Janya


Janya

In Carnatic music (South Indian classical music), "Janya" ("derived from") and "Janya Ragas" are the "Ragas" (melodic modes) derived from the 72 "melakarta" (fundamendatal) ragas.

Classifications

"Janya" ragas are classified into various type, based on a variety of features. Here are some of the classifications.

Varjya ragas

Ragas which "skip" one or more swaras in the scale in comparison with it's associated Melakarta raga fall into this category. The notes skipped can be in either the ascending scale, descending scale, or both. Also, in some vakra ragas, different notes may be skipped in ascending scale, compared to its descending scale.

They are further given special terms as listed below "A practical course in Carnatic music" by Prof. P. Sambamurthy, 15th edition published 1998, The Indian Music publishing house] "Ragas in Carnatic music" by Dr. S. Bhagyalekshmy, Pub. 1990, CBH Publications] .

*"Sampoorna" - all 7 swaras in the scale
*"Shadava" - 6 swaras in the scale
*"Owdava" (or audava) - 5 swaras in the scale
*"Svarantara" - 4 swaras in the scale

These terms may be applicable to either the IAST|ārohaṇa (ascending scale), IAST|avarohaṇa (descending scale) or both. Hence, ragas can be classified as follows.

*"Owdava-Sampoorna" - 5 swaras in IAST|ārohaṇa and 7 in the IAST|avarohaṇa, as in "Abheri" and "Bilahari" ragas
*"Shadava-Sampoorna" - 6 swaras in IAST|ārohaṇa and 7 in the IAST|avarohaṇa, as in "Kambhoji" raga
*"Sampoorna-Owdava" - 7 swaras in IAST|ārohaṇa and 5 in the IAST|avarohaṇa, as in "Saramati" raga
*"Sampoorna-Shadava" - 7 swaras in IAST|ārohaṇa and 6 in the IAST|avarohaṇa, as in "Bhairavam" raga
*"Owdava-Owdava" - 5 swaras each in IAST|ārohaṇa and avarohaṇa, as in "Hindolam", "Mohanam", "Hamsadhwani" and "Abhogi" ragas
*"Shadava-Shadava" - 6 swaras each in IAST|ārohaṇa and avarohaṇa, as in "Sriranjani", "Malayamarutham" and "Suddha Seemanthini" ragas
*"Svarantara-Svarantara" - 4 swaras each in IAST|ārohaṇa and avarohaṇa, as in "Lavangi" raga

The above list is representative only and more combinations are possible. Also, there are "Sampoorna-Sampoorna" ragas, which are not necessarily "Melakarta" because of either use of swaras from multiple Mela scales ("anya" swara used, that is 1 or more notes not in the parent scale) or "vakra" prayoga (zig-zag scale, instead of strict ascending/descending).

Vakra ragas

The ragas whose IAST|ārohaṇa, avarohaṇa or both have zig-zag notes (strict ascending / descending order is not followed) are vakra ragas .

Examples are "Nalinakanti", "Kathanakuthuhalam", "Darbaru", "Janaranjani" and "Kedaram" to name a few. See full List of Janya Ragas for more examples.

*"Nalinakanti" - IAST|ārohaṇa S G3 R2 M1 P N3 S, IAST|avarohaṇa S N3 P M1 G3 R2 S
*"Kathanakuthuhalam" - IAST|ārohaṇa S R2 M1 D2 N3 G3 P S, IAST|avarohaṇa S N3 D2 P M1 G3 R2 S

(See Swaras of Carnatic music for explanation of above notation)

Upanga/Bhashanga ragas

Upanga ragas are strictly derived from their parent Melakarta raga. They do not use any note which is not found in the parent raga's scale . Examples of upanga ragas are "Shuddha Saveri", "Udayaravichandrika" and "Mohanakalyani".

Bhashanga ragas have "anya" swara(s) (external note; note not found in parent scale) in their IAST|ārohaṇa, avarohaṇa or both . Examples of Bhashanga ragas are "Kambhoji", "Bhairavi, "Bilahari", "Saranga", "Behag" and "Kapi".

Single octave

Some janya ragas are to be sung sticking to one octave only . Moreover, the highest note is not the Shadjam (Sa), at which the base sruthi (drone) of a performance is set. The classifications in this category are as follows.

*"Nishadantya" - highest note is the Nishadam (Ni)
example "Nadanamakriya" derived from "Mayamalavagowla" scale (IAST|ārohaṇa S R1 G3 M1 P D1 N3, IAST|avarohaṇa N3 D1 P M1 G3 R1 S N3)
*"Dhaivathantya" - highest note is the Dhaivatham (Dha)
example "Kurinji" derived from "Sankarabharanam scale (IAST|ārohaṇa S N3 S R2 G3 M1 P D2, IAST|avarohaṇa D2 P M1 G3 R2 S N3 S )
*"Panchamantya" - highest note is the Panchamam (Pa)
example "Navaroj" (IAST|ārohaṇa P D2 N3 S R2 G3 M1 P, IAST|avarohaṇa M1 G1 R3 S N2 D2 P)

Karnataka/ Desya ragas

"Karnataka" ragas are those that are considered to have originated in Carnatic music . Examples are Sankarabharanam, "Lalitha" and "Shuddha Saveri".

"Desya" ragas are those ragas that have their origins in other music, majority of them originating in Hindustani music. Examples are "Yamunakalyani", "Desh", "Behag" and "Sindhu Bhairavi".

Other classifications

There are various other classifications of janya ragas. These are based on relationships with other ragas (they give a feel of a different but similar raga), presence of gamakas (oscillations around the note), stresses on notes or lack of them, the time of day when a raga is sung, rasa or mood that they evoke, etc.

See also

*List of Janya Ragas
*Melakartha

Footnotes

References

* [http://carnatica.net/sangeet/handbook.htm carnatic.net]

External links

* [http://www.ae.iitm.ac.in/~sriram/karpri.html A Karnatic Music Primer]


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