Eratosthenes


Eratosthenes

Eratosthenes of Cyrene (Greek polytonic|Ἐρατοσθένης; 276 BC - 194 BC) was a Greek mathematician, poet, athlete, geographer and astronomer. He made several discoveries and inventions including a system of latitude and longitude. He was the first person to calculate the circumference of the Earth (with remarkable accuracy), and the tilt of the earth's axis (again with remarkable accuracy); he may also have accurately calculated the distance from the earth to the sun and invented the leap day. [http://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/2008/06/dayintech_0619] He also created a map of the world based on the available geographical knowledge of the era. Eratosthenes was also the founder of scientific chronology; he endeavored to fix the dates of the chief literary and political events from the conquest of Troy.

His contemporaries nicknamed him "beta" (the Greek numeral "two") because he supposedly proved himself to be the second best in many fields.Fact|date=July 2008

Life

Eratosthenes was born in Cyrene (in modern-day Libya). He was the chief librarian of the Great Library of Alexandria and died in the capital of Ptolemaic Egypt. He was never married. Eratosthenes studied in Alexandria and claimed to have also studied for some years in Athens. In 236 BC he was appointed by Ptolemy III Euergetes I as librarian of the Alexandrian library, succeeding the first librarian, Apollonius of Rhodes, in that post [http://www.oxfordreference.com/views/ENTRY.html?entry=t111.e2478&srn=2&ssid=223186397#FIRSTHIT] . He made several important contributions to mathematics and science, and was a good friend to Archimedes. Around 255 BC he invented the armillary sphere, which was widely used until the invention of the orrery in the 18th century.

In 194 BC Eratosthenes became blind and, according to legends, a year later, he starved himself to death.

He is credited by Cleomedes in "On the Circular Motions of the Celestial Bodies" with having calculated the Earth's circumference around 240 BC, using knowledge of the angle of elevation of the Sun at noon on the summer solstice in Alexandria and in the Elephantine Island near Syene (now Aswan, Egypt).

Eratosthenes was the director of the great library of Alexandria, the Centre of science and learning in the ancient world. Aristotle had argued that humanity was divided into Greeks and everyone else whom he called barbarians and that the Greeks should keep themselves racially pure. He thought it was fitting for the Greeks to enslave other peoples. But Erathosthenes criticised Aristotle for his blind chauvinism, he believed there was good and bad in every nation. [* p439 Vol. 1 William Woodthorpe Tarn "Alexander the Great". Vol. I, "Narrative"; Vol. II, "Sources and Studies0". Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1948. (New ed., 2002 (paperback, ISBN 0-521-53137-3)).]

Eratosthenes' measurement of the Earth's circumference

Eratosthenes knew that on the summer solstice at local noon in the Ancient Egyptian city of Swenet (known in Greek as Syene) on the Tropic of Cancer, the sun would appear at the zenith, directly overhead. He also knew, from measurement, that in his hometown of Alexandria, the angle of elevation of the Sun would be 1/50 of a full circle (7°12') south of the zenith at the same time. Assuming that Alexandria was due north of Syene he concluded that the distance from Alexandria to Syene must be 1/50 of the total circumference of the Earth. His estimated distance between the cities was 5000 stadia (about 500 geographical miles or 950 km). He rounded the result to a final value of 700 stadia per degree, which implies a circumference of 252,000 stadia. The exact size of the stadion he used is frequently argued. The common Attic stadion was about 185 m, which would imply a circumference of 46,620 km, i.e. 16.3% too large. However, if we assume that Eratosthenes used the "Egyptian stadion" [traianus.rediris.es/topo01/surveying.pdf] of about 157.5 m, his measurement turns out to be 39,690 km, an error of less than 1%. [There is a huge Eratosthenes-got-it-right literature based upon attacking the applicability of the standard 185m stadium to his experiment. Among advocates: F. Hultsch, "Griechische und Römische Metrologie", Berlin, 1882; E. Lehmann-Haupt, Stadion entry in "Paulys Real-Encyclopädie", Stuttgart, 1929; I. Fischer, "Q. Jl. R. astr. Soc. 16.2":152-167, 1975; Gulbekian (1987); Dutka (1993). The means employed include worrying various ratios of the stadium to the unstably defined "schoenus", or using a truncated passage from Pliny. (Gulbekian just computes the stadium from Eratosthenes's experiment instead of the reverse.) A disproportionality of literature exists because professional scholars of ancient science have generally regarded such speculation as special pleading and so have not bothered to write extensively on the issue. Skeptical works include E. Bunbury's classic "History of Ancient Geography", 1883; D. Dicks, "Geographical Fragments of Hipparchus", University of London, 1960; O. Neugebauer, "History of Ancient Mathematical Astronomy", Springer, 1975; J. Berggren and A. Jones, "Ptolemy's Geography", Princeton, 2000. Some difficulties with the several arguments for Eratosthenes's exact correctness are discussed by Rawlins in 1982b page 218 and in his [http://www.dioi.org/cot.htm#fpfw Contributions] and [http://www.dioi.org/gad.htm#rcgn Distillate] .]

Although Eratosthenes' method was well founded, the accuracy of his calculation was inherently limited. The accuracy of Eratosthenes' measurement would have been reduced by the fact that Syene is slightly north of the Tropic of Cancer, is not directly south of Alexandria, and the Sun appears as a disk located at a finite distance from the Earth instead of as a point source of light at an infinite distance. There are other sources of experimental error: the greatest limitation to Eratosthenes' method was that, in antiquity, overland distance measurements were not reliable, especially for travel along the non-linear Nile which was traveled primarily by boat. So the accuracy of Eratosthenes' size of the earth is surprising.

Eratosthenes' experiment was highly regarded at the time, and his estimate of the Earth’s size was accepted for hundreds of years afterwards. His method was used by Posidonius about 150 years later.

The mysterious astronomical distances

Eusebius of Caesarea in his "Preparatio Evangelica" includes a brief chapter of three sentences on celestial distances ( [http://www.tertullian.org/fathers/eusebius_pe_15_book15.htm Book XV] , Chapter 53). He states simply that Eratosthenes found the distance to the sun to be "Polytonic|σταδίων μυριάδας τετρακοσίας και οκτωκισμυρίας" (literally "of stadia myriads 400 and 80,000") and the distance to the moon to be 780,000 stadia. The expression for the distance to the sun has been translated either as 4,080,000 stadia (1903 translation by E. H. Gifford), or as 804,000,000 stadia (edition of Edouard des Places, dated 1974-1991). The meaning depends on whether Eusebius meant 400 myriad plus 80,000 or "400 and 80,000" myriad.

This testimony of Eusebius is dismissed by the scholarly Dictionary of Scientific Biography. It is true that the distance Eusebius quotes for the moon is much too low (about 144,000 km) and Eratosthenes should have been able to do much better than this since he knew the size of the Earth and Aristarchus of Samos had already foundFact|date=December 2007 the ratio of the Moon's distance to the size of the Earth. But if what Eusebius wrote was pure fiction, then it is difficult to explain the fact that, using the Greek, or Olympic, stadium of 185 metres, the figure of 804 million stadia that he quotes for the distance to the Sun comes to 149 million kilometres. The difference between this and the modern accepted value is less than 1%. [Other than the distance to the moon, no celestial distance is unambiguously established as known in antiquity even to within a factor of two. As late as a century ago, the earth's distance to the sun (the A. U.) was known less accurately than 1%.]

Works

* "On the Measurement of the Earth" (lost, summarized by Cleomedes)
* "Geographica" (lost, criticized by Strabo)
* "Arsinoe" (a memoir of queen Arsinoe; lost; quoted by Athenaeus in the "Deipnosophistae")
* A fragmentary collection of Hellenistic myths about the constellations, called "Catasterismi" ("Katasterismoi"), was attributed to Eratosthenes, perhaps to add to its credibility.

Named after Eratosthenes

* Sieve of Eratosthenes
* Eratosthenes crater on the Moon
* Eratosthenian period in the lunar geologic timescale
* Eratosthenes Seamount in the eastern Mediterranean Sea
* Jules Eratosthenes Brown (fictional character from the "Back to the Future" franchise)

ee also

* History of geodesy

Further reading

* Kathryn Lasky. "The Librarian Who Measured the Earth". New York: Little, Brown and Company, 1994. ISBN 0-316-51526-4. An illustrated biography for children focusing on the measurement of the earth. Kevin Hawkes, illustrator.
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* Pamias, Jordi, and Klaus Geus (trans., comm.), Eratosthenes. "Sternsagen (Catasterismi)." Griechisch / Deutsch. Bibliotheca Classicorum, 2. Oberhaid: Utopica, 2007. Pp. 258. EUR 29.95. ISBN 978-3-938083-05-5.

Notes

External links

* Bernhardy, Gottfried: "Eratosthenica" Berlin 1822 Reprinted Osnabruck 1968 (German text)
* [http://www.wilbourhall.org/index.html#eratosthenes Bernhardy, Gottfried: "Eratosthenica" ] Berlin, 1822 (PDF) (Latin/Greek)
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* [http://www.faust.fr.bw.schule.de/mhb/eratosiv.htm Eratosthenes' sieve in Javascript]
* [http://www.math.utah.edu/history/eratosthenes.html Eratosthenes' sieve as a simple algorithm]
* [http://www.math.utah.edu/~pa/Eratosthenes.html About Eratosthenes' methods, including a Java applet]
* [http://www.algonet.se/~sirius/eaae/aol/market/collabor/erathost How to measure the earth with Eratosthenes' method]
* [http://galileoandeinstein.physics.virginia.edu/lectures/gkastr1.html How the Greeks estimated the distances to the moon and sun]
* [http://www.pbs.org/wnet/hawking/cosmostar/html/cstars_eratho.html Eratosthenes on PBS.org]
* [http://www.phys-astro.sonoma.edu/observatory/eratosthenes/ Inter-collegiate project for measuring the earth with Eratosthenes' method]
* [http://astrosun2.astro.cornell.edu/academics/courses//astro201/eratosthenes.htm Measuring the earth with Eratosthenes' method]
* [http://aleph0.clarku.edu/~djoyce/mathhist/greece.html List of ancient Greek mathematecians and contemporaries of Eratosthenes]
* [http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/01303a.htm New Advent Encyclopedia article on the Library of Alexandria]
* [http://www.christopherhenden.com/previously/primenumbers/ Eratosthenes' sieve explored and visualised in Flash]
* [http://www.quitebasic.com/prj/math/eratosthenes/ Eratosthenes' sieve in classic BASIC all-web based interactive programming environment]
* [http://www.mapmonde.org/eratos/index.php?lang=en Following in the footsteps of Eratosthenes] : project [http://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/La_main_%C3%A0_la_p%C3%A2te] .

Persondata
NAME=Eratosthenes
ALTERNATIVE NAMES=Eratosthenes of Cyrene; Ἐρατοσθένης
SHORT DESCRIPTION=Greek mathematician, poet, athlete, geographer and astronomer
DATE OF BIRTH=276 BC
PLACE OF BIRTH=Cyrene
DATE OF DEATH=194 BC
PLACE OF DEATH=


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Look at other dictionaries:

  • Eratosthenes — von Kyrene (griechisch Έρατοσθένης ὁ Κυρηναῖος; * zwischen 276 und 273 v. Chr. in Kyrene; † um 194 v. Chr. in Alexandria) war ein außergewöhnlich vielseitiger griechischer Gelehrter in der Blütezeit der hellenistischen… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Eratosthĕnes — Eratosthĕnes, 1) einer der 30 Tyrannen in Athen, war ein Anhänger des milderen Theramenes u. blieb, als die anderen nach Eleusis flohen, in Athen; obgleich durch das Amnestiedecret geschützt, wurde er doch von Lysias als Mitschuldiger an dem Tode …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Eratosthenes — Eratosthenes,   griech. Gelehrter, *Kyrene (heute Schahhat, Libyen) um 284 v. Chr., +Alexandria um 202 v. Chr.; erfand das Sieb des Eratosthenes, ein Verfahren zur Bestimmung von Primzahlen …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Eratosthĕnes — Eratosthĕnes, griech. Polyhistor, um 275–195 v. Chr., aus Kyrene, in Alexandria Schüler des Kallimachos, dann in Athen mit Studien beschäftigt, um 235 nach Alexandria als Vorsteher der Bibliothek berufen. Wegen seiner Vielseitigkeit nannte man… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Eratosthenes — Eratosthĕnes, griech. Polyhistor, geb. um 275 v. Chr. zu Kyrene in Afrika, Vorsteher der Alexandrinischen Bibliothek, gest. 194 oder 196 v. Chr., bes. um Astronomie, Geographie und Chronologie verdient; seine Schriften nur in Bruchstücken… …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon

  • Eratosthenes — Eratosthenes, geb. 276 zu Cyrene, universeller Gelehrter, vorzüglich um die Geographie, Mathematik, Astronomie u. Chronologie verdient, st. 194 v. Chr. den Hungertod, weil ihm allmälige Erblindung das Leben verleidete. Vollständige Ausgabe des… …   Herders Conversations-Lexikon

  • ERATOSTHENES — Cyrenaeus, Aristonis Chii, et Callimachi Poetae discipulus. Olymp. 126. Plato minor a quibusdam ob doctrinam vocatus, praesuit Bibliothecae Regiae, Cosmographus insignis. Primus universum totius Orbis circumoum ducentorum quinquaginta duorum… …   Hofmann J. Lexicon universale

  • Eratosthenes — [er΄ə täs′thə nēz΄] 275? 195? B.C.; Gr. geographer, astronomer, & mathematician …   English World dictionary

  • Eratosthenes — biographical name circa 276 circa 194 B.C. Greek astronomer …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • Eratosthenes — /er euh tos theuh neez /, n. 276? 195? B.C., Greek mathematician and astronomer at Alexandria. * * * …   Universalium


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