- 25th century BC
The 25th century BC is a
centurywhich lasted from the year 2500 BC to 2401 BC.
*c. 2900 BC–2334 BC —
Mesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period.
*c. 2500 BC — Scribal schools flourish throughout
*c. 2500 BC — Cylinder seal from
Sumerand its impression are made. It is now in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
*c. 2500 BC — Excavation and development of the
Hypogeum of Ħal-Saflieniat Paola, Malta, a subterranean templex complex subsequently used as a necropolis.
*c. 2500 BC —
Valley Temple of Khafra, Giza, is built.
*c. 2500 BC — People in
Perurely on fish and mussels for food.
*c. 2494 BC — End of Fourth Dynasty, start of Fifth Dynasty in Egypt. Construction of the Pyramids begins.
*c. 2494 BC – 2345 BC: "Sculptors at work", relief from
Saqqara, Fifth Dynasty. It is now at Egyptian Museum, Cairo, Egypt.
*c. 2494 BC – 2345 BC: "Seated Scribe" from tomb of
vizier Kai, Saqqara, sculpture, Fifth dynasty of Egyptis made. It is now in Musée du Louvre, Paris.
*2492 BC — Traditional date for the legendary foundation of the Armenian nation (see
2467 BC— According to Chinese tradition, in this year Huangdi(the Yellow Emperor) risen from the tribes of Zhongyuan. Traditionally regarded as the starting point of Chinese Civilization.
*c. 2450 BC — End of the Early Dynastic IIIa Period and beginning of the Early Dynastic IIIb Period in
*c. 2450 BC —
Kishis lost to Khamazitribesmen of the Kurdistanmountains; Elamitesfrom Awanoccupy parts of Sumer. (Roux 1980)
*c. 2410 BC — By this time, kings in
Sumerhave ceased to be automatically high priests of the city deity. (Roux 1980) Semiticinfiltration and conquest of Mesopotamiabegins. (1968 RD Almanac)
Megalithic culturecomes to Irelandfrom Spain, spreading also through Europeand the western Mediterranean. (1968 RD Almanac)
Celtsbegin invading Europefrom the east. (1968 RD Almanac)
*Earliest signs of
Battle Axe Culturefrom the Caucasus. (Encyc. Americana)
Spainis settled from the Mediterranean, by people using Predynastic Egyptian-style pottery. (Encyc. Americana)
Amoritesand Canaanitesoccupy Syriaand Lebanon. (Encyc. Americana)
*2491 — Mythical Chinese
Menkaurais Pharaoh. (Atlas of Egypt 1989)
Shepseskafis Pharaoh. (Atlas of Egypt 1989)
Fifth dynasty of Egypt; Userkafis Pharaoh (Atlas of Egypt 1989)
Sahureis Pharaoh (Atlas of Egypt 1989)
Neferirkare Kakaiis Pharaoh (Atlas of Egypt 1989)
Shepseskare Isiis Pharaoh (Atlas of Egypt 1989)
*c. 2425 — Death of
Eannatumof Lagash; succeeded by his nephew, Entemena, whose ally, Lugal-kinishe-dudu, unites Urukand Ur(Roux 1980)
*2419 — Ra'neferef is Pharaoh (Atlas of Egypt 1989)
Nyuserre Iniis Pharaoh (Atlas of Egypt 1989)
Mahalalel, son of Kenan, (3365 BC–2470 BC) according to the Hebrew Calendar
Inventions, discoveries, introductions
* Harappan civilisation, at its peak, covered an area of around 480,000 km². Its heartland lay in the
Indus rivervalley in Pakistan, but settlements spread as far as the Makran coast, Baluchistan, Afghanistan, eastern Punjab, Kutchand Saurashtra. They included cities like Harappa, Mohenjo-daro, Kalibangan, Dholavira, ports like Lothal, Sutkagen-dorand Sotka-kohand numerous villages as well. They used irrigation to farm and constructed cities. The two main cities had sewage systems, bronze, trade tokens (early coins), and hieroglyphs. There were even baths at one of the villages, besides the great baths of brick in each city. Geometry of shrines and altars tends to identify these with the cities of the Yajur Veda: they might easily be a thousand years older than this conservative date.
Cycladic marblefigures depict the use of both the musical pipeand the kitharaform of lyre. (Archaeology of the Olympics 1988)
skiis left in a peat bogat Hoting, Sweden, about this time. (Encyc. Americana)
Sumeriansuse domestic asses on war chariots(Standard of Ur), not onagers as early interpreters claimed. (Clutton-Brock)
Agricultureat Prieta Huacaincludes cottonand bottle-gourds. (Bailey 1973)
Decades and years
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