- Ninja Gaiden (2004 video game)
Box cover art for Ninja Gaiden
Developer(s) Team Ninja Publisher(s) Tecmo
Designer(s) Tomonobu Itagaki
Yosuke Hayashi (Sigma)
Series Ninja Gaiden Platform(s) Xbox, Xbox 360 (Original & Black)
PlayStation 3 (Sigma)
Release date(s) Genre(s) Action-adventure Mode(s) Single-player Rating(s)Ninja Gaiden Black Sigma ESRB: M M M BBFC: - 15 15 OFLC: MA15+ - MA15+ CERO: 18+/D* 18+/D* D
- not submitted or unavailable
* pre-2006 and post-2006 ratings
Ninja Gaiden is an action-adventure game developed by Team Ninja for the Xbox video game console. It went through five years of development before its release by Tecmo in 2004, and has been progressively enhanced with a number of expansion packs and two remakes, Ninja Gaiden Black and Ninja Gaiden Sigma. The game follows the fictional story of Ryu Hayabusa, a ninja, in his quest to recover a stolen sword and avenge the slaughter of his clan.
Inspired by the 1990s Ninja Gaiden series for the Nintendo Entertainment System, the 2004 version was originally set in a re-imagined game world based on another Team Ninja creation, the Dead or Alive series of fighting games. However, interviews with Tomonobu Itagaki indicate that the Xbox games are prequels to the NES series and that both possibly share a single continuity. Tecmo specifically targeted Ninja Gaiden at a non-Japanese audience, and despite difficulties in obtaining content ratings due to the game's graphic depictions of violence, it was generally well received, and 362,441 copies were sold in North America in the first month after its release. However, the game had to be censored for release in some regions, and Japanese sales were poor, with only 60,000 in the four months following its début.
Making use of the Xbox's internet connectivity, Ninja Gaiden was the focus of a series of online contests across North America, Europe, and Japan. Record-breaking numbers of players took part, competing for places in the live final, which was held during the 2004 Tokyo Game Show. Team Ninja continued to update the game after its release: two Hurricane Packs were made available for free download that added extra content, gameplay challenges, and game engine improvements. These were incorporated into a 2005 remake, entitled Ninja Gaiden Black, that was regarded by the game's creator as the definitive version. Two years later, the game was ported to the PlayStation 3 with extra content and released as Ninja Gaiden Sigma.
Ninja Gaiden develops its narrative thread through the actions of its player-controlled protagonist, Ryu Hayabusa. Viewed from a third person over-the-shoulder perspective, in typical action-adventure fashion Ryu starts the game with basic, low-level abilities and weapons that can be upgraded as he progresses, by discovering or buying items. In keeping with his ninja persona, his character can interact with the game environment to perform acrobatic feats, such as running along and jumping off walls, swinging from pole to pole, or running across water.
The game world is made up of several distinct regions, most of which are connected via the city of Tairon, which functions as a hub. Inspired by the mechanics of the The Legend of Zelda video games, access to these regions is obtained by fighting enemies, finding keys, or solving puzzles. To avoid disrupting its narrative flow, the game hides delays caused by loading a new area into memory by showing in game cut scenes, and Dragon busts scattered throughout the regions provide the means to save player progress, permitting gameplay to be resumed at a later time.
In addition to the narrative Story Mode, subsequent remakes Ninja Gaiden Black and Ninja Gaiden Sigma introduced a gameplay variation called Mission Mode. Focused on action rather than character development, this provides combat-based missions set mainly in small areas, where the player's goal is to "destroy all enemies". In both Story and Mission modes, game scoring is based on the player's speed in clearing encounters, the number of kills achieved, the number of unused magic spells (or ninpos) remaining at the end, and the amount of cash collected. Players can compare their scores on online ranking boards.
Ryu's movements are directed using the console gamepad. The game's control system, which comprises the left thumbstick, two attack buttons, and a block button, was described as "fluid and responsive", and Ninja Gaiden was regarded as having one of the deeper combat engines among Xbox games at the time, comparing well to the action-adventures God of War and Devil May Cry. Eric Williams, the designer of the God of War combat engine, explained that Ninja Gaiden prohibits players from stopping or changing attacks in mid-stroke. In contrast, God of War allows players to do so, and Devil May Cry grants this freedom to certain attacks. Williams said that, compared to those two games, the combat system in Ninja Gaiden was harder to master; however, it lets players fight their computer controlled foes on equal terms.
Ninja Gaiden features a large selection of weapons for Ryu to wield, each with advantages and disadvantages that affect the way the player approaches combat. These include one-handed swords, such as the Dragon Sword and Kitetsu, which grant quick attacks and a move called the "Flying Swallow", that allows Ryu to leap and slash through enemies. In addition these light weapons allow Ryu to smash foes into the ground and perform his signature Izuna Drop—a spinning piledriver. Heavy weapons, such as the Dabilahro and the Unlabored Flawlessness, are slow but cause more damage to opponents. With flails and staves, the player can string together long sequences of attacks, and to engage distant foes Ryu can throw shuriken and shoot arrows.
In addition to using standard melee techniques, Ryu can employ 'essences' in combat. These are colored globes of energy that are released on the death of enemies, and absorbed into Ryu's body when he comes into proximity with them. Essences have an important role in general gameplay, acting to heal Ryu, restore his magic, or increase his cash. However, in combat the player can cause Ryu to deliberately draw in essences, which can then be used to unleash powerful attacks known as Ultimate Techniques. These techniques deal heavy damage and make Ryu immune to injury for a short time.
Ninja Gaiden also provides Ryu with magical spells in the form of ninpos. When activated by the player, these make Ryu cast fireballs, ice storms, or bolts of lightning. Functioning in a similar manner to the bombs or grenades of shooter action games, these spells allow Ryu to inflict heavy damage on enemies while potentially avoiding damage himself. However, dissatisfied with their programmed visual effects, the game director Tomonobu Itagaki wanted to deter players from using ninpos. He therefore tweaked the game to award bonus points when players cleared stages without employing magic.
For Ryu's defense, the player has two options. First, Ryu can stand still and attempt to block attacks. However, certain enemies can break his guard—either through particularly strong attacks or by grappling him. The second option is to make Ryu dodge, by rolling away from the attack in a maneuver called "reverse wind".
Plot and setting
Ninja Gaiden is set in the game world of another Tecmo release, Dead or Alive (DOA). Located mainly in Japan and the fictional Vigoor Empire, the game draws on Heian period structures for its Japanese locales—a ninja fortress and village set in the mountains. In contrast the Vigoor Empire, with its capital city of Tairon, is a blend of architectural types from around the world. European-style buildings display Arabic lettering, and the monastery in Tairon exhibits Gothic influences with a vaulted hall, pointed arches, and large stained glass windows. A hidden underground level features statues with the heads of cats, walls covered with carvings, and hieroglyphics and Team Ninja included an Aztec pyramid and a labyrinth. This hodgepodge of styles was the result of Itagaki's deliberate refusal to constrain the game's creative process.
Ryu Hayabusa, the "super ninja", is the protagonist of Ninja Gaiden, and the only player-controllable character in the game. Itagaki believed that creating extra player characters might distract his team from focusing on Ryu's development. Ryu has a long history with Tecmo; he was the star of the 1990s Ninja Gaiden series, and has been part of the DOA roster since 1996. His roles in these games played a part in his popularity among fans and the game industry. Ninja Gaiden provides a backstory to Ryu's appearance and character as seen in the Dead or Alive series, being set two years before the first DOA game.
Rachel is the leading female character, and tragic heroine of the game. She and her twin sister, Alma, are afflicted with a blood curse that turns humans into fiends. Believing that there is no cure for their condition, Rachel seeks to kill Alma to redeem her sister's soul. The relationship between the sisters and the Greater Fiend Doku, who cursed them, serves as a plot device to drive the game forward, with Rachel occasionally needing to be rescued by Ryu. Although not a player-controlled character in Ninja Gaiden, in a few sections of the Ninja Gaiden Sigma remake she is controllable.
Two other characters assist the player in the game. Ayane, a female ninja and one of the DOA regular cast members, acts as a guide throughout Ninja Gaiden by supplying advice and objectives to the player. Muramasa, a bladesmith, has shops scattered throughout the game world where players can purchase useful items and upgrades for Ryu's weapons. Muramasa also gives quests and relates back-stories and other crucial information; for example, he tells Ryu how he can obtain the item required to upgrade his Dragon Sword to its full potential.
Itagaki found it more interesting to design nonhuman creatures than human enemies, and as such, most of the enemies Team Ninja created for Ryu are fiends—humans changed into monsters by their blood curse. Three Greater Fiends lead their lesser brethren against Ryu, playing major roles in the game's plot: Alma, Rachel's sister, whose story forms a significant part of the game; Doku, Ryu's main antagonist, whose raid on Hayabusa village and theft of the Dark Dragon Blade comprise the main plot thread; and Marbus, lord of the fiend underworld who is responsible for the final set of challenges Ryu faces in the realm of the fiends before encountering the Vigor Emperor.
Team Ninja based their 3D computer models, from the pistols of the henchman upwards, on real world material. Character models were taken from studies of human anatomy, and the team hired martial artists in order to digitally capture their movement. Rather than import the motion captures directly into the game, however, the animators used them as templates to give a sense of realism to the game characters' exaggerated movements. Players have the option to customize the appearance of player characters, with selectable costumes for Ryu and hairstyles for Rachel.
Ryu's quest for vengeance spans sixteen chapters, each beginning and ending with a cut scene. At the start of the game, the player takes control of Ryu as he infiltrates the Shadow clan fortress. Ryu is there to visit his uncle, the clan leader Murai. During their chat, Ayane delivers news of a raid on the Hayabusa village. Fighting his way back to his village, Ryu encounters Doku, who has killed the Hayabusa shrine maiden Kureha and has taken the Dark Dragon Blade. Ryu is cut down by Doku with the stolen Blade, but he is brought back to life as a "soldier of revenge" by a falcon, the spiritual animal of the Hayabusas.
Seeking vengeance for Kureha's death, Ryu learns from Murai that the raiders were from Vigoor, so he stows away on an airship bound for the empire. Fighting his way through the streets of its capital city, Tairon, Ryu faces several bosses including the three Greater Fiends. He defeats Alma in a battle that wrecks the city, but leaves her to Rachel's mercy. However, Rachel cannot bring herself to kill her sister, and instead is taken by Doku, who prepares to sacrifice her in a ritual to enhance Alma's power. With Alma's help Ryu rescues Rachel and destroys Doku's spirit, but with his dying breath Doku casts the blood curse on Ryu. The only way for Ryu to lift the curse is to kill the emperor, so he storms the palace, defeating Marbus who bars his way to the emperor's personal realm. Two successive boss fights must be completed to destroy the Emperor and reclaim the Dark Dragon Blade—once this is accomplished his realm starts to destruct. Ryu must then be maneuvered up a series of ledges to escape, but in the process he loses his grip on the Dark Dragon Blade.
The fallen Blade lands at the feet of a figure, the Dark Disciple, who has been shadowing Ryu throughout the game. Taking the Blade, the Disciple reveals himself to be the clan leader Murai. He admits that the raid on Hayabusa village was part of his plan to restore the Blade's evil power, using souls harvested by Ryu. Drawing on the Blade, Murai transforms himself, setting the stage for the final boss fight. Ryu defeats Murai and shatters the Blade with the True Dragon Sword. Victorious, Ryu turns himself into a falcon and flies to the Hayabusa village. In the game's final scene he places the Dragon Eye, used to enhance his sword, on Kureha's tombstone and disappears into the night. The story of Ninja Gaiden is continued in the sequels Ninja Gaiden Dragon Sword and Ninja Gaiden II.
In 1999, Team Ninja started work on the "Next-Generation Ninja Gaiden Project". The first stage of development was to create the game on the Sega NAOMI arcade system board. They then planned to move the project to the Dreamcast console for further development and release, but this was abandoned when Sega announced the end of Dreamcast product line in 2001. At this point, Tecmo decided to release Ninja Gaiden as a launch title for the Sony in the United States. Itagaki, however, had other plans; the Team Ninja Leader was impressed with the software development kits for the Xbox and pushed for his team to develop for the Microsoft console. The company kept silent on this change in direction, and surprised both the games industry and fans when they announced at E3 2002 that Ninja Gaiden was exclusive to the Xbox. Most fans who voted on Tecmo's poll wanted the game on the Nintendo GameCube.
Ninja Gaiden was Team Ninja's first action title. Its initial concept had nothing in common with the original Ninja Gaiden series, released on the Nintendo Entertainment System. However, for retail reasons Tecmo wanted to retain a link with the previous games, which had many adherents in the West, so Itagaki was asked to rethink his ideas to target the foreign market. Analysing the earlier games, he concluded that their violence appealed to players, and included gory content, such as beheadings, in the Xbox game to retain that spirit. He also aimed to make his new game hard but alluring; it would challenge players on their reflexes rather than on their memories of layouts and timings. His team made a point of designing smoothly-flowing gameplay with high-quality animations that reacted quickly to the player's input. Itagaki paid homage to the earlier Ninja Gaiden series by including updated versions of foes and special attacks.
In 2004 Tecmo released a demo disc of Ninja Gaiden in Japan, bundled with the February 26 issue of Famitsu Xbox magazine. The demo let players try the first chapter of the game on two difficulty settings with a few fully upgraded weapons and ninpos. On March 2, 2004, a year later than originally planned, Tecmo released Ninja Gaiden.
Team Ninja kept working on the Ninja Gaiden project after its release, with the aim of pushing the action genre and their first such title as far as they could. To this end, they released downloadable expansions, known as "Hurricane Packs", free of charge. Itagaki said that since the packs were born out of his team's interest, they did not care to charge players for their efforts.
The two Packs were available over Xbox Live in the third quarter of 2004. Hurricane Pack 1 was a revamped version of Story Mode; Team Ninja tweaked the encounters and artificial intelligence (AI) of Ryu's foes to increase the difficulty of the game. The pack introduced additional foes such as humanoid cats, giants wearing Triceratops skulls, and cyborgs, and Team Ninja made a key change to the camera system by which the on-screen action is displayed; players could now control the camera and change its viewing angle. Another feature of the pack was to enhance the combat engine; the new "Intercept" skill let players counter any enemy attack with the proper timing.
Hurricane Pack 2 kept the enhancements of the first, but took place in an alternative world comprising only two regions, where players have to fight through several encounters to rescue Rachel from two new bosses (Nicchae and Ishtaros). This expansion introduced fiends who wield giant swords and cast fireballs.
Team Ninja later compiled both expansion packs, and added new features, to create Ninja Gaiden Black (Black). This game, which Itagaki viewed as the final version of Ninja Gaiden, went on sale on September 20, 2005. A few years later, Team Ninja upgraded the graphics of the game and ported it to the (PS3). This version was released as Ninja Gaiden Sigma (Sigma) on June 14, 2007. Black became an Xbox Original game on February 11, 2008.
As released, Ninja Gaiden contained bloody acts of violence, beheadings, and grotesque monsters. The North American games rating body, the Entertainment Software Rating Board (ESRB), rated it as a "Mature" game, which prohibits sale to anyone under the age of 17. However, the depiction of beheadings attracts stricter ratings in other parts of the world. In Germany, the Unterhaltungssoftware Selbstkontrolle (USK) deemed these excessive, and refused to rate the game at all. Since this had the potential to place Ninja Gaiden in Germany's "List of Media Harmful to Young People", which would have meant that shops could neither advertise the game nor sell it unless by request to customers of 18 years or older, Tecmo censored the European PAL version to obtain a USK rating. A year later, Tecmo managed to obtain a USK 18+ rating for the uncensored release of Ninja Gaiden Black, but Ninja Gaiden Sigma was censored for release under the same rating.
Japan's Computer Entertainment Rating Organization (CERO) rated Ninja Gaiden and Black, on their release, as 18+ games. At the time, CERO ratings acted as guidelines for consumers. However, on March 1, 2006, the Japanese rating system changed. A scale from A to D was introduced, with an additional Z rating for games with large amounts of gore and sexual content. The Z rating is legally enforced, it being illegal to sell such games to anyone under the age of 18. As a result, Tecmo removed the human beheadings in Sigma to obtain a D rating for the East Asian market. However, CERO reclassified the two previous games as D, despite them also depicting human beheadings.
The Master Ninja Tournaments were a series of three online contests held by Microsoft and Tecmo in 2004. They took place over Xbox Live, and were open to participants in Europe, Japan, and North America. Winner selection was based on the scores achieved through playing Ninja Gaiden or its Hurricane Packs. Players had 14 to 24 days to complete the required games and submit their scores to an online scoreboard.
The first two tournaments formed regional qualification stages for a live Ninja Gaiden Master Tournament World Championship, held on September 25 at the Tokyo Game Show 2004. Competition for places was intense, with both tournaments breaking records for online participation in Xbox Live events. Six of the highest scoring players from Europe and North America won bokkens bearing Itagaki's signature, and five regional winners were selected to proceed to the final. Here, the finalists simultaneously played a custom game drawn from Hurricane Pack 2 while commentators called out the action. They had 15 minutes to complete the game and post the highest score; the winner emerged only in the last 20 seconds, when Yasunori Otsuka cleared the game and outscored his rivals. At the award ceremony, the finalists received their prize plaques from Itagaki.
The tournaments were not without controversy. Players complained about Microsoft's tardiness in posting the official rules for the first playoff, and it was believed that the top posted score was not achievable by fair means. Officials, however, stated that the score was possible, and allowed the results to stand. In the second playoff, Microsoft initially named the runner up as the North American finalist, after disqualifying the winner for no publicly stated reason, but eventually had to send the second runner up to Tokyo when the first was unable to produce a passport in time.
Master Ninja Tournament 3 started on September 27 and lasted 26 days. Rankings were decided by scores obtained while playing Hurricane Pack 2, and the prizes were Tecmo apparel and Team Ninja games. This marked the end of official tournaments for Ninja Gaiden, although Microsoft have retained the ranking boards for players to upload their scores.
Re-releases and merchandise
Tecmo published two remakes of Ninja Gaiden: Ninja Gaiden Black and Ninja Gaiden Sigma. Essentially the same game as the original, they tell the same story of Ryu and the Dark Dragon Blade, but include additional content and updated game mechanics. Itagaki deemed Black to be the final version of Ninja Gaiden, but with the release of the PlayStation 3, Tecmo ported the game to this platform as Sigma.
Ninja Gaiden Black
Tecmo announced at E3 2005 that Team Ninja was working on Ninja Gaiden Black, and later exhibited a working version of the game at the 2005 Tokyo Game Show. Black is a reworked compilation of the original Ninja Gaiden and the two Hurricane Packs. The game features new foes, such as exploding bats and doppelgänger fiends who can imitate Ryu. It contains more costumes than the original, and swaps Ninja Gaiden's unlockable NES games for an arcade version.
One key feature of the remake is its two new difficulty settings—the easy 'Ninja Dog', and the very hard 'Master Ninja'. Itagaki added Ninja Dog after receiving complaints of Ninja Gaiden being too hard in its default incarnation, although he believed that, with persistence, any player was capable of completing the game. Hence he ensured that those players selecting Ninja Dog would be subjected to gentle mockery by the game—players on this difficulty setting receive colored ribbons as accessories, and Ayane treats Ryu as an inferior. In compensation, Itagaki made the other difficulty settings harder than in Ninja Gaiden. Ryu's adversaries were strengthened and made more aggressive, and some of his offensive moves, such as the Flying Swallow, were toned down.
While most of the improvements made in the Hurricane Packs carried forward through this game, including the camera system tweaks and new boss battles, one significant feature did not. The Intercept maneuver, introduced in Hurricane Pack 1, was not included in Black, as Itagaki felt it rendered the game too easy when mastered. This was a significant exclusion, as it now meant certain enemies, like Berzerkers, intended to be fought with the Intercept as part of the players' repertoire, were now to be fought without. This served to further increase the difficulty of certain encounters, adding to the increased challenge seen in Black.
Another feature of Black is its Mission Mode, which comprises 50 combat missions, one of which is adapted from the custom game designed for the Ninja Gaiden Master Tournament World Championship final. The last five missions are based on those in Hurricane Pack 2, but with the Black game engine, and form a linked series known as "Eternal Legend".
Ninja Gaiden Sigma
In 2006, Tecmo and Sony announced the development of Ninja Gaiden Sigma for the PS3. Eidos obtained the European publishing rights for this game. Itagaki had no direct role in Sigma, and judged it a flawed game, although he acknowledged that Sigma gave PlayStation owners a taste of Ninja Gaiden.
Tecmo has built up a line of merchandise around the Ninja Gaiden name. Its online shop carries apparel and accessories such as caps, wristbands, T-shirts, key holders, and mugs. Most of the merchandise is based on that associated with the various Ninja Gaiden game launches or given as prizes in the Master Ninja Tournaments. Tecmo also published the original soundtrack of the game under their record label, Wake Up, on March 20, 2004. Kotobukiya, a figurine maker, includes 1/6 scale plastic figurines of Ninja Gaiden characters in their range of products. As of 2007, they have produced figures of Ryu, Ayane, Kureha, and Rachel.
Ninja Gaiden was released to much critical acclaim. GameSpot called it "one of the best most challenging action adventure games ever made", and IGN said that it "sets a new standard for third-person action games in terms of length, depth, speed, and gore". Electronic Gaming Monthly called it "an unmissable instant classic", and declared that "no Xbox should go without [Ninja] Gaiden". Critics also regarded it to be one of the most difficult games released prior to 2007. Its remake, Ninja Gaiden Black, also impressed reviewers. GameSpot hailed it as having the best visual and audio presentation on the Xbox, and praised its new Mission Mode for "[distilling] the game down to its purest essentials". IGN called its release "a rare and welcome day", which "[brought their] excitement levels back to the first time [they] played the game".
From a technical point of view, critics regarded Ninja Gaiden and Black as the best of the available Xbox software at the time; the console hardware had been pushed to its limits without showing significant drops in performance. GameSpot was impressed with their "first-rate presentation" and said that no other games at that time came close in visuals and audio. According to IGN, the games could "make [them] momentarily forget about the next generation of consoles". Both Ninja Gaiden and Black were top-sellers, which led to them being compatible with the Xbox 360 for all regions on the new platform's release.
However, critics varied in their views on the technical aspects of Ninja Gaiden Sigma. For example, although the gaming site 1UP.com called the updated graphics "a gorgeous reworking of the modern ninja classic," Pro-G said that they were average by next-generation standards and showed occasional "tearing, jagged edges, and mismatched collision between bloodstains and walls". Various flaws also troubled 1UP—despite installing the game on the local hard drive, they encountered frequent loading delays, even in combat. They also noted visual glitches, such as screen tearing when the camera moved. These problems made the game "feel like a bit of a slapdash port". Although reviewers appreciated the retention of the gameplay of previous versions, Sigma's lack of new attractive features caused them to question its worth as "a remake of a remake". Pro-G said that Sigma was not worth its full-game price tag because it "has, in effect, been available for years in one form or another". Eurogamer stated that Sigma lacked the "wow factor" when compared to God of War and its sequel. The 1UP critic felt that shaking the Sixaxis controller to power up a ninpo was "silly" and a "foolishly tacked-on" way to use the controller. IGN was not excited about playing as Rachel and wished to "get back to Ryu's sections simply because he's more fun to play". DailyGame, however, appreciated the change of pace, saying that Rachel will bring a "much-needed respite for newcomers and provide something new for experienced players".
Ninja Gaiden attracted criticism for the way on-screen action is framed by the game's camera. The default camera system centers the action on Ryu and his surroundings, but reviewers were frustrated by occasions when the camera locked on to part of the scenery, thus losing track of Ryu. Tecmo attempted to address this with the introduction of manual camera controls in the Hurricane Packs, and most critics judged that either the camera frame was usually acceptable, or that Ninja Gaiden was a good enough game that its flaws could be overlooked.
The Ninja Gaiden games gained a reputation throughout the gaming community for their difficulty and attention to detail. Although they appealed to gamers who, like Pro-G, wanted a "bloody hard, but also bloody good" challenge, it was feared that casual gamers would find the learning curve daunting. IGN warned that gamers with lesser skills might not "get as much out of this game as others due to [its] incredible difficulty", and Edge commented, "Tecmo’s refusal to extend any kind of handhold to less dedicated players is simply a failure of design, not a badge of hardcore honour. … it’s impossible to believe they couldn’t have found a way to increase the accessibility of the game without undermining the gloriously intractable nature of the challenges it contains." Electronic Gaming Monthly found the challenge to be "rewarding", and said that it "motivates you to actually get better at the game". Clive Thompson focused on Ninja Gaiden in his Slate article examining the motivation for playing difficult games. He contends that extreme levels of challenge can be initially very frustrating and may cause a game to be abandoned in disgust. However, where a game also rewards a player's perseverance by teaching the skills required to overcome its challenges, that player will have the motivation to finish the game. Ninja Gaiden, in his opinion, strikes the correct balance between challenge and reward; completion brings "a sort of exhausted exhilaration, like finally reaching the end of War and Peace".
Consumers purchased 1.5 million copies of Ninja Gaiden and Black to August 2007, with the bulk of these sales going to North America and Europe. According to the NPD Group, in its first month Ninja Gaiden sold 362,441 copies in the United States, with Sigma selling 63,637. Next Generation reported that as of April 2008, 470,000 copies of Sigma have been sold in Europe and North America. These sales figures reflect Tecmo's decision to target the non-Japanese market. Japanese gamers were not particularly excited by the games—according to Itagaki, only 60,000 copies of Ninja Gaiden were sold in Japan in the four months following its release, and Famitsu gives a figure of 76,095 copies for Sigma in its first six months. The critical and commercial successes of Ninja Gaiden have led CNET and GameSpot Asia to induct the game into their Halls of Fame.
- ^ Mielke, James (2007-11-16). "Previews: Ninja Gaiden 2, "This is a new story starring Ryu Hayabusa. It takes place after Ninja Gaiden 1 for Xbox, and before the timeframe of the old Ninja Gaiden games on the NES."". 1Up. http://www.1up.com/do/previewPage?pager.offset=1&cId=3164447. Retrieved 2008-07-04.
- ^ Yin-Poole, Wesley (2008-05-22). "Ninja Gaiden 2 Interview, "Story chronologically as well, this takes place after the fist Ninja Gaiden for Xbox, then after this, the story for this game from a chronological stand point leads into the old Ninja Gaiden for the NES. I think we have a nice continuity there."". Video Gamer. http://www.videogamer.com/xbox360/ninja_gaiden_2/preview-948.html. Retrieved 2008-07-04.
- ^ Luke, Anderson (2008-05-23). "Ninja Gaiden II: Q&A with Tomonobu Itagaki, "In story chronology as well, this takes place after the first Ninja Gaiden for Xbox and then after the story of this game it leads into the old NES ones, so I think we have a nice continuity there."". Gamespot. http://www.gamespot.com/xbox360/action/ninjagaidenii/news.html?sid=6191514&part=rss&subj=6191514. Retrieved 2008-07-04.
- ^ a b c d e f Greg Kasavin (2004-02-26). "Ninja Gaiden for Xbox Review". GameSpot. http://www.gamespot.com/xbox/action/ninjagaiden/review.html. Retrieved 2007-08-21.
- ^ a b c d Edge staff (August 2002). "Inside... Tecmo". Edge (Bath, England: Future Publishing) (113): 51–55. ISSN 1350-1593.
- ^ Erik Brudvig (2005-09-19). "Ninja Gaiden Black Guide Walkthrough: Chapter 4 - Imperial City Infiltration". IGN. http://guides.ign.com/guides/745543/page_20.html. Retrieved 2008-10-13.
- ^ a b c James Mielke (2007-01-12). "Previews: Ninja Gaiden Sigma". 1UP.com. http://www.1up.com/do/previewPage?cId=3156377. Retrieved 2008-01-27.
- ^ a b c d e f Greg Kasavin (2005-09-20). "Ninja Gaiden Black for Xbox Review". GameSpot. http://www.gamespot.com/xbox/action/ninjagaidenblack/review.html. Retrieved 2007-08-21.
- ^ a b c d Will Freeman (2007-07-10). "Ninja Gaiden Sigma Review". Pro-G. http://www.videogamer.com/ps3/ninja_gaiden_sigma/review.html. Retrieved 2008-02-03.
- ^ Alex Kidman (2004-08-02). "Ninja Gaiden". CNET Australia. http://www.cnet.com.au/ninja-gaiden-review-219117552.htm. Retrieved 2007-08-23. "This gripping feeling is accentuated by the game's controls, which are both fluid and responsive, whether in the pure platform-like sections (think Prince of Persia: The Sands of Time, especially when Ryu's running along walls or flipping himself out of pits) or the core of the game's challenge, the combat sections."
- ^ a b Aaron Boulding (2003-06-25). "Ninja Gaiden: The Interview". IGN. http://xbox.ign.com/articles/426/426010p1.html. Retrieved 2007-08-21.
- ^ a b Eric Williams (2008-02-15). "Combat Canceled: God of War & Action Game Design". IGN. http://www.gamasutra.com/php-bin/news_index.php?story=17215. Retrieved 2008-02-21.
- ^ Tom Orry (2008-03-28). "God of War: Chains of Olympus Review". Pro-G. http://www.videogamer.com/psp/god_of_war_chains_of_olympus/review.html. Retrieved 2008-05-31.
- ^ Christian Nutt (2004-02-27). "Ninja Gaiden (Xbox)". GameSpy. http://xbox.gamespy.com/xbox/ninja-gaiden/499692p1.html. Retrieved 2007-08-21.
- ^ Hilary Goldstein (2004-02-25). "Ninja Gaiden: Blade Love". IGN. http://xbox.ign.com/articles/494/494669p1.html. Retrieved 2007-08-21.
- ^ Erik Brudvig (2005-09-19). "Ninja Gaiden Black Guide Basics". IGN. http://guides.ign.com/guides/745543/page_2.html. Retrieved 2008-10-13.
- ^ a b c Tom Bramwell (2004-03-16). "Ninja Gaiden". Eurogamer. http://www.eurogamer.net/articles/ir_ninjagaiden_x. Retrieved 2007-08-21.
- ^ a b c d Hilary Goldstein (2004-02-27). "Ninja Gaiden Review". IGN. http://xbox.ign.com/articles/495/495186p1.html. Retrieved 2007-08-21.
- ^ James Mielke (2007-11-16). "Previews: Ninja Gaiden 2". 1UP.com. http://www.1up.com/do/previewPage?cId=3164447. Retrieved 2007-11-16.
- ^ a b c d e César A. Berardini (2003-12-05). "Ninja Gaiden: Tomonobu Itagaki Interview". TeamXbox. http://interviews.teamxbox.com/xbox/701/Ninja-Gaiden-Tomonobu-Itagaki-Interview/p1/. Retrieved 2007-08-21.
- ^ James Mielke (2006-07-24). "Itagaki Talks DOA4 Demo on Live". 1UP.com. http://www.1up.com/do/newsStory?cId=3152406. Retrieved 2007-10-08. "Tomonobu Itagaki: First of all, I have of course included the eternal heroine, Kasumi, as well as everyone's favorite Super Ninja, Ryu Hayabusa."
- ^ GameSpy staff (2005-10-25). "Dead or Alive 4 Guys Week #1 (X360)". GameSpy. http://xbox360.gamespy.com/xbox-360/dead-or-alive-4/657005p1.html. Retrieved 2007-10-08.
- ^ a b James Mielke (July 2003). "Ninja Gaiden". GMR (California, United States: Ziff-Davis). ISSN 1544-6816. "Tomonobu Itagaki: We're not really that interested in making supporting characters playable. Right now, we are simply focusing on making the movements and actions of our "Super Ninja" Ryu Hayabusa the coolest on the planet."
- ^ James Mielke (2005-09-27). "Itagaki Hardcore Part 1: The Future of Team Ninja". 1UP.com. http://www.1up.com/do/feature?cId=3144132. Retrieved 2007-10-01.
- ^ a b c d e f Rus McLaughlin (2008-01-28). "IGN Presents The History of Ninja Gaiden". IGN. http://retro.ign.com/articles/848/848155p1.html. Retrieved 2008-01-29.
- ^ ScrewAttack (2007-08-28) (swf). Top Ten Ninjas. GameTrailers. Event occurs at 05:20. http://www.gametrailers.com/video/top-ten-screwattack/24269. Retrieved 2008-03-30.
- ^ Jeff "Mr. Nash" Nash (2006-03-06). "Weekly Top 10: Best Ninjas". The Armchair Empire. http://www.armchairempire.com/Features/Weekly-Top-10/best-ninjas.htm. Retrieved 2008-03-30.
- ^ Team Ninja. Ninja Gaiden. (Tecmo). Xbox. (2004-03-02) "Rachel: It's hard to believe they were ever humans, isn't it? [...] Anyone with susceptibility to the curse, whether they are a saint or a sinner, can succumb to it and become a Fiend."
- ^ Team Ninja. Ninja Gaiden Sigma. (Tecmo). PlayStation 3. (2007-07-03) "Rachel: I was convinced once that my blood was pure... but then I saw what my pure blood was capable of. I watched as my twin sister was cursed and twisted into a Greater Fiend. Now I know the path I walk is narrow."
- ^ a b c Billy Berghammer (2004-07-27). "An Interivew With Tomonobu Itagaki". Game Informer. Archived from the original on 2005-11-12. http://web.archive.org/web/20051112175317/http://www.gameinformer.com/News/Story/200407/N04.0727.1752.42649.htm. Retrieved 2008-01-05.
- ^ Team Ninja. Ninja Gaiden. (Tecmo). Xbox. (2004-03-02) "Ryu: So, the Greater Fiends have a soul, don't they?
Rachel: [...] There are only three of them, Doku, my sister and another who guards the Emperor."
- ^ Chris Johnston (June 2004). "Ninja Gaiden" (– Scholar search). Electronic Gaming Monthly (California, United States: Ziff-Davis). ISSN 1058-918X. Archived from the original on 2008-03-09. http://web.archive.org/web/20080309201123/http://www.accessmylibrary.com/coms2/summary_0286-21191655_ITM. Retrieved 2007-09-05. "Tomonobu Itagaki: Yes, he died. Do you remember the falcon staring at his dead body? That falcon’s spiritual power resurrected him as a soldier of revenge." [dead link]
- ^ Team Ninja. Ninja Gaiden. (Tecmo). Xbox. (2004-03-02) "Doku: Ah... Rachel. I should kill you now for the pain you've inflicted on Alma, but instead, I shall use you to make her even stronger. It will be your blood, the cursed blood of a twin sister that shall serve to awaken Alma."
- ^ Team Ninja. Ninja Gaiden. (Tecmo). Xbox. (2004-03-02) "Spirit Doku: Receive the curse, become a Fiend."
- ^ Team Ninja. Ninja Gaiden. (Tecmo). Xbox. (2004-03-02) "Dark Disciple: Gamov, so the Dark Dragon grows in power with each killing."
- ^ Team Ninja. Ninja Gaiden. (Tecmo). Xbox. (2004-03-02) "Gamov: Don't you see? The Dark Dragon is now truly an evil blade. His Excellency the Dark Disciple has been waiting for this very moment!"
- ^ Sam Kennedy (1999-06-03). "Ninja Gaiden Goes PlayStation 2". GameSpot. http://www.gamespot.com/news/2450994.html. Retrieved 2007-08-21.
- ^ a b Aaron "Omni" Simmer (2003-04-05). "Xbox Previews: Ninja Gaiden". The Armchair Empire. http://www.armchairempire.com/Previews/Xbox/ninja-gaiden.htm. Retrieved 2007-08-21.
- ^ IGN staff (2001-06-29). "Ninja Gaiden on PS2?". IGN. http://ps2.ign.com/articles/096/096210p1.html. Retrieved 2007-08-21.
- ^ a b Xbox Nation staff (Winter 2002). "Paradise Lost". Xbox Nation (California, United States: Ziff Davis). ISSN 1538-9723. http://bellsouthpwp.net/r/a/racerg/itagaki-xbn-winter2002.html. Retrieved 2007-09-23.
- ^ IGN staff (2004-01-20). "Ninja Gaiden Demo Disc". IGN. http://xbox.ign.com/articles/473/473498p1.html. Retrieved 2007-08-21.
- ^ Anoop Gantayat (2004-02-13). "Ninja Gaiden Demo Busted". IGN. http://xbox.ign.com/articles/492/492400p1.html. Retrieved 2007-08-21.
- ^ IGN staff (2003-09-19). "Ninja Gaiden Still On Track". IGN. http://xbox.ign.com/articles/450/450798p1.html. Retrieved 2008-04-21.
- ^ IGN staff (2003-12-01). "More Ninja Gaiden". IGN. http://xbox.ign.com/articles/442/442537p1.html. Retrieved 2008-04-21.
- ^ IGN staff (2004-01-29). "Ninja Gaiden Delay". IGN. http://xbox.ign.com/articles/481/481455p1.html. Retrieved 2008-04-21.
- ^ Hilary Goldstein (2004-07-16). "Ninja Gaiden: Hurricane Pack Vol. 1 Q&A". IGN. http://xbox.ign.com/articles/531/531106p1.html. Retrieved 2008-02-10.
- ^ a b Hilary Goldstein (2004-07-21). "Ninja Gaiden: Hurricane Pack Vol. 1 Hands-On". IGN. http://xbox.ign.com/articles/532/532309p1.html. Retrieved 2008-02-10.
- ^ Hilary Goldstein (2004-07-28). "Ninja Gaiden: Intercept". IGN. http://xbox.ign.com/articles/534/534280p1.html. Retrieved 2007-08-21.
- ^ Hilary Goldstein (2004-09-22). "Ninja Gaiden: Hurricane Pack Vol. 2 Hands-On". IGN. http://xbox.ign.com/articles/550/550203p1.html. Retrieved 2008-02-10.
- ^ a b c Cory J. Herndon (2005-05-23). "Dev Interview: Tecmo w/Itagaki-san". Xbox.com. Archived from the original on 2007-05-15. http://web.archive.org/web/20070515031706/http://www.xbox.com/en-US/games/d/deadoralive4/20050523-tecmo.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-23.
- ^ "Ninja Gaiden Black Ships to Retailers" (Press release). Tecmo. 2005-09-21. http://184.108.40.206/press.asp?id=20. Retrieved 2007-08-23.
- ^ Hilary Goldstein (2008-02-05). "New Xbox Originals on the Horizon". IGN. http://xbox360.ign.com/articles/849/849621p1.html. Retrieved 2008-02-21.
- ^ Tor Thorsen (2004-01-20). "Ninja Gaiden: Not for kids!". GameSpot. http://www.gamespot.com/xbox/action/ninjagaiden/news.html?sid=6086698. Retrieved 2008-02-11.
- ^ Alex Navarro (2004-03-11). "Ninja Gaiden could get Euro makeover". GameSpot. http://www.gamespot.com/news/6091272.html. Retrieved 2008-05-08.
- ^ Dan Chiappini (2008-04-10). "Censory Overload—Australia vs. World". GameSpot AU. http://www.gamespot.com/features/6188493/p-3.html. Retrieved 2008-04-26.
- ^ 1UP staff (2004). "Ninja Gaiden Censored In Europe". 1UP.com. http://www.1up.com/do/newsStory?cId=3125273. Retrieved 2008-05-04.
- ^ a b CESA staff (2006-05-30). "旧18才以上対象ソフト再審査結果一覧（2006．05．30現在）" (in Japanese) (PDF). Computer Entertainment Supplier's Association. http://www.cesa.or.jp/news/2006/060530.pdf. Retrieved 2008-03-21.
- ^ David Jenkins (2006-02-17). "Japan To Introduce Revised CERO Ratings System". Gamasutra. http://www.gamasutra.com/php-bin/news_index.php?story=8213. Retrieved 2008-02-10.
- ^ Stephen Coleman (2004-08-03). "Master Ninja Tournament Registration Extended". IGN. http://games.ign.com/articles/535/535413p1.html. Retrieved 2007-08-21.
- ^ César Berardini (2004-07-12). "Tecmo Announces Master Ninja Tournament Round 2". TeamXbox. http://news.teamxbox.com/xbox/6261/Tecmo-Announces-Master-Ninja-Tournament-Round-2/. Retrieved 2007-08-21.
- ^ Softbank Games staff (2004-08-03). "「Ninja Gaiden」世界大会の参加登録延長に" (in Japanese). Softbank Games. http://gamez.itmedia.co.jp/games/gsnews/0408/03/news09.html. Retrieved 2008-03-25.
- ^ a b "Round One of Master Ninja Tournament Nearing End" (Press release). GameSpot. 2004-06-01. http://www.gamespot.com/news/6099631.html. Retrieved 2008-10-14.
- ^ "Master Ninja Tournament Breaks Records Again with Highest Registration Numbers" (Press release). GameSpot. 2004-09-03. http://www.gamespot.com/xbox/action/ninjagaiden/news.html?sid=6106689&mode=press. Retrieved 2007-08-21.
- ^ César Berardini (2004-07-26). "Master Ninja Tournament for Europe Announced". TeamXbox. http://news.teamxbox.com/xbox/6375/Master-Ninja-Tournament-for-Europe-Announced/. Retrieved 2007-08-21.
- ^ 平澤寿康 (2004-09-25). "世界一のNinja使いがここに決定! 「Master Ninja Tournament 世界決勝戦」がマイクロソフトブースで開催" (in Japanese). Game Watch. http://game.watch.impress.co.jp/docs/20040925/xbox3.htm. Retrieved 2008-03-25.
- ^ Chris Carle (2004-09-25). "TGS 2004: Ninja Gaiden Master Tournament World Championship". IGN. http://xbox.ign.com/articles/551/551186p1.html. Retrieved 2007-08-21.
- ^ Xbox Nation staff (August 2004). "Ninja Nation". Xbox Nation (California, United States: Ziff Davis): 28. ISSN 1538-9723. http://www.xbox-hq.com/html/modules.php?name=News&file=print&sid=1080. Retrieved 2007-09-05.
- ^ Hilary Goldstein (2004-05-26). "Master Ninja Tournament Heats Up". IGN. http://xbox.ign.com/articles/519/519150p1.html. Retrieved 2007-08-21.
- ^ César Berardini (2004-09-15). "Master Ninja Tournament Finals Details". TeamXbox. http://news.teamxbox.com/xbox/6768/Master-Ninja-Tournament-Finals-Details/. Retrieved 2007-08-21.
- ^ Softbank Games staff (2004-09-25). "Master Ninja Tournament 世界決勝戦 勝者は!?" (in Japanese). Softbank Games. http://gamez.itmedia.co.jp/games/tgs/2004/news/040925/07/index.html. Retrieved 2008-03-25.
- ^ "Tecmo Announces Third and Final Master Ninja Tournament, Hurricane Pack: Volume II" (Press release). GameSpot. 2004-09-24. http://www.gamespot.com/xbox/action/ninjagaiden/news.html?sid=6108698&mode=press. Retrieved 2008-01-27.
- ^ Douglass C. Perry (2005-05-20). "E3 2005: Ninja Gaiden Black is Beautiful". IGN. http://xbox.ign.com/articles/618/618262p1.html. Retrieved 2008-05-11.
- ^ Famitsu staff (2005-09-17). "【ブース】『DOA4』の美麗映像に驚け！ テクモブースは例年以上の大混雑ぶり!!" (in Japanese). Famitsu. http://www.famitsu.com/game/event/2005/09/14/264,1126670828,43352,0,0.html. Retrieved 2008-05-04.
- ^ a b 1UP.com staff (2005-09-16). "Reviews: Ninja Gaiden Black". 1UP.com. http://www.1up.com/do/reviewPage?cId=3143860. Retrieved 2008-03-21.
- ^ a b Rob Semsey (2005-08-10). "Ninja Gaiden: Black Hands-On". TeamXbox. http://previews.teamxbox.com/xbox/1143/Ninja-Gaiden-BLACK/p1/. Retrieved 2007-08-21.
- ^ James Mielke (2005-05-13). "Ninja Gaiden Black from 1UP.com". 1UP.com. http://www.1up.com/do/feature?pager.offset=0&cId=3140456. Retrieved 2007-08-21.
- ^ 1UP.com staff (2004-09-05). "Previews: Ninja Gaiden". 1UP.com. http://www.1up.com/do/previewPage?cId=3061511. Retrieved 2007-09-23.
- ^ http://magx01.blogspot.com/2010/08/ninja-gaiden-series-retrospective.html
- ^ Andy Robinson (2006-09-20). "Ninja Gaiden pulls a flying kick on PS3". Computer and Video Games. http://www.computerandvideogames.com/article.php?id=146205. Retrieved 2007-08-21.
- ^ Tim Surette; Brendan Sinclair (2006-09-21). "TGS 06: Gaiden, Shirokishi lead new PS3 game charge". GameSpot. http://www.gamespot.com/events/tgs2006/story.html?sid=6158162&pid=935677. Retrieved 2008-05-04.
- ^ Andy Robinson (2007-04-18). "Eidos picks up Ninja Gaiden Sigma". Computer and Video Games. http://www.computerandvideogames.com/article.php?id=162227. Retrieved 2007-08-21.
- ^ Jon Wilcox (2008-05-13). "Itagaki: Ninja Gaiden 2 Is My Final Instalment News". Total Video Games. http://www.totalvideogames.com/Ninja-Gaiden-2/news/Itagaki-Ninja-Gaiden-2-Is-My-Final-Instalment-12678.html. Retrieved 2008-05-14.
- ^ Anoop Gantayat (2007-06-01). "No Sigma For 360". IGN. http://xbox360.ign.com/articles/793/793679p1.html. Retrieved 2007-08-21.
- ^ Justin Calvert (2003-12-19). "Tecmo releases Ninja Gaiden merchandise". GameSpot. http://www.gamespot.com/news/6085935.html. Retrieved 2008-05-03.
- ^ "Tecmo Announces Free Retro T-Shirt As Ninja Gaiden Black Pre-Order Incentive" (Press release). Tecmo. 2005-09-01. http://220.127.116.11/press.asp?id=18. Retrieved 2007-08-23.
- ^ Jack DeVries (2007-07-05). "Ottsel's Blog—In-game reservation gifts: Completely worthless". IGN. http://blogs.ign.com/Ottsel/2007/07/05/59292/. Retrieved 2008-05-03.
- ^ Kotobukiya USA staff (n.d.). "Ninja Gaiden ARTFX Statues". Kotobukiya USA. Archived from the original on 2007-01-05. http://web.archive.org/web/20070105013802/http://www.kotous.com/video-games/ninja-gaiden.php. Retrieved 2007-08-27.
- ^ Kevin VanOrd (2007-07-02). "Ninja Gaiden Sigma for PlayStation 3 Review". GameSpot. http://www.gamespot.com/ps3/action/ninjagaidensigma/review.html. Retrieved 2007-08-21.
- ^ a b c d e Erik Brudvig (2005-09-19). "Ninja Gaiden Black Review". IGN. http://xbox.ign.com/articles/652/652102p1.html. Retrieved 2007-08-21.
- ^ a b c Chris Roper (2007-06-29). "Ninja Gaiden Sigma Review". IGN. http://ps3.ign.com/articles/800/800565p1.html. Retrieved 2007-08-21.
- ^ a b Patrick Kolan (2007-07-04). "Ninja Gaiden Sigma AU Review". IGN. http://ps3.ign.com/articles/801/801548p1.html. Retrieved 2007-08-21.
- ^ TokyoDrifter (2004-03-01). "Review: Ninja Gaiden". GamePro. http://www.gamepro.com/article/reviews/33850/ninja-gaiden/. Retrieved 2007-08-21.
- ^ JohnnyK (2005-09-21). "Review: Ninja Gaiden: Black". GamePro. http://www.gamepro.com/article/reviews/48545/ninja-gaiden-black/. Retrieved 2007-08-21.
- ^ The Watcher (2007-07-03). "Review: Ninja Gaiden Sigma". GamePro. http://www.gamepro.com/article/reviews/119949/ninja-gaiden-sigma/. Retrieved 2007-08-21.
- ^ 1UP.com staff (2004-05-09). "Reviews: Ninja Gaiden". 1UP.com. http://www.1up.com/do/reviewPage?cId=3136825. Retrieved 2008-03-21.
- ^ a b c d e Shane Bettenhausen (2007-07-03). "Reviews: Ninja Gaiden Sigma". 1UP.com. http://www.1up.com/do/reviewPage?cId=3160778. Retrieved 2008-03-21.
- ^ a b Kristan Reed (2007-07-06). "Ninja Gaiden Sigma". Eurogamer. http://www.eurogamer.net/articles/ninja-gaiden-sigma-review. Retrieved 2007-08-21.
- ^ a b Struan Robertson (2004-11-11). "Ninja Gaiden Review". Pro-G. http://www.videogamer.com/xbox/ninja_gaiden/review.html. Retrieved 2008-02-03.
- ^ "Ninja Gaiden". Metacritic. http://www.metacritic.com/games/platforms/xbx/ninjagaiden. Retrieved 2007-08-21.
- ^ "Ninja Gaiden Black". Metacritic. http://www.metacritic.com/games/platforms/xbx/ninjagaidenblack. Retrieved 2007-08-21.
- ^ "Ninja Gaiden Sigma". Metacritic. http://www.metacritic.com/games/platforms/ps3/ninjagaidensigma. Retrieved 2007-08-21.
- ^ "Ninja Gaiden—Xbox". Game Rankings. http://www.gamerankings.com/xbox/561532-ninja-gaiden/. Retrieved 2007-08-21.
- ^ "Ninja Gaiden Black—Xbox". Game Rankings. http://www.gamerankings.com/xbox/928401-ninja-gaiden-black/. Retrieved 2007-08-21.
- ^ "Ninja Gaiden Sigma—PS3". Game Rankings. http://www.gamerankings.com/ps3/935677-ninja-gaiden-sigma/index.html. Retrieved 2007-08-21.
- ^ a b IGN staff (2005-01-16). "IGN Xbox Best of 2004 Awards". IGN. http://bestof.ign.com/2004/xbox/. Retrieved 2007-09-05.
- ^ "X-Play's Best of 2004!". Adam Sessler (co-host), Morgan Webb (co-host). X-Play. G4. 2005-01-26. No. 5006.
- ^ "Electronic Gaming Monthly and Computer Gaming World Announce the Best Games of 2004" (Press release). Ziff Davis. 2005-02-08. http://www.ziffdavis.com/press/releases/050208.0.html. Retrieved 2008-04-12.
- ^ GameSpot staff (2006-01-23). "GameSpot's Best of 2005—Platform Awards". GameSpot. http://www.gamespot.com/pages/features/bestof2005/index.php?day=5&page=6. Retrieved 2007-09-05.
- ^ IGN staff (2005-01-16). "IGN Xbox Best of 2005 Awards". IGN. http://bestof.ign.com/2005/xbox/1.html. Retrieved 2007-09-05.
- ^ TeamXbox staff (2005-12-22). "TeamXbox.com Game of the Year Awards 2005". TeamXbox. http://features.teamxbox.com/xbox/1421/TeamXboxcom-Game-of-the-Year-Awards-2005/p1/. Retrieved 2007-09-05.
- ^ IGN PlayStation Team (2007-07-31). "Game of the Month: July 2007". IGN. http://ps3.ign.com/articles/809/809607p1.html. Retrieved 2007-09-05.
- ^ a b c Bettenhausen, Shane; Elliot, Shawn; Johnston, Chris (April 14/May 1, 2004). "More like...Ninja Goddamn!". Electronic Gaming Monthly. Archived from the original on June 11, 2004. http://web.archive.org/web/20040611034211/www.egmmag.com/article2/0,2053,1567804,00.asp. Retrieved April 14, 2010.
- ^ Danny Cowan (2007-07-04). "Critical Reception: Tecmo/Team Ninja's Ninja Gaiden Sigma". Gamasutra. http://previews.teamxbox.com/xbox/1143/Ninja-Gaiden-BLACK/p1/. Retrieved 2007-12-13.
- ^ Rob Semsey (2005-08-10). "Ninja Gaiden: Black Hands-On". TeamXbox. http://previews.teamxbox.com/xbox/1143/Ninja-Gaiden-BLACK/p1/. Retrieved 2007-12-13.
- ^ Tor Thorsen (2005-11-11). "360 to play 200-plus Xbox games". GameSpot. http://www.gamespot.com/xbox/action/halo2/news.html?sid=6139702. Retrieved 2007-08-21.
- ^ Hirohiko Niizumi (2005-11-16). "Xbox 360 backward compatibility lacking in Japan". GameSpot. http://www.gamespot.com/xbox/action/ninjagaidenblack/news.html?sid=6139921. Retrieved 2007-08-21.
- ^ Brendan Sinclair (2005-11-17). "European 360 backward compatibility detailed". GameSpot. http://www.gamespot.com/xbox/action/halo2/news_6140002.html. Retrieved 2008-02-03.
- ^ Martin Ray (2007-08-15). "Ninja Gaiden Sigma Review". DailyGame. http://www.dailygame.net/news/archives/006499.php. Retrieved 2007-08-27.
- ^ a b Edge staff (18 March 2004). "Ninja Gaiden Review". Edge. Future plc. Archived from the original on 16 June 2011. http://www.webcitation.org/5zU3z3RC2. Retrieved 16 June 2011.
- ^ Ray Huling (October 2007). "Ninja Playground". The Brooklyn Rail. http://brooklynrail.org/2007/10/streets/ninja-playground. Retrieved 2007-10-12.
- ^ Clive Thompson (2004-05-06). "Tough Love—Can a video game be too hard?". Slate. http://www.slate.com/id/2100116/. Retrieved 2007-09-05.
- ^ Kotaro Tsunetomi (2007-07-06). "テクモが急騰、業績予想を増額－「ＮＩＮＪＡ ＧＡＩＤＥＮ」好調" (in Japanese). Bloomberg Japan. http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=90001002&sid=azaEyzbR0k7w&refer=jp_home. Retrieved 2007-09-02.
- ^ NPD Tech (March 2004). NPD US Sales Data. New York, United States: NPD Group. http://www.3dnews.ru/games/games-weekly-27042004/index2.htm. Retrieved 2008-02-03.
- ^ NPD Group (June 2007). NPD US Sales Data. New York, United States: NPD Group. http://www.cubed3.com/news/8201. Retrieved 2008-02-03.
- ^ Next Generation staff (2008-04-09). "The Top 100 Selling Games of the Last 12 Months". Next Generation Magazine. http://www.next-gen.biz/features/top-100-selling-games-last-12-months. Retrieved 2008-04-10.
- ^ Famitsu Marketing Data Service (2008 January). "Top 100 sales". 2007 Yearly Report (Tokyo, Japan: Famitsu). http://ps3.ign.com/articles/845/845026p2.html. Retrieved 2008-02-03.
- ^ David Rudden (2006-06-16). "Gaming hall of fame: the Xbox's best games". CNet. http://reviews.cnet.com/4321-9582_7-6509238.html. Retrieved 2007-09-05.
- ^ GameSpot Asia staff (2004-04-23). "Editor's Choice Hall of Fame". GameSpot. Archived from the original on 2005-04-06. http://web.archive.org/web/20050406025443/www.gamespotasia.com/pcgames/features/story/0,2000006896,30076524,00.htm. Retrieved 2008-02-03.
- Official site for Ninja Gaiden on the Xbox
- Game FAQs for Ninja Gaiden
- Official site for Ninja Gaiden Black on the Xbox
- Official site for Ninja Gaiden Sigma on the PS3
Ninja Gaiden Modern series Sigma series NES Trilogy Other games RelatedBook:Ninja Gaiden series · Category:Ninja Gaiden · Portal:Video games
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Ninja Gaiden (jeu video) — Ninja Gaiden (jeu vidéo) Ninja Gaiden Éditeur Tecmo Développeur Tecmo Date de sortie 1988 … Wikipédia en Français
Ninja Gaiden (jeu vidéo) — Ninja Gaiden Éditeur Tecmo Développeur Tecmo Date de sortie 1988 … Wikipédia en Français
Ninja Gaiden Sigma — North American cover art Developer(s) Team Ninja Publish … Wikipedia
Ninja Gaiden (disambiguation) — Ninja Gaiden is a series of video games released by Tecmo. Ninja Gaiden may also refer to: Ninja Gaiden (arcade), a 1989 side scrolling beat em up Ninja Gaiden (Nintendo Entertainment System), a 1988 side scrolling platforming video game Ninja… … Wikipedia
Ninja Gaiden — For other uses, see Ninja Gaiden (disambiguation). Ninja Gaiden Logo used from 1988 to 1991 Genres Platform, beat em up, action advent … Wikipedia
Ninja Gaiden (Nintendo Entertainment System) — Ninja Gaiden … Wikipedia
Ninja Gaiden Shadow — Box art Developer(s) Tecmo Natsume … Wikipedia
Ninja Gaiden (série) — Ninja Gaiden (忍者龍剣伝, Ninja Ryūkenden?, parfois appelé Shadow Warriors en Europe) est une série de jeu vidéo d action de la société japonaise Tecmo. Elle est apparue sur borne d arcade en … Wikipédia en Français
Ninja Gaiden II — Ne doit pas être confondu avec Shadow Warriors II: Ninja Gaiden II. Ninja Gaiden II Éditeur Tecmo Développeur Team Ninja Concepteur Tomonobu Ita … Wikipédia en Français
Ninja Gaiden (arcade) — Ninja Gaiden Sales flyer for the arcade game. Developer(s) Tecmo Composer(s) Mikio Saito ( Metal Yuhki ) … Wikipedia