- Hydropneumatic suspension
Hydropneumatic is a type of
automotivesuspension system, invented by Citroën, and fitted to Citroën cars, as well as being adapted by other car manufacturers, notably Rolls-Royce, Mercedes-Benzand Peugeot. It was also used on Berliettrucks. Similar systems are also used on some militaryvehicles.
The purpose of this system is to provide a soft, comfortable, yet well-controlled
ride quality. Its nitrogen springing medium is approximately six times more flexible than conventional steel, so self-leveling is incorporated to allow the vehicle to cope with the extraordinary suppleness provided. France was noted for poor road quality in the post-war years, so the only way to maintain relatively high speed in a vehicle was if it could easily absorb road irregularities.
While the system has inherent advantages over steel springs, generally recognized in the auto industry, it also has an element of complexity, so automakers like Mercedes-Benz,
British Leyland( Hydrolastic, Hydragas), and Lincoln have sought to create simpler variants.
This system uses a belt or camshaft driven pump from the engine to pressurise a special hydraulic fluid, which then powers the
brakes, suspension and power steering. It can also power any number of features such as the clutch, turning headlamps and even power windows. The suspension system usually features driver-variable ride height, to provide extra clearance in rough terrain.
The suspension setup is referred to as 'oléopneumatique' in early literature, pointing to oil and air as its main components.
There have been many improvements to this system over the years, including variable ride firmness (
Hydractive) and active control of body roll ( Citroën Activa). The latest incarnation features a simplified single pump-accumulator sphere combination.
The system had one key negative impact on the inventor,
Citroën- only specialist garages were qualified to work on the cars - making them seem radically different from ordinary cars with common mechanicals.
Auto manufacturers are still trying to catch up with the combination of features offered by this 1955 suspension system, typically by adding layers of complexity to an ordinary steel spring mechanical system.
Major milestones of the hydropneumatics design were:
World War II, Paul Magès, an employee of Citroën, with no formal training in engineering, secretly develops the concept of an air/oil suspension to combine a new level of softness with vehicle control and self-leveling
* 1954 Traction Avant 15H: Rear suspension, using
Citroën DS: Suspension, power steering, brakes and gearbox/clutch assembly powered by high pressure hydraulic assistance. A belt driven 7-piston pump, similar in size to a power steering pump generates this pressure when the engine is running.
Morris Motor Companyintroduces the BMC ADO16('1100') with hydrolasticsuspension
Mercedes-Benzintroduces the 600 with air suspensiondesigned to avoid Citroën patents
* 1965 Rolls-Royce licenses Citroën technology for the suspension of the new
Mercedes-Benzintroduces the 6.3 also with air suspension
* 1967 The superior
LHMmineral fluid is introduced (LHM = the French for mineral hydraulic fluid)
Citroën GS: Adaptation of the hydropneumatic suspension to a small car
Citroën SM: Variable speed auto-returning power steering, dubbed DIRAVI, and hydraulically actuated directional high beams
* 1974 The
Mercedes-Benz 450SEL 6.9becomes the first hydropneumatic Mercedes-Benz automobile, with the pump driven by the engine's timing chain instead of an external belt. This adaptation was used only for the suspension. Power steering and brakes were conventional hydraulic- and vacuum-powered, respectively.
Citroën BX, built as a 4WD in 1990
Citroën XM: electronic regulation of the hydropneumatic system; sensors measure acceleration and other factors
Peugeot 405Mi16x4: first Peugeot equipped with rear hydropneumatic suspension
JCB Fastrachigh speed agricultural tractor uses this system for its rear suspension.
Citroën Xantia: Optional 'Activa' ( active suspension) system, eliminating body roll by acting on torsion bars. An 'Activa' equipped Xantia was able to reach more than 1g lateral acceleration
Citroën C5: Hydractive 3 removes the need for central hydraulic pressure generation; combined pump/sphere unit for the suspension only and with electric height adjustment sensors
Citroën C6: An improved version of the C5 system known as Hydractive 3+
* 2007 JCB Fastrac high speed 7000 series agricultural tractors now use this system for front and rear suspension.
=Functioning= At the heart of the system, acting as pressure sink as well as suspension elements, are the so called 'spheres', five or six in all; one per wheel and one main accumulator as well as a dedicated brake accumulator on some models. On later cars fitted with antisink or Activa suspension, there may be as many as nine spheres. They consist of a hollow metal ball, open to the bottom, with a flexible desmopan rubber membrane, fixed at the 'equator' inside, separating top and bottom. The top is filled with
nitrogenat high pressure, up to 75 bar, the bottom connects to the car's hydraulic fluid circuit. The high pressure pump powered by the engine pressurizes the circuit and an accumulator sphere. This part of the circuit is at between 150 and 180 bars. It powers the front brakes first, prioritised via a security valve, and depending on type of vehicle, can power the steering, clutch, gearchange, etc.
Pressure goes from this circuit to the wheel spheres, pressurizing the bottom part of the spheres and rods connected to the wheel suspension. Suspension works by means of the rod pushing LHM into the sphere, compacting the nitrogen in the upper part of the sphere; damping is provided by a two-way 'leaf valve' in the opening of the sphere. LHM has to squeeze back and forth through this valve which causes resistance and controls the suspension movements. It is the simplest damper and one of the most efficient. Car height correcting works by height correctors connected to the anti-roll bar, front and rear. These height correctors allow for more fluid to travel under pressure to the rod/sphere system when detecting that the suspension is lower than its expected ride height (e.g. the car is loaded). When the car is too high (e.g. after unloading) fluid is returned to the system reservoir via low-pressure return lines. Height correctors act with some delay in order not to correct regular suspension movements. Rear brakes are powered from the rear suspension spheres. Because the pressure there is proportional to the load, so is the braking power.
Citroënquickly realized that standard brake fluidwas not ideally suited to high pressure hydraulics. They invented a new, green fluid, LHM. LHM stands for "Liquide Hydraulique Minéral" and is a mineral oil, quite close to automatic transmissionfluid. Mineral oil is not hygroscopic(i.e., it will not absorb waterfrom the air), unlike standard brake fluid, so therefore gas bubbles do not form in the system, as used to be the case with standard brake fluid, creating a 'spongy' brake feel. Use of mineral oilhas thus spread beyond Citroën, Rolls-Royce, Peugeot, and Mercedes-Benz, to include Jaguar, Audi, and BMW.
The chief problem with LHS (the fluid previously used, similar to conventional DOT3 brake fluid), is that the water it absorbs produces corrosion in the system. Most hydraulic brake systems are sealed from the outside air by a rubber diaphragm in the reservoir filler cap, but the Citroën system was never sealed. Each time the car "got up" the fluid level in the reservoir dropped, drawing in fresh moisture-laden air and dust. The large surface of the fluid in the reservoir readily absorbed moisture. And, as the pump recirculates fluid continually through the reservoir, all the fluid was repeatedly exposed to the air and its moisture content. LHM, being a mineral oil, absorbs only an infinitesimal proportion of moisture, plus it contains corrosion inhibitors. The dust inhalation problem continues. Changing the fluid at the recommended intervals removes most dust and wear particles from the system, helping preserve the parts.
The whole high pressure part of the system is manufactured from steel tubing of small diameter, connected to valve control units by Lockheed type pipe unions with special seals made from desmopan rubber, a type of rubber compatible with the LHM fluid. The moving parts of the system e.g. suspension strut or steering ram are sealed by contact seals between the cylinder and piston for tightness under pressure. The other plastic/rubber parts are return tubes from valves such as the brake control or height corrector valves, also catching seeping fluid around the suspension push-rods. Height corrector, brake master valve and steering valve spools, and hydraulic pump pistons have extremely small clearances (1-3 micrometres) with their cylinders, permitting only a very low leakage rate. The metal and alloy parts of the system rarely fail even after excessively high mileages but the rubber components (especially those exposed to the air) can harden and leak, typical failure points for the system.
Spheres are not subject to mechanical wear, but suffer pressure loss, mostly from nitrogen diffusing through the membrane. They typically last between 60,000 and 100,000 km. Spheres once had a threaded plug on top for recharging. Newer spheres do not have this plug, but can be retrofitted. The membrane has an indefinite life unless run at low pressure, which leads to rupture. Timely recharging is thus vital. A ruptured membrane means suspension loss at the attached wheel; however, ride height is unaffected. With no springing but the tires and parts' (slight) flexibility, hitting a pothole with a flat sphere can bend the suspension parts or dent a wheel rim. In the case of main accumulator sphere failure, the high pressure pump is the only source of braking pressure for the front wheels. The older cars had a separate front brake accumulator on power steering models.NOTE: the old LHS and LHS2 ("brake fluid") cars used a different rubber in the diaphragms and seals that is NOT compatible with LHM.
* The suspension is self-leveling and ride-height is adjustable. This provides aerodynamic benefits because of the stable ride-height and extra clearance over rough terrain.
* The ride comfort is excellent (the ride is described as floating above the road surface) but the suspension never 'wallows', giving precise handling and road-holding (like a sports car)
* Large loads do not seriously affect the dynamics of the suspension system and handling is not affected markedly by loads within the cars' rated capacities.
* Compact suspension design.
* Maintenance for trained mechanic is relatively easy.
* Inexpensive in mass production; for vehicles that would otherwise have a conventional power steering pump, hydropneumatic suspension adds no new equipment and in many cases results in a lower unsprung mass.
* Upon body roll, the pressure exerted between the tires of the same axle is not subject to the same differential as on some other cars. The pressure in one suspension strut equals the pressure in the other through
Pascal's law, potentially giving the 'light' tire more footprint pressure.
* Can be conveniently interconnected in the roll plane to improve roll stiffness and thus roll stability limit, especially for heavy vehicles.
* Can be connected in the pitch plane to improve braking dive and traction squat.
* If they are interconnected in the three-dimensional full car model, the interconnected hydro-pneumatic suspension could realize enhanced roll and pitch control during excitations arising from steering, braking/traction, road input and crosswind, as with the
* Flexibility in the suspension strut design in the interconnected suspension system to realize desirable vertical, roll and pitch properties for different types of vehicles.
* Horizontal orientation of the rear suspension cylinders below the boot floor makes the full width of the boot is available for cargo.
* Mechanical steel spring suspension systems that try to replicate some of the inherent advantages of hydropneumatic suspension (
multilink, adjustable shock absorbers) end up more complex to build and maintain than the straightforward hydropneumatic layout.
* People who are prepared to carry out simple maintenance can acquire a used luxury car for a fraction of the cost, as hydropneumatic suspension scares potential buyers and dealers despite more complex and maintenance-intensive systems on other cars. Very few of the units are repairable in the field: units are usually exchanged for new or remanufactured units. Pumps, height correctors, accumulators (including suspension "spheres"), steering units, etc. are not usually repaired by owner-mechanics, just replaced with the use of ordinary automotive mechanics' tools. Hydraulic fluid is drained and refilled with fresh, much like changing engine oil. Later Citroën automatic transmissions are conventional modern units similar to those of other makes.
* Service sometimes requires a specifically trained mechanic.
* Hydropneumatic suspension systems are expensive to repair or replace, if poorly maintained or contaminated with incompatible fluids.
* Failure of the hydraulic system will cause a drop in ride height and, possibly, the failure of suspension completely, and the brakes will not work. However, an acute failure will "not" lead to acute brake failure as the accumulator sphere holds enough reserve pressure to ensure safe braking far beyond that needed to bring a vehicle with a failed system to a standstill.
=Hydractive= Hydractive Suspension is a new automotive technology introduced by the French manufacturer
Citroënin 1990. It describes a development of the 1955 Hydropneumatic suspension design using additional electronic sensors and driver control of suspension performance. The driver can make the vehicle stiffen (sport mode) or ride in outstanding comfort (soft mode). Sensors in the steering, brakes, suspension, throttle pedal and gearbox feed information on the car's speed, acceleration, and road conditions to on-board computers. Where appropriate - and within milliseconds - these computers switched an extra pair of suspension spheres in or out of circuit, to allow the car a smooth supple ride in normal circumstances, or greater roll resistance for better handling in corners. This development keeps Citroën in the forefront of suspension design, given the widespread goal in the auto industry of an Active Suspension system. All auto suspension is a compromise between comfort and handling. Auto manufacturers try to balance these aims and locate new technologies that offer more of both.
=Hydractive 1 and Hydractive 2=
Citroënhydractive (Hydractive 1 and Hydractive 2) suspension was available on several models, including the XM and Xantia, which had a more advanced sub-model known as the Activa. Hydractive 1 suspension systems had two user presets, "Sport" and "Auto". In the "Sport" setting the car's suspension was always kept in its firmest mode. In the "Auto" setting, the suspension was switched from soft to firm mode temporarily when a speed-dependent threshold in accelerator pedal movement, brake pressure, steering wheel angle, or body movement was detected by one of several sensors. [http://www.citroenet.org.uk/passenger-cars/psa/xm/xm-09.html]
In Hydractive 2 the preset names were changed to "Sport" and "Comfort". In this new version the "Sport" setting would no longer keep the suspension system in firm mode, but instead lowered the thresholds significantly for any of the sensor readings also used in "Comfort" mode, allowing for a similar level of body firmness during cornering and acceleration, without the sacrifice in ride quality the "Sport" mode in Hydractive 1 systems had caused.
Whenever the Hydractive 1 or 2 computers received abnormal sensor information, often caused by malfunctioning electrical contacts, the car's suspension system would be forced into its firm setting for the remainder of the ride.
Starting with model year 1995, specific Citroën XM models featured an additional sphere that functioned as a pressure reservoir, letting the car retain normal ride height for several weeks without running the engine. [http://home.planet.nl/~d.e.jansen/evolution.htm]
Citroën C5has continued development of Hydractive suspension with Hydractive 3. Compared to earlier cars, the C5 stays at normal ride height even when the engine is turned off for an extended period, through the use of electronics. The C5 also uses a new, incompatible orange fluid, rather than the familiar green LHM mineral oilused in millions of hydropneumatic vehicles.
An further improved Hydractive 3+ first appeared in 2005 on the
Hydragasfor a type of automotive suspension system used in many cars produced by British Leylandand its successor companies.
* [http://web.actwin.com/toaph/citroen/work/work.html Detailed Explanation]
* [http://s200.photobucket.com/albums/aa96/ajaxero/Hydropneumatic%20suspension%20files/ Citroën: Suspension problems and the hydropneumatic answer(jpeg photobucket folder)]
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