Uzhhorod


Uzhhorod

Infobox Settlement
settlement_type =
subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_name = UKR
timezone=EET
utc_offset=+2
map_caption =Location of Uzhhorod within Ukraine.
timezone_DST=EEST
utc_offset_DST=+3
official_name = Uzhhorod
native_name = Ужгород
nickname =



imagesize = 250px
image_caption = Uzhhorod at the foot of the Carpathian Mountains.


image_shield = Uzhgorod-COA.gif
nickname =
motto =



mapsize = 250px
map_caption = Map of Ukraine with Uzhhorod highlighted.
subdivision_type = Country
Oblast
Raion
subdivision_name =
established_title = Founded
established_date = 9th century
established_title1 =
established_date1 =
leader_title = Mayor
leader_name = Serhiy Ratushniak
area_magnitude =
area_total_km2 = 31.56
area_land_km2 =
area_water_km2 =
population_as_of = 2004
population_note =
population_total = 111300|population_footnotes=
population_metro =| population_density_km2 = 3662|pushpin_

pushpin_label_position =
pushpin_map_caption =Location of Uzhhorod
pushpin_mapsize =
latd=48 |latm=37 |lats=00 |latNS=N
longd=22 |longm=18 |longs=00 |longEW=E
elevation_m = 169
|postal_code_type=Postal code
postal_code = 88000
area_code = +380 312
blank_info =
blank1_info = Békéscsaba|blank1_name=Sister cities|, Nyíregyháza, Moscow, Orel, Pula, Corvallis, Darmstadt, Košice
website = [http://uzhgorod-city.org.ua/ uzhgorod-city.org.ua]
footnotes =

Uzhhorod ( _uk. Ужгород; _ry. Уґоград, Ужгород or УнґварFact|date=February 2008; _hu. Ungvár; Slovak and Czech: "Užhorod"; _pl. Użgorod; _de. Ungwar, Ungarisch Burg; _yi. אונגװיר , translit. "Ungver" or "Ingver", _ro. Ujgorod) is a city located in western Ukraine, at the border with Slovakia and near the border with Hungary. It is the administrative center of the Zakarpattia Oblast (region), as well as the administrative center of the surrounding Uzhhorodskyi Raion (district) within the oblast. The city itself is also designated as its own separate raion within the oblast.

The city gets its name from the Uzh River, which divides the city into two halves (the old and new sections). "Uzh" (Уж) means "ringed snake" ("Natrix natrix"), and "horod" (город) is Ruthenian for "city", coming from Old Slavonic "grad" (градъ). However, this name is a recent construct, and has been used only since the beginning of the XX century. Throughout history, the city has changed names several times: it has been called Ongvar, Hungvar, Unguyvar, and Ungvar, all reflecting relation, with words showing its true origin.

The city is spelled Ужгород in both Ukrainian and Russian, transliterated "Uzhhorod" from Ukrainian, "Uzhgorod" from Russian. Until recently, the city was known in English as Uzhgorod.

Uzhhorod is located at coord|48|37|N|22|18|E|region:UA_type:city(111,300). Its population in 2004 was 111,300.

History

The best known of the first city founders are early Slavs. One of their tribes – White Croats – settled the area of the modern Uzhhorod in the second half of the first millennium AD. During the 9th century a fortified castle changed into a fortified early feudal town-settlement, which became the centre of a new Slavonic principality, at the head of which was a legendary prince Laborets.

In 903 AD Hungarian tribes, headed by their leader Árpád, stormed the Hungvar fortress. The forces were not equal and Laborets was defeated and beheaded on the banks of the river that still carries his name.

After the arrival of the Hungarians, the small town began to extend its borders. In 1241–1242 the Tatars of Batu Khan burnt the settlement. In the early 14th century Uzhhorod showed strong resistance to the new Hungarian rulers of the Anjou dynasty. From 1318 for 360 years, the Druhetts (Italian counts) owned the town. During that period Philip Druhett built a new stone fortress on the place of the modern castle. Together with the castle the city began to grow. By 1430, Uzhhorod acquired some privileges from the king and was officially called "The Privileged City of Ungvar".

During the 16–17th centuries there were many handicraft corporations in Uzhhorod. In this period the city was engaged in the religious fight between primarily Protestant Transylvania and Catholic Austria. In 1646 the Uzhhorod Union was proclaimed and the Greek-Catholic church was established in Subcarpathia, in a ceremony held in the Uzhhorod castle by the Vatican Aegis. In 1707 Uzhhorod was the residence of Ferenc II Rákóczi, the leader of the national-liberation war of the Hungarian people.

The beginning of the 19th century was characterized by economic changes, including the first factories in the city. The greatest influence on Uzhhorod among the political events of the 19th century was made by the Hungarian revolution from control of Austria, during which native Hungarian nobility to assert their right to dominate all other peoples of Hungary. (1848–1849.) March 27, 1848 was officially celebrated in the city as the overthrow of the monarchy in Hungary. In 1872 the first railway "Uzhhorod–Chop" began to work.

According to the 1910 census, the city had 16,919 inhabitants, of which 13,590 (80.3%) were Magyars, 1,219 (7.2%) Slovakians, 1,151 (6.8%) Germans, 641 (3.8%) Rusyns and 1.6% Czechs. [Atlas and Gazetteer of Historic Hungary 1914, [http://www.talmakiado.hu/ Talma Kiadó] ] In the same time, the municipal area of the city had a population composed of 10,541 (39.05%) Hungarians, 9,908 (36.71%) Slovaks, and 5,520 (20.45%) Rusyns. [cite web|url=http://www.talmamedia.com/php/district/district.php?county=Ung |title=Ung County |accessdate= |accessmonthday=March 17 |accessyear=2007 |work=Genealogy Online |publisher=]

The First World War slowed down the tempo of city development. On September 10, 1919 Subcarpathia was officially annexed to the Republic of Czechoslovakia. Uzhhorod became the administrative center of the territory. During these years Uzhhorod developed into an architecturally modern city. After the Munich Treaty Uzhhorod became part of the Slovak half of the new Czecho-Slovak state.

After the Vienna Award in 1938 Uzhhorod was transferred to Hungary. Until the end of 1944 the fights of the Second World War came close to Uzhhorod. Three days after the Germans occupied Hungary (March 19, 1944), a half dozen trucks loaded with men entered Uzhgorod. At the end of March, the Jewish community was ordered to hand over to the Germans 2 million pengo ($400,000 in 1941 values) within forty-eight hours and over the next few days the authorities ordered the Jews to surrender their pianos, radios, and certain kinds of furniture. On March 31, an order was issued requiring the Jews to wear a yellow badge as of April 5. Around the same time, a curfew was imposed on the Jews.

Some eighteen thousand Jews from the surrounding area were taken to the Moskovits brickyard on Minai Street on April 14, the last day of Passover. Five days later, posters were put up in Uzhgorod warning the Jews of the city not to leave their homes. On the following day, April 20, gendarmes and local police entered Jewish homes and pillaged them of their valuables. Between April 21 and 23, the Jews of Uzhgorod were brought to the brick factory; when it could hold no more, they were concentrated in the Gluck lumberyard. The Jewish internees suffered from overcrowding, lack of food, and poor sanitation, and most had no shelter whatsoever. They were guarded by gendarmes, local policemen, and Hungarian soldiers, the last armed with machine guns.

Beginning on May 14, 1944, the Jews of Uzhgorod and its vicinity were deported to Auschwitz in seven transports. The first trainload reached the extermination camp on May 16, and the last left Uzhgorod on June 3.

On October 27, 1944 the city was captured by the troops of the Fourth Ukrainian Front.

This period brought significant changes. At the outskirts of Uzhhorod new enterprises were constructed and the old enterprises were renewed. On June 29, 1945 Subcarpathian Ukraine became a part of the Ukrainian SSR of the USSR. That year the Uzhhorod State University (now "Uzhhorod National University") was also opened. Since January 1946 Uzhhorod was the center of newly formed Zakarpatska oblast.

Its grand-rabbi was Rabbi Avrohom Yosef Greunwald (d. 1940), author of a volume title "Avnei Shoham". His son was Rabbi Maier Greunwald, who in 1930 was called upon to become the rabbi of city of Tetch.

Since 1991 Uzhhorod has become one of 23 regional capitals within Ukraine. Of these, Uzhhorod is the smallest and westernmost.

In 2002, after some controversy, a bust of Tomáš Masaryk, Czechoslovakia's first president, was unveiled in a main square of the city. A similar bust was unveiled in 1928 on the 10th anniversary of Czechoslovak independence, but was removed by the Hungarians when they took over the region in 1939.

Youth Olympic Games Possible Bid

In August, 2008, city officials announced that they consider biding for hosting one of the upcoming Youth Olympic Games.

Demographics

According to the Ukrainian 2001 census, the population of Uzhhorod included: [cite web|url=http://www.ukrcensus.gov.ua/eng/results/general/nationality/Zakarpattia/ |title=Zakarpattia Region |accessdate= |accessmonthday=March 17 |accessyear=2007 |work=Ukrainian 2001 census |publisher=]
* Ukrainians (77.8%)
* Russians (9.6%)
* Hungarians (6.9%)
* Slovaks (2.2%)
* Roma (1.5%)

Transport

Uzhhorod has a railway station which consists of Uzhhorod-1 (Uzhhorod Central Rail Terminal), Uzhhorod-2, Uzhhorod-3, Pavlovo, Domanynci-1, Domanynci-2 stations.

Uzhhorod has an international airport: Uzhhorod International Airport. Airport code: UDJ. It is one of the biggest airports in Ukraine. Has one terminal. There are flights to Ukrainian airports and airports in Georgia, Turkey and Hungary.

The public transportation is well developed. There are buses and microbuses on about 50 routes.

ister Cities

Uzhhorod currently has nine sister cities:
* Békéscsaba, Hungary
* Nyíregyháza, Hungary
* Moscow, Russia
* Orel, Russia
* Corvallis, Oregon, USA
* Darmstadt, Germany
* Košice, Slovakia
* Krosno, Poland
* Česka Lipa, Czech Republik

People

* János Erdélyi, a Hungarian poet, critic, author, philosopher and ethnographist
* Shlomo Ganzfried, an Orthodox rabbi and posek
* Józef Kasparek, a Polish lawyer, historian and political scientist
* Mikhail Kopelman, a violinist
* Samuel Lipschütz, a chess player and author
* Yozhef Sabo, a Soviet football player of Hungarian ethnicity
* Avhustyn Voloshyn, a Subcarpathian politician, teacher, and essayist
* Gregory Zatkovich, first governor of Carpathian Ruthenia

ee also

* Carpathian Ruthenia

References

External links

* [http://uzhgorod-city.org.ua/ Uzhhorod city site]
* [http://www.encyclopediaofukraine.com/display.asp?AddButton=pagesUUzhhorod.htm Uzhhorod] in the [http://www.encyclopediaofukraine.com Encyclopedia of Ukraine]
* [http://48x24.com/home/go?lat=48.62120&lng=22.29710&zoom=13 Photos and infrastructure objects of Uzhgorod on Map ]
* [http://www.simkovich.org/photos.htm Uzhgorod (Uzhhorod) City and Castle Museum Photos]
* [http://sunsite.berkeley.edu:8085/x-ussr/100k/M-34-129.jpgMap of Uzhhorod area] ru icon
* [http://ungvar.vox.com.ua/ Uzhhorod in old postcards]
* [http://maps.google.com/maps?f=q&hl=en&q=48.618N+22.2906E&t=h&om=1 Google Map of Uzhgorod]
* [http://karpaty.prygl.net/uzhorod.php Uzhhorod] - photographs


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  • Uzhhorod — Ujgorod (Romanian), Ungvár (Hungarian), Ungvir, Ingver, Yngvyr אונגװיר (Yiddish), Ungwar (German), Uschhorod (German), , Użgorod (Polish), Uzhgorod Ужгород (Russian), Uzhhorod Ужгород (Ukrainian), Uzhhorod Ужгородъ (Ruthenian), Užhorod (Slovak) …   Names of cities in different languages

  • Uzhhorod — Original name in latin Uzhhorod Name in other language Gorad Uzhgarad, Oezjhorod, Oujhorod, UDJ, Ujgorod, Ujhorod, Ujhorodo, Ujqorod, Ungvar, Ungvr, Uschhorod, Uzgorod, Uzhgorod, Uzhhorod, Uzhorod, Uzhorodas, Uzhorodum, Uzjhorod, Uhorodo, Uhorod …   Cities with a population over 1000 database

  • Uzhhorod — ▪ Ukraine Russian  Uzhgorod,  Czech  Užhorod,  Hungarian  Ungvár        city, western Ukraine. It is situated along the Uzh River just east of the Slovak border. For centuries Uzhhorod has been an important cultural, educational, religious, and… …   Universalium

  • Uzhhorod — geographical name see Uzhgorod …   New Collegiate Dictionary

  • Uzhhorod — Uschhorod (Ужгород) …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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  • Uzhhorod — noun A city in the Carpathian Mountains in western Ukraine, administrative centre of Zakarpattia province (oblast). Syn: Uzhgorod, Ungvar, Ungvár …   Wiktionary

  • Uzhhorod Gymnasium — Infobox School3 name = Uzhhorod Gymnasium caption = The building of the former Bishops Residence in Uzhhorod that once housed Uzhhorod Gymnasium established = 1613 type = Public grades = 5 12 head name = Principal head = Serhiy Roman city =… …   Wikipedia

  • Uzhhorod National University — Infobox University name=Uzhhorod National University native name=Ужгородський національний університет latin name= motto=The more we know, the more we can do! established=1945 type=Public staff=2,000 rector=Prof. Mykola Vehesh, Doctor of… …   Wikipedia

  • Uzhhorod Central Rail Terminal — Infobox Station name=Uzhhorod Rail Complex image size= image caption= address=Heorhiy Kyrpa Square line=Buses 5, 58, 21, 16 other=Restaurant, Parking, Stores platform=8 parking=2 parking compexes bicycle= passengers= pass year= pass percent=… …   Wikipedia


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