Trill consonant

Trill consonant

In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the articulator and the place of articulation. Standard Spanish <rr> as in "perro" is an alveolar trill, while in Parisian French it is almost always uvular.

Trills are very different from flaps. Whereas with a flap (or tap), a specific gesture is used to strike the active articulator against the passive one, in the case of a trill the articulator is held in place, where the airstream causes it to vibrate. Usually a trill vibrates for 2-3 "periods", but may be up to 5, or even more if geminate. However, trills may also be produced with only a single period. While this might seem like a flap, the articulation is different; trills will vary in the number of periods, but flaps do not.

Trill consonants included in the International Phonetic Alphabet:
*IPA| [r] - coronal trill
*IPA| [ʙ] - bilabial trill
*IPA| [ʀ] - uvular trill

The bilabial trill is uncommon. The coronal trill is most frequently alveolar IPA| [r͇] , but dental and postalveolar articulations IPA| [r̪] and IPA| [r̠] also occur. An alleged retroflex trill found in Toda has been transcribed IPA| [ɽ] (that is, the same as the retroflex flap), but might be less ambiguously written IPA| [ɽ͡r] , as only the onset is retroflex, with the actual trill being alveolar. One other trill has been reported as a consonant, an epiglottal trill. Epiglottal consonants are often allophonically trilled, and in some languages the trill is the primary realization of the consonant. There is no official symbol for this in the IPA, but occasionally [я] has been used in the literature. There are also so-called strident vowels which are accompanied by epiglottal trill.

The cells in the IPA chart for the velar and pharyngeal places of articulation are shaded. A velar trill is impossible because the middle of the tongue and walls of the throat are insufficiently flexible to vibrate in such a manner. A palatal trill is impractically difficult, if not actually impossible. The glottis quite readily vibrates, but this occurs as the phonation of vowels and consonants, not as a consonant of its own.

The Czech language has two contrastive alveolar trills (written "ř" and "r" in the orthography). In one of these "(ř)" the tongue is raised, so that there is audible frication during the trill, sounding rather like a simultaneous IPA| [r] and IPA| [ʐ] . A symbol for this sound, IPA| [ɼ] , has been dropped from the IPA, and it is now generally transcribed as a raised "r," IPA| [r̝] .

Liangshan (Cool Mountain) Yi has two "buzzed" or fricative vowels, written "IPA|ṳ, i̤," which may also be trilled, IPA| [ʙ̝] , [r̝] .

The Chapakuran language Wari’ and the Muran language Pirahã have a very unusual trilled phoneme, a voiceless bilabially trilled affricate with dental onset, IPA| [t̪͡ʙ̥] .

Extralinguistic trills

A linguolabial trill IPA| [r̼] is not known to be used phonemically, but occurs when blowing a raspberry.

Snoring typically consists of vibration of the uvula and the soft palate (velum). While the former part is simply a uvular trill, there is no standard linguistic term for the latter. It does not constitute a velar trill, because the velum is here the "active" articulator, not the passive; the tongue is not involved at all. (The Extensions to the IPA identify a fricative pronounced with this same configuration as velopharyngeal.)

Lateral trills are also possible and may be used to imitate bird calls.

ee also

*List of phonetics topics
*Bronx cheer



Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

См. также в других словарях:

  • Trill — is a type of vibration; it may refer to: * trill (music), a type of musical ornament * trill consonant, a type of sound used in some languages * Trill, a sound similar to the musical ornament made by animals including the Maine Coon cat and… …   Wikipedia

  • Consonant — Not to be confused with the musical concept of consonance For the alternative rock group, see Consonant (band). Places of articulation Labial Bilabial Labial–velar Labial–coronal Labiodental …   Wikipedia

  • trill´er — trill1 «trihl», verb, noun. –v.t., v.i. 1. to sound or speak with a tremulous, vibrating, high pitched sound: »The child burst in, trilling with laughter (Rudyard Kipling). 2. to sing with a tremulous vibration of sound: »to trill an aria. Some… …   Useful english dictionary

  • trill — /trɪl / (say tril) verb (t) 1. to sing with a vibratory effect of voice, especially in the manner of a shake or trill. 2. to play with like effect on an instrument. 3. Phonetics to pronounce with rapid vibrations of an elastic organ of speech:… …   Australian-English dictionary

  • trill — noun a quavering or vibratory sound, especially a rapid alternation of sung or played notes. ↘the pronunciation of a consonant, especially r, with rapid vibration of the tongue against the hard or soft palate or the uvula. verb produce or… …   English new terms dictionary

  • consonant — I (Roget s IV) n. Linguistic terms referring to consonant sounds include: voiceless, voiced; labial, bilabial, labiodental, apical, dental, alveolar, retroflex, frontal, alveopalatal, prepalatal, dorsal, palatal, velar, uvular, glottal,… …   English dictionary for students

  • Rhotic consonant — Rhotic consonants, or R like sounds, are non lateral liquid consonants. This class of sounds is difficult to characterise phonetically, though most of them share some acoustic peculiarities, most notably a lowered third formant in their sound… …   Wikipedia

  • Epiglottal trill — Epiglottal consonants are often allophonically trilled, and in some languages the trill is the primary realization of the consonant. Although there is no official symbol for an epiglottal trill in the IPA, я (reversed IPA|ʀ, homographic to… …   Wikipedia

  • Velar consonant — Velar redirects here. For the village in Rajasthan, India, see Velar (village). Places of articulation Labial Bilabial Labial–velar Labial–coronal Labiodental Dentolabial …   Wikipedia

  • Alveolar trill — is used in phonemic transcriptions (especially those found in dictionaries) of languages like English and German that have rhotic consonants that are not an alveolar trill. This is partly due to ease of typesetting and partly because is often the …   Wikipedia

Поделиться ссылкой на выделенное

Прямая ссылка:
Нажмите правой клавишей мыши и выберите «Копировать ссылку»