- Cloaking device
Cloaking devices are advanced stealth technologies still in development that will cause objects, such as spaceships or individuals, to be partially or wholly invisible to parts of the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum. Fictional cloaking devices have been used as plot devices in various media for many years, but developments in scientific research show that real-world cloaking devices can obscure objects from at least one wavelength of EM emissions. Scientists already use artificial materials called metamaterials to bend light around an object.
Inspired in part by the 1958 film Run Silent, Run Deep, Star Trek screenwriter Paul Schneider imagined cloaking as a space-travel analog of a submarine submerging, and employed it in the 1966 episode "Balance of Terror". Another Star Trek screenwriter, D.C. Fontana, coined the term cloaking device for the 1968 episode "The Enterprise Incident".
Writers and game designers have since incorporated cloaking devices into many other science-fiction narratives, including Doctor Who, Star Wars, Stargate, Predator, Metal Gear Solid, Halo: Combat Evolved, and StarCraft.
An operational, non-fictional cloaking device might be an extension of the basic technologies used by stealth aircraft, such as radar-absorbing dark paint, optical camouflage, cooling the outer surface to minimize electromagnetic emissions (usually infrared), or other techniques to minimize other EM emissions, and to minimize particle emissions from the object. The use of certain devices to jam and confuse remote sensing devices would greatly aid in this process, but are more properly referred to as "active camouflage". Alternatively, metamaterials provide the theoretical possibility of making electromagnetic radiation appear to pass freely through the 'cloaked' object.
Optical metamaterials have featured in several recent proposals for invisibility schemes. "Metamaterials" refers to materials that owe their refractive properties to the way they are structured, rather than the substances that compose them. Using transformation optics it is possible to design the optical parameters of a "cloak" so that it guides light around some region, rendering it invisible over a certain band of wavelengths. These spatially varying optical parameters do not correspond to any natural material, but may be implemented using metamaterials. There several theories of cloaking, giving rise to different types of invisibility.
Active camouflage (or adaptive camouflage) is a group of camouflage technologies which would allow an object (usually military in nature) to blend into its surroundings by use of panels or coatings capable of changing color or luminosity. Active camouflage can be seen as having the potential to become the perfection of the art of camouflaging things from visual detection.
Optical camouflage is a kind of active camouflage in which one wears a fabric which has an image of the scene directly behind the wearer projected onto it, so that the wearer appears invisible. The drawback to this system is that, when the cloaked wearer moves, a visible distortion is often generated as the 'fabric' catches up with the object's motion. The concept exists for now only in theory and in proof-of-concept prototypes, although many experts consider it technically feasible.
Plasma at certain density ranges absorbs certain bandwidths of broadband waves, potentially rendering an object invisible. However, generating plasma in air is too expensive and a feasible alternative is generating plasma between thin membranes instead. The Defense Technical Information Center is also following up research on plasma reducing RCS technologies. IEEE had also looked into the possibility of this device. A plasma cloaking device was patented in 1991.
- Cloak of invisibility
- Philadelphia Project
- Physics and Star Trek
- Physics and Star Wars
- ^ Issue 3(on sale through August 2008) of Discovery Channel Magazine, section Going Where No One Has Gone Before, Gary Sledge, Discovery Channel Magazine Issue 3, ISSN 1793572-5
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- ^ Plasma cloaking: Air chemistry, broadband absorption, and plasma generationbackup, February, 1990
- ^ Abstract Electromagnetic-Wave Propagation in Unmagnetized Plasmas, Gregoire, D. J. ; Santoru, J. ; Schumacher, R. W., March, 1992
- ^ A plasma filled tunable notch absorber microwave filter
- ^ John R. Roth "Microwave absorption system" U.S. Patent 4,989,006
- Mosnews Dr Oleg Gadomsky Cloaking Device Article
- MSNBC: Can objects be turned invisible?, detailing the research of Engheta and Alù.
- Optical Camouflage by the Tachi Lab in Japan Optical Camouflage by the Tachi Lab in Japan
- "Experts test cloaking technology". BBC News. 2006-10-19. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/6064620.stm. Retrieved 2008-08-05. - Thursday 19/10/06
- Space Daily - Engineers Create Optical Cloaking Design For Invisibility - April, 2007
- Leonhardt, Ulf; Smith, David R (2008). "Focus on Cloaking and Transformation Optics". New Journal of Physics 10 (11): 115019. Bibcode 2008NJPh...10k5019L. doi:10.1088/1367-2630/10/11/115019. http://iopscience.iop.org/1367-2630/10/11/115019.
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