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DiseasesDB = 29670
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eMedicineTopic = 102
Ketoacidosis is a type of metabolic
acidosiswhich is caused by high concentrations of ketone bodies, formed by the deaminationof amino acids, and the breakdown of fatty acids. The two common ketones produced in humans are acetoacetic acidand β-hydroxybutyrate.
This is most common in untreated type 1
diabetes mellitus, when the liver breaks down fat and proteins in response to a perceived need for respiratory substrate. It can also occur with people undergoing hunger strikes, fasting over 3 days, or people starving to death as the body is forced to break down fat for sustenance due to their lack of outside nutrition.
Ketoacidosis can be smelled on a person's breath. This is due to acetone, a direct byproduct of the spontaneous decomposition of acetoacetic acid. It is often described as smelling like fruit or nail polish remover. [http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/000320.htm Diabetic ketoacidosis] at medical dictionary of
National Institutes of Health.]
Ketoacidosis should not be confused with
ketosis, which is one of the body's normal processes for the metabolism of body fat. In ketoacidosis, the body fails to adequately regulate ketone production causing such a severe accumulation of keto acids that the pHof the bloodis substantially decreased.
Ketoacidosis occurs when the body is producing high levels of
ketone bodiesvia the metabolismof fatty acids( ketosis) and the body is producing insufficient insulinto slow this production. The excess ketone bodies can significantly acidify the blood. The presence of high blood sugar levels ( hyperglycemia) caused by the lack of insulincan lead to further acidity in the blood. In healthy individuals this normally does not occur because the pancreasproduces insulin in response to rising ketone/blood sugar levels.
Acidity results from the dissociation of the H+ ion at physiological pH of metabolic ketone bodies such as
acetoacetate, and β-hydroxybutyrate.
Two common types are
diabeticpatients, ketoacidosis is usually accompanied by insulindeficiency, hyperglycemia, and dehydration. Particularly in type 1 diabetics the lack of insulin in the bloodstream prevents glucoseabsorption and can cause unchecked ketone body production (through fatty acid production) potentially leading to dangerous glucose and ketone levels in the blood. Hyperglycemia results in glucose overloading the nephron and spilling into the urine. Dehydration results following the osmotic movement of water into urine, exacerbating the acidosis.
alcoholicketoacidosis, alcoholcauses dehydration and blocks the first step of gluconeogenesis. The body is unable to synthesize enough glucose to meet its needs, thus creating an energy crisis resulting in fatty acidmetabolism, and ketone bodyformation.
* The Merck Manual - [http://www.merck.com/mmpe/sec12/ch158/ch158c.html#sec12-ch158-ch158c-1224 Diabetic Ketoacidosis]
* [http://www.merck.com/mmpe/sec12/ch158/ch158e.html#sec12-ch158-ch158e-1256Alcoholic Alcoholic Ketoacidosis]
* [http://www.medpagetoday.com/PrimaryCare/DietNutrition/tb/2878 Lancet case study] Atkins diet-induced Ketoacidosis
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
ketoacidosis — Acidosis, as in diabetes or starvation, caused by the enhanced production of ketone bodies. * * * ke·to·ac·i·do·sis .kēt ō .as ə dō səs n, pl do·ses .sēz acidosis accompanied by ketosis <diabetic ketoacidosis> * * * n. a condition in which… … Medical dictionary
ketoacidosis — n. a condition in which acidosis is accompanied by ketosis, such as occurs in diabetes mellitus (see diabetic ketoacidosis). Symptoms include nausea and vomiting, abdominal tenderness, confusion or coma, extreme thirst, and weight loss … The new mediacal dictionary
ketoacidosis — noun acidosis with an accumulation of ketone bodies; occurs primarily in diabetes mellitus • Syn: ↑diabetic acidosis • Hypernyms: ↑acidosis • Part Holonyms: ↑type I diabetes, ↑insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, ↑ … Useful english dictionary
ketoacidosis — Form of acidosis in which there is excess production of ketone bodies by the ketogenic pathway. Frequently a complication of diabetes, hence the sweet smell said to be characteristic of the breath of diabetics … Dictionary of molecular biology
ketoacidosis — noun A severe form of ketosis, most commonly seen in diabetics, in which so much ketone is produced that acidosis occurs … Wiktionary
ketoacidosis — n. acid condition of the blood caused by an increased production of ketone bodies (Medicine) … English contemporary dictionary
ketoacidosis-prone diabetes — noun severe diabetes mellitus with an early onset; characterized by polyuria and excessive thirst and increased appetite and weight loss and episodic ketoacidosis; diet and insulin injections are required to control the disease • Syn: ↑type I… … Useful english dictionary
ketoacidosis-resistant diabetes — noun mild form of diabetes mellitus that develops gradually in adults; can be precipitated by obesity or severe stress or menopause or other factors; can usually be controlled by diet and hypoglycemic agents without injections of insulin • Syn:… … Useful english dictionary
ketoacidosis-resistant diabetes mellitus — noun mild form of diabetes mellitus that develops gradually in adults; can be precipitated by obesity or severe stress or menopause or other factors; can usually be controlled by diet and hypoglycemic agents without injections of insulin • Syn:… … Useful english dictionary
Diabetic ketoacidosis — Classification and external resources Dehydration may be profound in diabetic ketoacidosis, and intravenous fluids are usually needed as part of its treatment ICD 10 E … Wikipedia