- Armenians in Bulgaria
Armenians( _bg. арменци, "armentsi") are the fourth largest minority in Bulgaria, numbering 10,832 according to the 2001 census, [cite web | year = 2001 | url = http://www.nsi.bg/Census/Ethnos.htm | title = Population as of 1 March 2001 divided by provinces and ethnic group | publisher = National Statistical Institute | language = Bulgarian | accessdate = 2006-07-10 ] while Armenian organizations estimate up to 22,000.cite web | url = http://armenians.orionbg.net/bg/ | title = Website of the Armenian community in Bulgaria | accessdate = 2006-07-10 | language = Bulgarian ] They have been inhabiting the Balkans(including the territory of modern Bulgaria) since no later than the 5th century, when they moved there as part of the Byzantine cavalry. The main centres of the Armenian community in the country are the major cities Plovdiv(3,140 Armenians in Plovdiv Province), Varna(2,240 in Varna Province), Sofia(1,672) and Burgas(904 in Burgas Province).
The traditional language of the community is
Western Armenian, though due to education during the Communist period in Bulgaria being in Eastern Armenian, many are also fluent in the latter dialect. Bulgarian, being the official language, is spoken by almost all Armenians in the country.
The Armenians that settled between the 6th and the 11th century in the
Rhodopes, Thraceand Macedonia were several thousand in number and were mostly Pauliciansand Tondrakians. They had very strong ties and influenced the Bulgarian sect of the Bogomilsand were later assimilated into it, Bulgarianized and later converted to Roman Catholicism("see Roman Catholicism in Bulgaria") or Islam("see Pomaks"). The mother of 11th-century Bulgarian tsarSamuil was the daughter of the Armenian king, Ashot IIand 10th-century Tsar Peter I's wife was the granddaughter of Byzantine emperorof Armenian origin Romanos I Lekapenos, Maria. Another Byzantine emperor— Basil I, the founder of the Macedonian dynastyand an Armenian from Thrace—spent his early years as a captive in the First Bulgarian Empirein the 9th century.
After both Bulgaria and
Armeniawere conquered by the Ottoman Empire, many Armenian settlers from Armenia, Crimea, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealthand Asia Minorarrived in what is now Bulgaria due to internal migration. Those coming from Armenia were forced to seek a new homeland because of their country's devastation by Arabs, Persians, and Turks.cite web | url = http://www.omda.bg/BULG/NAROD/armenians.html | title = Armenians | accessdate = 2006-07-10 | publisher = OMDA.bg | language = Bulgarian] With Bulgaria gaining autonomy in the aftermath of the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78, many Armenians fled the Ottoman Empire because of the Hamidian massacresin the 1890s and settled in the country, particularly in the major cities of Plovdivand Varna. In 1878, there were 5,300 Armenians in the Principality of Bulgariaand Eastern Rumelia, and this number increased by almost 20,000 after the Hamidian massacres.
At the time of the
Balkan Wars(1912–1913) the Armenians in Bulgaria were about 35,000. During this time the legendary Armenian national hero, Andranik Ozanianparticipated in the Balkan Wars of 1912-1913, within the Bulgarian army, alongside general Garegin Njdeh(another national hero) as a commander of Armenian auxiliary troops. Bulgarian authorities honored him by the "Cross of Bravery" [(in Russian) Андраник Озанян: Документы и материалы, Ереван, 1991.] .After the events surrounding the Armenian Genocidein the Ottoman Empire (1915–1917) 22,000 sought refuge in the country during the government of Aleksandar Stamboliyskiin 1922.
During the Communist rule of Bulgaria (1945–1989) and the times of the
Soviet Union, most of the Armenians returned to their homeland, then the Armenian SSR, but many also chose to stay in their new homeland or emigrate to other countries like the United States. The dissolution of the USSR, the poor economic and life conditions in Armenia and the military conflicts in the Caucasusalso forced a number of Armenians to seek a better future in Bulgaria as emigrants in the 1990s or as a transit route to western Europe or the United States.
Culture, religion and media
The Armenians and their historical faith were an inspiration for noted Bulgarian poet
Peyo Yavorovto write one of his most recognizable works, the poem " [http://bgliter.hit.bg/Iavorov/Armenci.htm Armentsi] " ("Armenians"), describing the Armenians as 'forlorn exiles, a miserable fragment; of an ever-brave martyr-people; little children of a troubled slavewoman-mother; and victims of a legendarily great feat':
Изгнаници клети, отломка нищожна
от винаги храбър народ мъченик,
дечица на майка робиня тревожна
и жертви на подвиг чутовно велик –
далеч от родина, в край чужди събрани,
изпити и бледни, в порутен бордей,
те пият, а тънат сърцата им в рани,
и пеят, тъй както през сълзи се пей.
Three Armenian newspapers are published in Bulgaria, "Armentsi", issued in Burgas every fortnight with a circulation of 3,500, the weekly "Vahan" issued in Plovdiv with a circulation of 1,000, and the weekly "Erevan" issued in Sofia.
There are a total of ten
Armenian Apostolicchurches and two chapels in twelve cities, mostly in the urban centres with a significant Armenian population, with boards of trustees in Aytos, Burgas, Pazardzhik, Rousse, Shumen, Sliven, Stara Zagora, Varnaand Yambol. All churches are organized in an eparchybased in Sofia. The Armenian Evangelical Churchin Bulgaria is located in Plovdiv.
Notable Bulgarian Armenians
Haygashod Agasyan, composer
Armen Ambartsumyan, footballer (goalkeeper) and Armenia international
* Antranik Arabadzhiyan, better known as Astor, illusionist
Michael Arlen, writer
Artine Artinian, French literature scholar
Krikor Azaryan, film director
Yuliya Berberyan, tennis coach and UDF deputy
Steven Derounian, American congressman from New York
Eduard Eranosyan, footballer and manager
Magardich Halvadzhiyan, film director and producer
Vili Kazasyan, composer and conductor
Kevork Kevorkyan, TV host
Kirkor Kirkorov, amateur boxer
Agop Melkonyan, journalist and prolific SciFi author
Melkon Melkonian, Vice President of the Bulgarian Supreme Court
Armen Nazarian, Greco-Roman wrestler (naturalized)
Norair Nurikian, weightlifter
Dikran Tebeyan, official in the Ministry of Labor and Social Security
Sylvie Vartan, French pop singer and music hall impressario
* Samuil, Tsar of Bulgaria
* Gavril Radomir, Tsar of Bulgaria (Samuil's son)
Peter Delyan, Tsar of Bulgaria (possibly Samuil's grandson)
Katerina Maleeva, tennis player
Magdalena Maleeva, tennis player
Manuela Maleeva, tennis player
Alice Panikian, Miss Universe Canada2006
* [http://armenians.orionbg.net/en/ Official website of the Armenian community in Bulgaria]
* [http://www.armeniapedia.org/index.php?title=Bulgaria Bulgaria-Armenia article on Armeniapedia.org]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Bulgaria — • A European kingdom in the northeastern part of the Balkan Peninsula Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006. Bulgaria Bulgaria † … Catholic encyclopedia
Armenians of Romania — Armenians have been present in what is now Romania and Moldova for over a millennium, and have been an important presence as traders since the 14th century. Numbering only in the thousands in modern times, they were culturally suppressed in the… … Wikipedia
BULGARIA — BULGARIA, East Balkan republic located along the Black Sea. Ancient Period A Jewish settlement is known to have existed in Macedonia in the time of Caligula (37–41 C.E.; Philo, Embassy to Gaius, par. 281). A late second century Latin inscription… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Armenians — This article is about Armenians as an ethnic group. For people living in Armenia, see Demographics of Armenia. Not to be confused with Arminianism. Armenians Հայեր … Wikipedia
Armenians in the Ottoman Empire — Main article: History of Armenia Social structure of the Ottoman Empire Millets: (Jews · Armenians … Wikipedia
Bulgaria — /bul gair ee euh, bool /, n. a republic in SE Europe. 8,652,745; 42,800 sq. mi. (110,850 sq. km). Cap.: Sofia. * * * Bulgaria Introduction Bulgaria Background: The Bulgars, a Central Asian Turkic tribe, merged with the local Slavic inhabitants in … Universalium
Armenians in Crimea — Tota … Wikipedia
Bulgaria — Infobox Country native name = bg. Република България bg. Republika Balgaria This article uses the official Bulgarian transliteration system when romanizing Bulgarian Cyrillic. For details, see Romanization of Bulgarian.] local name = bg. Balgaria … Wikipedia
Bulgaria — The Jewish population in Bulgaria at the outbreak of World War II was approximately 50,000, which constituted less than 1 percent of its six million people. At first, Bulgaria remained neutral during the war. This changed, however, in March… … Historical dictionary of the Holocaust
Religion in Bulgaria — Bulgaria has been a traditionally Christian state since the adoption of Christianity in 865, with the dominant confession being Eastern Orthodoxy of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church. During the Ottoman rule of the Balkans Islam established itself in … Wikipedia