- Orange Order in Canada
The Orange Lodges have existed in Canada at least since the War of 1812. It was more formally organized in 1830 when the Grand Orange Lodge of British North America was established. Most early members were from Ireland, but later many English, Scots, and other Protestant Europeans joined the Order.
The Order was the chief social institution in Upper Canada, organizing many community and benevolent activities, and helping Protestant immigrants to settle. It remained a predominant political force in southern Ontario well into the twentieth century. A notable exception to Orange predominance occurred in London, Ontario, where Catholic and Protestant Irish formed a non-sectarian Irish society in 1877.
The Orange Order became a central facet of life in many parts of Canada, especially in the business centre of Toronto where many deals and relationships were forged at the lodge. Toronto politics, especially on the municipal level, were almost wholly dominated by the Orange Order. The highly influential weekly newspaper, The Sentinel, promoted Protestant social and political views and was widely circulated throughout North America. At its height in 1942 16 of the 23 members of city council were members of the Orange Order. Every mayor of Toronto in the first half of the twentieth century was an Orangeman. This continued until the 1954 election when the Jewish Nathan Phillips defeated radical Orange leader Leslie Howard Saunders.
The Orange Lodge was a centre for community activity in Newfoundland. For example, in 1903 Sir William Coaker founded the Fisherman's Protective Union (F.P.U.) in an Orange Hall in Herring Neck. Furthermore, during the term of Commission of Government (1934-1949), the Orange Lodge was one of only a handful of "democratic" organizations that existed in the Dominion of Newfoundland. It supported Newfoundland's confederation with Canada in reaction to Catholic bishops' support for self-government.
After 1945, the Canadian Orange Order rapidly declined in membership and political influence. The development of the welfare state made its fraternal society functions less important. A more important cause of the decline was the secularization of Canadian society: with fewer Canadians attending churches of any sort, the old division between Protestant and Catholic seemed less relevant.
Orangemen and War
Orangemen played a big part in suppressing the Upper Canada Rebellion of William Lyon Mackenzie in 1837. Though the rebellion was short-lived, 317 Orangemen were sworn in to the local militia by the Mayor of Toronto and then resisted Mackenzie's march down Yonge Street in 1837.
They were involved in fighting against the Fenians at Ridgeway, Ontario in 1866. An obelisk there marks the spot where Orangemen died in defending the colony against an attack by members of Clan na Gael (commonly known as Fenians).
Orangemen in western Canada helped suppress the rebellions of Louis Riel in 1870 and 1885. The murder of abducted Orangeman Thomas Scott was a turning point in the 1870 Red River Rebellion which caused the Dominion government to launch the Red River Expedition to restore order. The first Orange Warrant in Manitoba and the North West Territories was carried by a member of this expedition.
The call to arms by Bro. Sir Samuel Hughes, the Canadian Minister for War and member of LOL 557 Lindsay Ontario, resulted in some 80,000 members from Canada volunteering for service during the First World War.
Four members have been Prime Ministers of Canada, namely Sir John A. Macdonald, the father of Canadian Confederation, Sir John Abbott, Sir Mackenzie Bowell (a past Grand Master), and John Diefenbaker. Possibly because of the number of Irish Newfoundlanders, many of the diplomats who negotiated the Terms of Union between Newfoundland and Canada in 1947 were members of the Orange Lodge: Joseph Smallwood, P.W. Crummey (a past Newfoundland Grand Master) and F.G. Bradley (a past Newfoundland Grand Master).
Orangeman Alexander James Muir (Ontario LOL 142) wrote both the music and lyrics to the Canadian patriotic song "The Maple Leaf Forever" in 1867. The song was considered for the role of National Anthem in the 1960s, but was ultimately rejected primarily on grounds of verses which were considered offensive to French Canadians.
- ^ a b Thomson, Andrew (1983). The Sentinel and Orange and Protestant Advocate, 1877-1896: An Orange view of Canada (M.A. thesis) Wilfrid Laurier University
- ^ Leslie Howard Saunders. An Orangeman in public life: the memoirs of Leslie Howard Saunders. Britannia Printers, 1980. pg. 85
- Wilson, David A. The Orange Order in Canada, Four Courts Press, 2007, 213 p. ISBN 1846820774 (preview)
- Akenson, Donald H. The Orangeman: The Life & Times of Ogle Gowan, James Lorimer & Company, 1986, 330 p. ISBN 088862963X (preview)
- Pennefather, R. S. The Orange and the Black. Documents in the History of the Orange Order. Ontario and the West, 1890-1940, Orange and Black Publications, 1984, 187 p.
- Houston, Cecil J., and William J. Smyth. The Sash Canada Wore: A Historical Geography of the Orange Order in Canada. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1980, 215 p. ISBN 0802054935
- Saunders, Leslie Howard. An Orangeman in Public Life: The Memoirs of Leslie Howard Saunders, Britannia Printers, 1980, 230 p.
- Senior, Hereward. Orangeism: The Canadian Phase, McGraw-Hill Ryerson, 1972, 107 p. ISBN 007092998X
- Bull, William Perkins. From the Boyne to Brampton : or, John the Orangeman at home and abroad, Toronto: Perkins Bull Foundation, 1936, 365 p. (online)
- Gowan, Ogle Robert. Orangeism; Its Origin and History, Toronto: Lovell and Gibson, 354 p. (online)
•Pierre-Luc Bégin (2008). « Loyalisme et fanatisme », Petite histoire du mouvement orangiste canadien, Les Éditions du Québécois, 2008, 200 p. (ISBN 2923365224).
•Luc Bouvier, (2002). « Les sacrifiés de la bonne entente » Histoire des francophones du Pontiac, Éditions de l’Action nationale.
- O'Connor, Ryan. "“…you can beat us in the House of Assembly, but you can’t beat us in the street”: The Symbolic Value of Charlottetown’s Orange Lodge Riot", in CCHA Historical Studies (Volume 72, 2006), pp. 71-94.]
- Johnston A. J. B. "Popery and Progress: Anti-Catholicism in Mid-Nineteenth-Century Nova Scotia", in Dalhousie Review, Vol. 64, No 1 (1984): p. 146-163.
- See, Scott W., "The Orange Order and Social Violence in Mid-Nineteenth Century Saint John", in Acadiensis, Vol. 13, No 1 (autumn 1983): p. 68-92.
- Wallace, W. Stewart, ed., "Orange Association of British North America", in The Encyclopedia of Canada, Vol. V, Toronto, University Associates of Canada, 1948, 401p., pp. 60-61.
- Strauch, Timothy Edgard. Walking for God and Raising Hell. The Jubilee Riots, The Orange Order and the Preservation of Protestantism in Toronto, 1875, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, April 1999 (online)
- Thomson, Andrew (1983). The Sentinel and Orange and Protestant Advocate, 1877-1896: An Orange view of Canada (M.A. thesis). Wilfrid Laurier University.
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