- East Rock
:"This article is about a mountainous ridge located in New Haven, Connecticut. See
East Rock (New Haven)for the residential neighborhood known by the same name."
Name = East Rock
Photo = Eastrock01.jpg
Caption = East Rock
Elevation = convert|366|ft|abbr=on
Location = New Haven, Hamden, | Range =
Coordinates = coord|41|19|38|N|72|54|17|W|type:mountain
Age = 200 Ma
Last eruption =
First ascent =
Easiest route = Auto road
Pronunciation = East Rock of south-central
Connecticut, with a high point of convert|366|ft, is a convert|7|mi|0|adj=on long traprockridge located on the north side of the city of New Haven. A prominent landscape feature and a popular outdoor recreation area with cliffs that rise convert|300|ft over the city below, East Rock is part of the narrow, linear Metacomet Ridgethat extends from Long Island Soundnear New Haven, north through the Connecticut River Valleyof Massachusettsto the Vermontborder.Farnsworth, Elizabeth J. [http://www.mmmtrail.org/NaturalResourcesAssessmentFinal.pdf "Metacomet-Mattabesett Trail Natural Resource Assessment."] , 2004. PDF file. Cited Nov. 20, 2007.] DeLorme Topo 6.0. Mapping Software. DeLorme, Yarmouth, Maine]
East Rock, located in New Haven and
Hamden, Connecticut, is convert|1.4|mi long by convert|0.5|mi|m wide at its widest point, although steepness of the terrain make the actual land area much larger. Beside the high point, East Rock has three other distinct peaks.
;Whitney Peak:convert|366|ft, a sharp-sided pinnacle on the north side of the ridge
;Indian Head:convert|310|ft, just south of the high point
;Snake Rock:convert|205|ft, the southern buttress of the ridge Whitney Peak and Lake Whitney (located at the western base of the mountain behind the dammed Mill River) are named after
Eli Whitney, the inventor of the cotton ginand a former New Haven resident. The Eli Whitney Museum, a museum and workshop with hands-on projects and exhibits on Eli Whitney and A. C. Gilbert, is located at the base of the dam.
On the summit of East Rock, clearly visible for miles below, is the convert|112|ft|m|adj=on Soldiers and Sailors Monument. The monument honors the residents of New Haven who gave their lives in the Revolutionary War, the War of 1812, the Mexican War, and the Civil War. [http://www.cityofnewhaven.com/Parks/ParksInformation/eastrockpark.asp#directions City of New Haven] . cited Dec. 22, 2007.]
East Rock is located entirely within the 425-acre (172 ha) East Rock Park, managed by the city of New Haven, which maintains a seasonal automobile road that climbs to the summit of the ridge, a network of trails, an environmental center, and a rose garden. A number of recreation facilities are located at the southwest base of the ridge; these are also managed by the city. The ridge is completely surrounded by the urban neighborhoods of New Haven and its metropolitan extension into south Hamden. East Rock lends its name to the nearby upscale East Rock neighborhood of New Haven, known for its Queen Anne and Victorian architecture.
U.S. Route 5borders the east side of East Rock while Interstate 91crosses below Snake Rock to the south. The Metacomet Ridge extends west from East Rock as series of smaller, unnoteworthy traprock outcrops to West Rock Ridge; it extends east over another series of traprock outcrops to Saltonstall Mountainand Peter's Rock. The west side of East Rock drains into the Mill River thence to New Haven Harbor and Long Island Sound; the east side into the Quinnipiac River, thence to New Haven Harbor and Long Island Sound. Both rivers abut the base of the mountain.DeLorme Topo 6.0. Mapping Software. DeLorme, Yarmouth, Maine] [http://www.visitnewhaven.com/pdfs/trails/New_Haven/TrailMap-NewHavenEastRock.pdf East Rock Park] Map and brochure. South Central Regional Council of Governments. North Haven, Connecticut. Cited Dec. 23, 2007.]
East Rock is a
fault-blockridge formed 200 million years ago during the Triassicand Jurassicperiods and is composed of traprock, also known as basalt, an extrusive volcanicrock. Basalt is a dark colored rock, but the iron within it weathers to a rusty brown when exposed to the air, lending the ledges a distinct reddish appearance. Basalt frequently breaks into octagonal and pentagonal columns, creating a unique "postpile" appearance. Huge slopes made of fractured basalt screeare visible beneath many of the ledges of East Rock. These basalt cliffs are the product of massive lavaflows hundreds of feet deep that welled up in faults created by the riftingapart of North Americafrom Eurasiaand Africaover a period of 20 million years. Erosion occurring between the eruptions deposited deep layers of sediment between the lava flows and around the volcanic rock strata, which eventually lithified into sedimentary rock. The resulting "layer cake" of basalt and sedimentary sheets eventually faulted and tilted upward. Subsequent erosion wore away the weaker sedimentary layers at a faster rate than the basalt layers, leaving the abruptly tilted edges of the basalt sheets exposed, creating the distinct linear ridge and dramatic cliff faces visible today. [Raymo, Chet and Maureen E. "Written in Stone: A Geologic History of the Northeastern United States". Globe Pequot, Chester, Connecticut, 1989.]
East Rock hosts a combination of
microclimates unusual in New England. Dry, hot upper ridges support oak savannas, often dominated by chestnut oakand a variety of understory grasses and ferns. Eastern red cedar, a dry-loving species, clings to the barren edges of cliffs. Cooler north facing backslopes tend to support extensive stands of eastern hemlock interspersed with the oak-hickory forestspecies more common in the surrounding lowlands. Narrow ravines crowded with hemlock block sunlight, creating damp, cooler growing conditions with associated cooler climate plant species. Talus slopes are especially rich in nutrients and support a number of calcium-loving plants uncommon in eastern Connecticut. [ [http://www.connix.com/~harry/twep.htm The Traprock Wilderness Recovery Strategy] . Cited Dec. 13, 2007]
East Rock Park is open year round to hikers and walkers. The automobile road is open April 1 to November 1, 8 a.m. to sunset and November 1 to March 31, Friday, Saturday, Sunday, and holidays, 8 a.m. to 4 p.m., weather permitting. Activities permitted in the park include
hiking, snowshoeing, cross-country skiing, picnicking, bicycling(on roads and city-designated mountain bike trails only), boating(on the Mill River), bird watching, and dog walking. Rock climbing, swimming, and alcoholic beverages are prohibited. A number of hiking trails traverse the ridge, most notably the Giant Steps Trail which ascends to the summit at a near-vertical pitch from the south. At the foot of the mountain are located football, baseball, and soccer fields, tennis courts, basketball courts, and playgrounds. The Trowbridge Environmental Center is open Thursdays and Fridays from 10:00 am to 5:00 pm, and at least one Saturday a month for public programs; it offers displays and information about the geology and ecosystem of East Rock. The Pardee Rose Garden and Greenhouse features roses and other flowering plants from spring to fall, and is a popular place to shoot wedding pictures.
Soldiers and Sailors Monument (New Haven).
New Haven, Connecticut
* Adjacent summits:
* [http://www.cityofnewhaven.com/Parks/ParksInformation/eastrockpark.asp#map City of New Haven map of East Rock Park]
* [http://www.visitnewhaven.com/pdfs/trails/New_Haven/TrailMap-NewHavenEastRock.pdf SCRCG map of East Rock Park]
* [http://www.cityofnewhaven.com/Parks/ParksInformation/eastrockpark.asp City of New Haven East Rock Park page]
* [http://www.cityofnewhaven.com/ City of New Haven]
* [http://www.ct.gov/dep/cwp/view.asp?a=2716&q=325276&depNav_GID=1650 West Rock State Park]
* The Connecticut Historical Society - [http://www.chs.org/ransom/074.htm Civil War Monuments of Connecticut]
* New Haven Mayor's Office - [http://www.cityofnewhaven.com/angelofpeace/history.asp A Brief History of the Angel of Peace and the New Haven Soldiers’ and Sailors’ Monument]
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