- Rif War (1920)
conflict=Rif War, Interwar Period
caption=The Spanish troops landing at
Al HoceimaBay on September 8, 1925
result= French-Spanish victory.
Dissolution of the
Republic of the Rif
territory under combined French and Spanish forces=
Dámaso Berenguer José Millán Astray Miguel Primo de Rivera Philippe Pétain Hubert Lyautey
strength1=465,000 soldiersFact|date=October 2008
casualties1=31,000 dead or wounded
casualties2=50,400 dead or wounded
As an outcome of the
Treaty of Fez(1912) Spain gained possession of the lands around Melillaand Ceuta. In 1920 the Spanish commissioner, General Dámaso Berenguer, decided to conquer the eastern territory from the Jibala tribes. This, however, did not succeed, and in 1921 Spanish troops suffered a momentous defeat — known in Spain as the Battle of Annual— by the forces of Abd el-Krim, the leader of the Rif tribes. The Spanish were pushed back and during the following five years, occasional battles were fought between the two. In a bid to break the stalemate, the Spanish military turned to the use of chemical weapons against the Riffians.
In 1925, events took a new turn as the French joined the war on the side of Spain, and began showing a distinct advantage over their Rif opponents and their Spanish allies.Fact|date=August 2008
The Spanish army had adopted much from the
French Foreign Legionand, as a result, a Spanish equivalent, the Tercio de Extranjeros ("Regiment of Foreigners", generally known in English as the "Spanish Legion"), was formed in 1920. The regiment's second commander was General Francisco Franco. Less than 25% of this "Foreign Legion" were, in fact, foreign. They were harshly disciplined and acquired a reputation for ruthless behaviour.
Superior manpower soon resolved the course of the war in favour of France and Spain. The French troops pushed through from the south while the Spanish fleet secured Alhucemas Bay by an amphibious landing, and began attacking from the north. After one year of bitter resistance, Abd el-Krim, the leader of both the tribes, surrendered to French authorities, and in 1926
Spanish Moroccowas finally retaken.
*Steven Thomas, [http://www.balagan.org.uk/war/iberia/1909/index.htm 1911 - 1927 Rif War / Second Moroccan War]
* [http://www.onwar.com/aced/data/romeo/rif1919.htm The Rif War 1893] ("sic") on OnWar.com.
* [http://www.reachingcriticalwill.org/legal/cw/cwindex.html Chemical Weapons: Tenth Session of the Conference of the States Parties to the CWC 7-11 November 2005, The Hague, The Netherlands]
* [http://www.historynet.com/historical_conflicts/3036686.html Rif war]
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