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image_caption = Sokoto market 2006
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pushpin_map_caption =Location in Nigeria
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subdivision_type1 = State
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Sokoto is a city located in the extreme northwest of
Nigeria, near to where the Sokoto Riverand Rima Rivermeet. As of 2006 it has a population of 583,039 [http://www.bevölkerungsstatistik.de/] . Sokoto is the modern day capital of Sokoto State(and its predecessor, the Northwestern State).
The name Sokoto (which is the modern/anglicised version of the local name, "Sakkwato") is of Arabic origin, representing "suk", 'market'. It is also known as "Sakkwato, Birnin Shaihu da Bello" or "Sokoto, Capital of Shaihu and Bello").
Being the seat of the
Sokoto Caliphate, the city is predominantly Muslim and an important seat of Islamic learning in Nigeria. The Sultan who heads the caliphate is effectively the spiritual leader of Nigerian Muslims.
Originally the capital of the
Hausakingdom of Gobir, established around the 10th century, Sokoto was one of the seven walled Hausa Kingdoms. In the 13th century, Islam arrived from the north by way of the trans-Saharan caravan routes.cite book| title = The Bradt Travel Guide | last = Williams | first = Lizzie | date = 2005 | pages = 323]
In 1809, Fulani chief and
Islamic leader Usman dan Fodiochose Sokoto as the capital of the Sokoto Caliphatecite web | title = Encyclopædia Britannica | url = http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9068546/Sokoto | accessdate = 2007-04-07] that ruled most of Northern Nigeria from the period of Usman dan Fodio's 1804-1812 " jihad" until its defeat at the hands of Frederick Lugard's Royal West African Frontier Forcein 1903.cite web | title = British Conquest of the Sokoto Caliphate 1903 | url = http://www.onwar.com/aced/data/sierra/sokotocaliphate1903.htm | accessdate = 2007-04-07] The city has an estimated population of 601,893 people as of 2007.cite web | title = The World Gazetteer | url = http://www.world-gazetteer.com/wg.php?men=gpro&des=gamelan&geo=371070524 | accessdate = 2007-04-07]
Since its creation as a state in 1976, Sokoto state has been ruled by governors, most ex-military officers, who succeeded each another at short intervals.
Sokoto, as a region, knows a longer history. During the reign of the Fulani Empire in the 19th century Sokoto was an important Fula state, in addition to being a city, of what was then west central Sudan.
From ca. 1900, with the British take-over, Sokoto, which then encompassed the entire north-west corner of Nigeria, became a province of the British protectorate of Nigeria. Not long after Gando was added as a sub-province. This double province then covered an area of 35,000 square miles (90,000 km²) with an estimated population over 500,000. It included the then Zamfara and Argunga, or Kebbi, kingdoms.
In the year 2000, Islamic
Shari'ahwas introduced in several northern states of Nigeria including Sokoto State. While in principle these Islamic laws exclusively apply to Muslims, they've had consequences for all the Sokoto residents, such as, the ban on selling alcohol and the closure of film theaters in the State.
Sokoto is in the dry
Sahelsurrounded by sandy savannahand isolated hills.
With an annual average temperature of 28.3°C, Sokoto is one of the hottest cities in the world, however the maximum daytime temperatures are most of the year generally under 40°C, and the dryness makes the heat bearable.cite web | title = A Brief History and Geoography of Sokoto State | url = http://www.sokoto-state.com/state.html | accessdate = 2007-04-07] The warmest months are February to April, where daytime temperatures can exceed 45°C. Highest recorded temperature is 47.2C, which is also the highest recorded temperature in Nigeria.The rainy season is from June to October, during which showers are a daily occurrence. The showers rarely last long and are a far cry from the regular torrential showers known in many tropical regions. From late October to February, during the 'cold season', the climate is dominated by the
Harmattanwind blowing Saharadust over the land. The dust dims the sunlight, thereby lowering temperatures significantly and also leading to the inconvenience of dust everywhere in the house.
The region's lifeline for growing crops is the floodplains of the Sokoto-Rima river system, which are covered with rich
alluvial soil. For the rest, the general dryness of the region allows for few crops, milletperhaps being the most abundant, complemented by maize, rice, other cereals, and beans. Apart from tomatoes, few vegetables grow in the region. The low variety of foodstuffs available has resulted in the relatively dull local cuisine.
In the city
Sokoto is probably best known for its Islamic spiritual and educational environment, housing the Sultan's Palace, the large
Shehu Mosqueas well as numerous other mosques in the region. In Sokoto, recreational facilities are scarce and much of the social life revolves around activities in mosques and churches.
Sokoto is also well known for its large market, where traders, farmers, craftsmen and just about anyone offer their goods in hundreds if not thousands of small stalls. The more noteworthy products sold here are leather goods and camels. In April 2006, the previously well-organized market burned down.cite web | title = Flagging off for Reconstruction of Sokoto State Central Market | url = http://www.sokoto-state.com/news39.html | accessdate = 2007-04-07] Currently, while the old market is being rebuilt, the market continues as a chaotic assemblage of stalls.
The city furthermore has one university, one polytechnic, one college of education and an airport 10 km south of the city.
Electricity, water, and sanitation
Sokoto, like much of the region gets most of its power from the
Kainji Dam, some 200 km southwest of Sokoto. The Nigerian power authority (NEPA), which provides electricity in the country, is often humorously spelled out as 'Never Expect Power Always' and the backronymcertainly applies to Sokoto. Power outages are a daily occurrence, often lasting for hours or longer. Many customers have electricity for a limited number of hours a day, and many are not connected to the grid at all. Due to the low reliability of power, many businesses have a reserve generator they employ during outages.
Running (cold) water is widely available, though as with electricity it is often restricted to certain hours a day.
The city has a sewer system. As in much of Nigeria, there is inadequate organized garbage collection, and plastic refuse litters the streets everywhere.
Sokoto lacks a public transport system. Transport within the city (when not by foot) is mainly by mopeds which operate as one-person taxis. Buses and taxis are infrequent and are generally only used for transport between cities.
10 km south of Sokoto there is an international airport with regular connections to
Abuja, Kanoand Lagos.
In August 2008, an agreement was signed for the construction of a cement works in Sokoto.
Usman dan Fodio
Cement in Africa
* [http://www.fallingrain.com/world/NI/51/Sokoto.html FallingRain Map - elevation = 272m]
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Look at other dictionaries:
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Sokoto — (Soccatu, Sakatu), wichtigstes Fulbereich im westlichen Sudân in Afrika (s. die Karten bei Artikel »Guinea« und »Kamerun«), südlich der Sahara, zwischen 13°30 –7°40 nördl. Br. und 4°35 –13°30 östl. L., etwa 300,000 qkm groß, umfaßt die… … Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon
Sokoto — ville du N. O. du Nigeria; 167 800 hab.; cap. de l état du m. nom. Marché agricole (arachides, coton, tabac). Cuirs. Cimenterie. Import. cap. de l ancien royaume (ou califat) de Sokoto, formé au déb. du XIXe s. par Ousmane Dan Fodio … Encyclopédie Universelle
Sokoto — Sokoto, 1) Reich im Inneren Nordafrika s, grenzt westlich an das Reich Gando, nördlich an die Sahara, östlich an Bornu u. reicht südlich bis an den Binue u. über diesen Strom hinaus, ein Gebiet von fast 8000 QM. Außer den ehemaligen Haussastaaten … Pierer's Universal-Lexikon
Sókoto — (Sackatu), Fulbereich im mittlern Sudan, größter der Haussastaaten, zwischen Niger und Binue, zu Nordnigeria gehörend; Hauptstadt Wurno; ehemal. Hauptstadt S., am Flusse Gülbi n S. (Bakura), früher 120.000, jetzt 8000 E … Kleines Konversations-Lexikon
Sokoto — /soh koh toh , soh koh toh , seuh koh toh/, n. 1. a state in NW Nigeria; formerly a sultanate and province; empire in the 19th century. 4,500,000; 57,560 sq. mi. (149,066 sq. km). 2. a city in and the capital of this state. 104,160. * * * City… … Universalium
Sokoto — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Sokoto est Sokoto : ville du Nigeria. Sokoto : rivière affluent du Niger L État de Sokoto : État du Nigeria. Empire de Sokoto : empire … Wikipédia en Français
Sokoto — Mercado en Sokoto, 2006. Sokoto es una ciudad del noroeste de Nigeria que cuenta con una población de 601.893 habitantes (2007). Está ubicada a lo largo del río Sokoto en una tradicional ruta de caravanas que lleva al norte a través del Sahara.… … Wikipedia Español
Sokoto — ► C. del NO de Nigeria, cap. del estado homónimo (102 535 km2 y 4 392 391 h); 167 800 h. Centro comercial. * * * Ciudad (pob., est. 1996: 204.900 hab.) del noroeste de Nigeria. Está ubicada a orillas del río Sokoto, en una ruta tradicional de… … Enciclopedia Universal