- Roman Baths (Bath)
Infobox Historic building
caption=The entrance to the Roman Baths
John Wood, the Elder, John Wood, the Younger
construction_start_date= Baths - Roman
Building - 1894
size=:"For Roman baths in general, see
The Roman Baths complex is a site of historical interest in the English city of Bath. The complex is a very well-preserved Roman site of public bathing. The Roman Baths themselves are below the modern street level and has four main features, the Sacred Spring, the Roman Temple, the Roman Bath House and the Museum holding finds from Roman Bath. The buildings above street level date from the
The Baths are a major tourist attraction and, together with the Pump Room, receive more than one million visitors a year. [cite web |url=http://www.romanbaths.co.uk/index.cfm?fuseAction=SM.nav&UUID=B774A562-65BF-7E43-3224A238E485A13C |title=Conservation in Action at the Roman Bath |accessdate=2007-11-01 |format= |work=Roman Baths Museum Web Site ] It was featured on the 2005 TV programme "
Seven Natural Wonders" as one of the wonders of the West Country. Visitors can see the Baths and Museum but cannot enter the water. An audio guide is available in several languages.
In 2008 a grant of £90,000 was made to Bath & North East Somerset Council to contribute towards the cost of re-developing displays and improving access to the Roman Baths, by the
Department for Culture, Media and Sport/Wolfson Fund, which was established to promote improvements in Museums and Galleries in England. [cite web|url=http://www.bathnes.gov.uk/BathNES/media/news/2008/August/Major+redevelopment+grant+awarded+to+the+Roman+Baths.Inform122|title=Major redevelopment grant awarded to the Roman Baths|date=2008-08-27|work=Press Release|publisher=Bath and North East Somerset|accessdate=2008-08-29] [cite web|url=http://www.culture.gov.uk/images/publications/088-successful-institutions-and-projects-table.pdf|title=Summary of the successful institutions and projects|date=2008-08-26|publisher=Department for Culture, Media and Sport|accessdate=2008-08-29]
How the hot springs form at Bath
The water which bubbles up from the ground at Bath, fell as rain on the
Mendip Hills. It percolates down through limestone aquifers to a depth of between convert|2700|m|ft|0|lk=on and convert|4300|m|ft|0 metres where geothermal energy raises the water temperature to between convert|64|°C|°F|1|lk=on and convert|96|°C|°F|1. Under pressure, the heated water rises to the surface along fissures and faults in the limestone. This process is similar to an artificial one known as Enhanced Geothermal Systemwhich also makes use of the high pressures and temperatures below the Earth's crust. Hot water at a temperature of convert|46|°C|°F|1 rises here at the rate of convert|1170000|l|impgal|0|lk=on every day, [cite web |url=http://www.romanbaths.co.uk/index.cfm?fuseAction=SM.nav&UUID=F9F320C4-1A95-4C04-AC609094E5B5DFD3 |title=Sacred Spring |accessdate=2007-10-31 |format= |work=Roman Baths Museum Web Site ] from a geological fault (the Pennyquick fault). In 1983 a new spa water bore-hole was sunk, providing a clean and safe supply of spa water for drinking in the Pump Room. [cite web |url=http://www.romanbaths.co.uk/index.cfm?fuseAction=SM.nav&UUID=4B6F21CE-7CF4-4283-AF5C03FB05527814 |title=Hot Water |accessdate=2007-10-31 |format= |work=Roman Baths Museum Web Site ]
The first shrine at the site of the hot springs was built by
Celts,cite web |url=http://www.somersettouristguide.com/Bath/The_Roman_Baths_722.asp |title=The Roman Baths |accessdate=2007-11-01 |format= |work=Somerset Tourist Guide ] and was dedicated to the goddess Sulis, whom the Romans identified with Minerva; however, the name Sulis continued to be used after the Roman invasion, leading to the town's Roman name of " Aquae Sulis" (literally, "the waters of Sulis"). The temple was constructed in 60-70 AD and the bathing complex was gradually built up over the next 300 years. [cite web |url=http://www.bathnes.gov.uk/worldheritage/2.3Des.htm |title=City of Bath World Heritage Site Management Plan |accessdate=2007-11-01 |format= |work=Bath and North East Somerset ] During the Roman occupation of Britain, and possibly on the instructions of Emperor Claudius, [cite web |url=http://www.plumbingworld.com/historyroman.html |title=The History of Plumbing - Roman and English Legacy |accessdate=2007-11-01 |format= |work=Plumbing World ] engineers drove oak piles to provide a stable foundation into the mud and surrounded the spring with an irregular stone chamber lined with lead. In the second century it was enclosed within a wooden barrel-vaulted building, and included the caldarium(hot bath), tepidarium(warm bath), and frigidarium(cold bath).cite web |url=http://www.timetravel-britain.com/05/April/romanbaths.shtml |title=The Roman Baths |accessdate=2007-11-01 |format= |work=TimeTravel Britain ] After the Roman withdrawal in the first decade of the fifth century, these fell into disrepair and were eventually lost due to silting up. [cite web |url=http://www.birminghamuk.com/romanbaths.htm |title=The Roman Baths |accessdate=2007-11-01 |format= |work=BirminghamUk.com ] The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, suggests the original Roman baths were destroyed in the 6th century. [cite journal |last=Bayley |first=Stephen |authorlink= |coauthors= |year=2007 |month=September |title=Is Bath Britain's most backward city? |journal=The Observer |volume= |issue= |pages= |id= |url=http://arts.guardian.co.uk/art/architecture/story/0,,2170069,00.html |accessdate= 2007-11-01 |quote= ]
The baths have been modified on several occasions, including the
12th centurywhen John of Toursbuilt a curative bath over the King's Spring reservoir and the 16th centurywhen the city corporation built a new bath (Queen's Bath) to the south of the Spring.cite web |url=http://www.bathnes.gov.uk/worldheritage/3Append.htm |title=City of Bath World Heritage Site Management Plan - Appendix 3 |accessdate=2007-11-01 |format= |work=Bath and North East Somerset Council ] The spring is now housed in eighteenth centurybuildings, designed by architects John Wood, the Elderand John Wood, the Younger, father and son. Visitors drank the waters in the Pump Room, a neo-classicalsalon which remains in use, both for taking the waters and for social functions. Victorian expansion of the baths complex followed the neo-classical tradition established by the Woods. In 1810 the Hot Springs failed and William Smith opened up the Hot Bath Spring to the bottom, where he found that the spring had not failed but had flowed into a new channel. Smith restored the water to its original course and the Baths filled in less time than formerly. [cite web |url=http://www.brlsi.org/wsmith.htm |title=William Smith - A brief survey of his work in the Bath |accessdate=2007-11-01 |format= |work=Bath Royal Literary and Scientific Instituition ]
The visitor entrance is via an 1897 concert hall by
J M Brydon. It is an eastward continuation of the Grand Pump Roomwith a glass-domed centre and single-storey radiused corner. [cite web | title= Concert Hall | work=Images of England | url=http://www.imagesofengland.org.uk/search/details.aspx?id=442115 | accessdate=2007-10-30] The Grand Pump Room was begun in 1789 by Thomas Baldwin. He resigned in 1791 and John Palmer continued the scheme until its completion in 1799. The elevation on to Abbey Church Yard has a centre piece of four engaged Corinthian columns with entablaturesand pediment. It has been designated by English Heritageas a grade I listed building. [cite web | title= Grand Pump Room | work=Images of England | url=http://www.imagesofengland.org.uk/search/details.aspx?id=442115 | accessdate=2007-10-30] The north colonnade was also designed by Thomas Baldwin. [cite web | title= North Colonnade at Grand Pump Room | work=Images of England | url=http://www.imagesofengland.org.uk/search/details.aspx?id=442111 | accessdate=2007-10-30] The south colonnade is similar but had an upper floor added in the late 19th century. [cite web | title= South Colonnade at Grand Pump Room | work=Images of England | url=http://www.imagesofengland.org.uk/search/details.aspx?id=442112 | accessdate=2007-10-30] The museum and Queen's Bath including the "Bridge" spanning York Street to the City Laundry were by C E Davis in 1889. It comprises a southward extension to the Grand Pump Room, in which some remains of the C17 Queen's Bath are merged. [cite web | title= Museum & Queen's Bath including "Bridge" spanning York Street to City Laundry | work=Images of England | url=http://www.imagesofengland.org.uk/search/details.aspx?id=442116 | accessdate=2007-10-30]
The museum houses artifacts from the Roman period including objects which were thrown into the Sacred Spring, presumably as offerings to the goddess. These include more than 12,000 Roman
coinswhich is the largest votivedeposit known from Britain. [cite web |url=http://www.romanbaths.co.uk/index.cfm?fuseAction=SM.nav&UUID=C0E83055-8546-40AF-929D292F81B86E20 |title=Objects from the spring |accessdate=2007-10-31 |format= |work=Roman Baths Museum Web Site ] A gilt bronzehead of the goddess Sulis Minerva, which was discovered nearby in 1727, is displayed. [cite web |url=http://www.romanbaths.co.uk/index.cfm?fuseAction=SM.nav&UUID=80FE53CD-5D86-475E-89B9A476314E8892 |title=Minerva's Head |accessdate=2007-10-31 |format= |work=Roman Baths Museum Web Site ] The Bath Temple stood on a podium more than two metres above the surrounding courtyard, approached by a flight of steps. On the approach there were four large, fluted Corinthiancolumns supporting a frieze and decorated pediment above. The pediment, parts of which are displayed in the museum, is the triangular ornamental section, convert|26|ft|m|1 wide and convert|8|ft|m|1 from the apex to the bottom, [cite journal |last=Richmond |first=I. A. |authorlink= |coauthors=J. M. C. Toynbee |year=1955 |month= |title=The Temple of Sulis-Minerva at Bath |journal=The Journal of Roman Studies |volume= 45|issue= |pages= 97|id= |url=http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0075-4358(1955)45%3C97%3ATTOSAB%3E2.0.CO%3B2-D |accessdate= 2007-11-01 |quote=|doi=10.2307/298749 ] above the pillars on the front of the building. It featured the very powerful central image of the Gorgon’s head glowering down from a height of 15 metres on all who approached the temple.
In the corners of the pediment are Tritons, half men and half fish, servants of the water god Neptune. In the lower left centre ground is a face helmet in the form of a dolphin’s head. The small owl tucked away to the lower right of the large central roundel is also almost certainly perched atop another helmet. The central head is held aloft by female 'Victories', on a shield ringed with oak leaves. The Victories stand on globes. Above all this, in the apex of the pediment, is a star. The great head itself has snakes entwined within its beard, wings above its ears, beetling brows and a heavy moustache [cite web |url=http://www.bathnes.gov.uk/BathNES/media/press+releases/2006/lifeandleisure/New+addition+to+Gorgons+head.htm |title=New addition to Gorgon’s head |accessdate=2007-11-01 |format= |work=Bath and North East Somerset Council ] although there is some controversy about what this really represents as
Gorgons are usually female. [cite web |url=http://www.romanbaths.co.uk/index.cfm?fuseAction=SM.nav&UUID=BC2C8F00-61EA-4D00-841E578908654FC5 |title=The Gorgon's head |accessdate=2007-10-31 |format= |work=Roman Baths Museum Web Site ] An alternative interpretation sees the central head as the image of a water god such as the image of Oceanus, and yet another as a Celtic sun god.
Also on display are the remains of the elaborate
hypocaustheating system which served the sweat rooms.
19th centurycarvings of Roman Emperorsand Governors of Roman Britainon the terrace overlooking the Great Bath are particularly susceptible to the effect of acid rainand are being protected with a wash of a sacrificial shelter coat every few years. [cite web |url=http://www.romanbaths.co.uk/index.cfm?fuseAction=SM.nav&UUID=3F37CDAD-E666-49BD-9AA8FC1D739985F8 |title=Conserving the monument |accessdate=2007-10-31 |format= |work=Roman Baths Museum Web Site ] Exhibits within the temple precincts are susceptible to warm air which had the effect of drawing corrosive salts out of the Roman stonework. To help reduce this, a new ventilation system was installed in 2006. [cite web |url=http://www.bathnes.gov.uk/BathNES/media/press+releases/2006/lifeandleisure/Temple+precinct+work+complete.htm |title=Temple precinct work complete |accessdate=2007-11-01 |format= |work=Bath and North East Somerset Council ]
Bath was charged with responsibility for the Hot Springs in a Royal Charter of 1591 granted by
Elizabeth I. This duty has now passed to Bath and North East Somerset Council, who carry out monitoring of pressure, temperature and flow rates. The thermal waters all contain sodium, calcium, chloride and sulphate ions in high concentrations. [cite web |url=http://www.bathnes.gov.uk/BathNES/environmentandplanning/hotsprings/ |title=Bath Hot Springs - Protection and Water Monitoring |accessdate=2007-11-01 |format= |work=Bath and North East Somerset Council ]
The water that flows through the Roman Baths is considered unsafe for bathing, partly due to its having passed through the still-functioning original
leadpipes, and up until World War II, it was advertised on the basis of the radioactivityit contained. However the more significant danger is now considered to be infectious diseases. In 1979 a girl swimming in the restored bath swallowed some of the source water, and died five days later from amoebic meningitis. [cite web |url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A3023074 |title=The City of Bath, Somerset, UK |accessdate=2007-11-01 |format= |work=H2G2 ] Tests showed that a species of amoeba, Naegleria fowlerii, [cite journal |last=Kilvington |first=Simon |authorlink= |coauthors=John Beeching |year=1995 |month=June |title=Identification and Epidemiological Typing of Naegleria fowleri with DNA Probes |journal=Applied and Environmental Microbiology |volume=61 |issue=6 |pages=2071–2078 |id= |url=http://aem.asm.org/cgi/reprint/61/6/2071.pdf |accessdate= 2007-10-31 |quote= ] was in the water and the pool was closed, and remains closed today. The newly-constructed Thermae Bath Spanearby, designed by Nicholas Grimshaw& Partners, allows modern-day bathers to experience the waters via a series of more recently-drilled boreholes.
* [http://www.romanbaths.co.uk/ Roman Baths official website]
* [http://www.britishtours.com/360/romanbaths.html Roman Baths] Quicktime VR
* [http://www.bbc.co.uk/somerset/content/panoramas/bath_roman_baths_2_360.shtml BBC 360 degree panorama]
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