanner
  • Villa Garzoni, noted for its water gardens.
  • Church of San Giorgio in the locality of Brancoli, built in the late 12th century. It has a nave and two aisles with a single apse, and a bell tower in Lombard-Romanesque style ranked amongst the most beautiful in northern Italy. The interior houses a massive ambo (1194) with four columns mounted on notable sculptures of lions. Also having notable medieval decoration is the octagonal baptismal fount. The altar is supported by six small columns with human figures
  • Church of San Michele, at Antraccoli. Founded in 777, it was enlarged in the 12th century and modified again in the 16th century with the introduction of a portico.
  • Passeggiata delle Mura Urbane, a street all over the city on the bastions. It passes from these balconies: Santa Croce, San Frediano, San Martino, San Pietro/Battisti, San Salvatore, La Libertà/Cairoli, San Regolo, San Colombano, Santa Maria, San Paolino/Catalani, and San Donato; also pass over these gates: Porta San Donato, Porta Santa Maria, Porta San Jocopo, Porta Elisa, Porta San Pietro, and Porta Sant'Anna.
  • Church of Santa Giulia, of Lombard origins, but remade in the 13th century.
  • The fortified city is surrounded by the streets of: Piazzale Boccherini, Viale Lazzaro Papi, Viale Carlo Del Prete, Piazzale Martiri della Libertà, Via Batoni, Viale Agostino Marti, Viale G. Marconi (vide Guglielmo Marconi), Piazza Don A. Mei, Viale Pacini (vide Pacini), Viale Giusti, Piazza Curtatone, Piazzale Ricasoli, Viale Ricasoli, Piazza Risorgimento (vide Risorgimento) and Viale Giosuè Carducci (vide Giosuè Carducci).

Culture

Lucca is the birthplace of composers Giacomo Puccini (La Bohème and Madama Butterfly), Nicalao Dorati, Francesco Geminiani, Gioseffo Guami, Luigi Boccherini, and Alfredo Catalani. It is also the birthplace of Bruno Menconi and artist Benedetto Brandimarte.

Lucca, Piazza Anfiteatro

Museums

Festivals

Lucca annually hosts the Lucca Summer Festival. The 2006 edition saw Eric Clapton, Placebo, Massive Attack, Roger Waters, Tracy Chapman and Santana play live in the Piazza Napoleone.

Lucca hosts the annual Lucca Comics and Games festival, Italy's largest festival for comics and related subjects.

Film and television

Mauro Bolognini's 1958 film Giovani mariti with Sylva Koscina is set and was filmed in Lucca.

Lucca was featured on Top Gear during a Hot Hatch comparison in Episode 2 of Season 17. The city's narrow and one-way street layout played a large role in the segment.

International relations

Twin towns — Sister cities

Lucca is twinned with:

Notable natives and residents

Portrait of Giovanni Arnolfini and his Wife by Jan van Eyck.

Economy

Tourism

Tourism is a source of income. The following events are attended by a number of people from outside the area:

  • Lucca Comics and Games, the most important[citation needed] exposition of comics and games in Italy, the second in Europe[citation needed] and the third in the world.[citation needed] It takes place at the end of October.
  • Viareggio's Carnival[5]
  • Lucca Summer Festival, an international music meeting.[6]
  • Lucca Film Festival[7]
  • Lucca Digital Photo Fest[8]
  • Procession of Santa Croce, on 13 of September. Costume procession through the town's roads.[citation needed]
  • Lucca Jazz Donna[9]

See also

Footnotes

External links


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Lucca — Lucca …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Lucca — «Lucca» redirige aquí. Para otras acepciones, véase Lucca (desambiguación). Lucca Bandera …   Wikipedia Español

  • Lucca — • The capital of the like named province in Tuscany, Central Italy Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Lucca     Lucca     † …   Catholic encyclopedia

  • LUCCA — LUCCA, city in N. Italy. It was probably in the ninth century that the kalonymus family settled in Lucca and founded a talmudic academy there. In the year 917 members of the family moved to Mainz, thereby establishing talmudic studies in the… …   Encyclopedia of Judaism

  • Lucca [1] — Lucca, war bis 1847 ein souveränes Herzogthum in Mittelitalien u. bildet seitdem eine Präfectur von Toscana mit 24,18 QM. u. (1858) 259,730 Ew.; es bestand aus dem Haupttheil u. einem abgerissenen kleineren Stück von etwa 2 geogr. Mln.… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Lucca [2] — Lucca, Hauptstadt der gleichnamigen ital. Provinz (s. oben), früher Hauptstadt des Herzogtums L., liegt in fruchtbarer Ebene, am Serchio und an den Eisenbahnlinien Pistoja Livorno, Viareggio Bagni di L. und L. Ponte a Moriano. Die Stadt ist von… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Lucca — Lucca. Von dem blühenden, reizenden Landstriche Italiens, welcher sich von dem Fuße der Apenninen bis an die Küsten des mittelländischen Meeres hinabzieht, bilden 20 Quadrat M., bewohnt von 150,000 Menschen, das Herzogthum Lucca, dessen Seidenbau …   Damen Conversations Lexikon

  • Lucca [2] — Lucca, Hauptstadt des früheren Herzogthums u. der jetzigen gleichnamigen toscanischen Präfectur, an einem von dem Serchio abgeleiteten Kanale Ozzorli u. an der von Florenz nach Pisa u. Livorno führenden Eisenbahn, ist mit Wällen umgeben, welche… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Lucca [3] — Lucca, Flecken in der Provinz Girgenti auf der Insel Sicilien; Wein, Oliven, Baumwolle; 1210 Ew …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Lucca [1] — Lucca, ital. Provinz mit gleichnamiger Hauptstadt in Toskana, bis 1847 souveränes, sodann zum Großherzogtum Toskana gehöriges Herzogtum, grenzt an die Provinzen Massa e Carrara, Modena, Florenz, Pisa und das Ligurische Meer und umfaßt 1445 qkm… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Lucca [3] — Lucca (Abbatia Luceensis), s. Lokkum …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon


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